Activation of pH-Sensing Receptor OGR1 (GPR68) Induces ER Stress Via the IRE1?/JNK Pathway in an Intestinal Epithelial Cell Model.
ABSTRACT: Proton-sensing ovarian cancer G-protein coupled receptor (OGR1) plays an important role in pH homeostasis. Acidosis occurs at sites of intestinal inflammation and can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR), an evolutionary mechanism that enables cells to cope with stressful conditions. ER stress activates autophagy, and both play important roles in gut homeostasis and contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Using a human intestinal epithelial cell model, we investigated whether our previously observed protective effects of OGR1 deficiency in experimental colitis are associated with a differential regulation of ER stress, the UPR and autophagy. Caco-2 cells stably overexpressing OGR1 were subjected to an acidic pH shift. pH-dependent OGR1-mediated signalling led to a significant upregulation in the ER stress markers, binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) and phospho-inositol required 1? (IRE1?), which was reversed by a novel OGR1 inhibitor and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor. Proton-activated OGR1-mediated signalling failed to induce apoptosis, but triggered accumulation of total microtubule-associated protein 1?A/1B-light chain 3, suggesting blockage of late stage autophagy. Our results show novel functions for OGR1 in the regulation of ER stress through the IRE1?-JNK signalling pathway, as well as blockage of autophagosomal degradation. OGR1 inhibition might represent a novel therapeutic approach in IBD.
Project description:Abnormal aggregation of misfolded pathological proteins in neurons is a prominent feature of neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Perturbations of proteostasis at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers ER stress, activating the unfolded protein response (UPR). Chronic ER stress is thought to underlie the death of neurons during the neurodegenerative progression, but the precise mechanism by which the UPR pathways regulate neuronal cell fate remains incompletely understood. Here we report a critical neurodegenerative role for inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), the evolutionarily conserved ER stress sensor, in a Drosophila model of PD. We found that IRE1 was hyperactivated upon accumulation of ?-synuclein in the fly photoreceptor neurons. Ectopic overexpression of IRE1 was sufficient to trigger autophagy-dependent neuron death in an XBP1-independent, JNK-dependent manner. Furthermore, IRE1 was able to promote dopaminergic neuron loss, progressive locomotor impairment, and shorter lifespan, whereas blocking IRE1 or ATG7 expression remarkably ameliorated the progression of ?-synuclein-caused Parkinson's disease. These results provide in vivo evidence demonstrating that the IRE1 pathway drives PD progression through coupling ER stress to autophagy-dependent neuron death.
Project description:Coupling of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress to dimerisation-dependent activation of the UPR transducer IRE1 is incompletely understood. Whilst the luminal co-chaperone ERdj4 promotes a complex between the Hsp70 BiP and IRE1's stress-sensing luminal domain (IRE1LD) that favours the latter's monomeric inactive state and loss of ERdj4 de-represses IRE1, evidence linking these cellular and in vitro observations is presently lacking. We report that enforced loading of endogenous BiP onto endogenous IRE1? repressed UPR signalling in CHO cells and deletions in the IRE1? locus that de-repressed the UPR in cells, encode flexible regions of IRE1LD that mediated BiP-induced monomerisation in vitro. Changes in the hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry profile of IRE1LD induced by ERdj4 and BiP confirmed monomerisation and were consistent with active destabilisation of the IRE1LD dimer. Together, these observations support a competition model whereby waning ER stress passively partitions ERdj4 and BiP to IRE1LD to initiate active repression of UPR signalling.
Project description:The recognition of autophagy related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1) as a genetic risk factor has exposed the critical role of autophagy in Crohn's disease. Homozygosity for the highly prevalent ATG16L1 risk allele, or murine hypomorphic (HM) activity, causes Paneth cell dysfunction. As Atg16l1(HM) mice do not develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation, the mechanism(s) by which ATG16L1 contributes to disease remains obscure. Deletion of the unfolded protein response (UPR) transcription factor X-box binding protein-1 (Xbp1) in intestinal epithelial cells, the human orthologue of which harbours rare inflammatory bowel disease risk variants, results in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Paneth cell impairment and spontaneous enteritis. Unresolved ER stress is a common feature of inflammatory bowel disease epithelium, and several genetic risk factors of Crohn's disease affect Paneth cells. Here we show that impairment in either UPR (Xbp1(?IEC)) or autophagy function (Atg16l1(?IEC) or Atg7(?IEC)) in intestinal epithelial cells results in each other's compensatory engagement, and severe spontaneous Crohn's-disease-like transmural ileitis if both mechanisms are compromised. Xbp1(?IEC) mice show autophagosome formation in hypomorphic Paneth cells, which is linked to ER stress via protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), elongation initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Ileitis is dependent on commensal microbiota and derives from increased intestinal epithelial cell death, inositol requiring enzyme 1? (IRE1?)-regulated NF-?B activation and tumour-necrosis factor signalling, which are synergistically increased when autophagy is deficient. ATG16L1 restrains IRE1? activity, and augmentation of autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells ameliorates ER stress-induced intestinal inflammation and eases NF-?B overactivation and intestinal epithelial cell death. ER stress, autophagy induction and spontaneous ileitis emerge from Paneth-cell-specific deletion of Xbp1. Genetically and environmentally controlled UPR function within Paneth cells may therefore set the threshold for the development of intestinal inflammation upon hypomorphic ATG16L1 function and implicate ileal Crohn's disease as a specific disorder of Paneth cells.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling cascade and induction of an apoptotic cell death, autophagy, oncogenesis, metastasis, and/or resistance to cancer therapies. Mechanisms underlying regulation of ER transmembrane proteins PERK, IRE1?, and ATF6?/?, and how the balance of these activities determines outcome of the activated UPR, remain largely unclear. Here, we report a novel molecule transmembrane protein 33 (TMEM33) and its actions in UPR signaling. Immunoblotting and northern blot hybridization assays were used to determine the effects of ER stress on TMEM33 expression levels in various cell lines. Transient transfections, immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting were used to study the subcellular localization of TMEM33, the binding partners of TMEM33, and the expression of downstream effectors of PERK and IRE1?. Our data demonstrate that TMEM33 is a unique ER stress-inducible and ER transmembrane molecule, and a new binding partner of PERK. Exogenous expression of TMEM33 led to increased expression of p-eIF2? and p-IRE1? and their known downstream effectors, ATF4-CHOP and XBP1-S, respectively, in breast cancer cells. TMEM33 overexpression also correlated with increased expression of apoptotic signals including cleaved caspase-7 and cleaved PARP, and an autophagosome protein LC3II, and reduced expression of the autophagy marker p62. TMEM33 is a novel regulator of the PERK-eIE2?-ATF4 and IRE1-XBP1 axes of the UPR signaling. Therefore, TMEM33 may function as a determinant of the ER stress-responsive events in cancer cells.
Project description:Glomerular epithelial cell (GEC)/podocyte proteostasis is dysregulated in glomerular diseases. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that upregulates proteostasis resources. This study characterizes mechanisms by which inositol requiring enzyme-1? (IRE1?), a UPR transducer, regulates proteostasis in GECs. Mice with podocyte-specific deletion of IRE1? (IRE1? KO) were produced and nephrosis was induced with adriamycin. Compared with control, IRE1? KO mice had greater albuminuria. Adriamycin increased glomerular ER chaperones in control mice, but this upregulation was impaired in IRE1? KO mice. Likewise, autophagy was blunted in adriamycin-treated IRE1? KO animals, evidenced by reduced LC3-II and increased p62. Mitochondrial ultrastructure was markedly disrupted in podocytes of adriamycin-treated IRE1? KO mice. To pursue mechanistic studies, GECs were cultured from glomeruli of IRE1? flox/flox mice and IRE1? was deleted by Cre-lox recombination. In GECs incubated with tunicamycin, deletion of IRE1? attenuated upregulation of ER chaperones, LC3 lipidation, and LC3 transcription, compared with control GECs. Deletion of IRE1? decreased maximal and ATP-linked oxygen consumption, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential. In summary, stress-induced chaperone production, autophagy, and mitochondrial health are compromised by deletion of IRE1?. The IRE1? pathway is cytoprotective in glomerular disease associated with podocyte injury and ER stress.
Project description:Upregulation of SESTRIN 2 (SESN2) has been reported in response to diverse cellular stresses. In this study we demonstrate SESTRIN 2 induction following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress-induced increases in SESTRIN 2 expression were dependent on both PERK and IRE1/XBP1 arms of the unfolded protein response (UPR). SESTRIN 2 induction, post ER stress, was responsible for mTORC1 inactivation and contributed to autophagy induction. Conversely, knockdown of SESTRIN 2 prolonged mTORC1 signaling, repressed autophagy and increased ER stress-induced cell death. Unexpectedly, the increase in ER stress-induced cell death was not linked to autophagy inhibition. Analysis of UPR pathways identified prolonged eIF2?, ATF4 and CHOP signaling in SESTRIN 2 knockdown cells following ER stress. SESTRIN 2 regulation enables UPR derived signals to indirectly control mTORC1 activity shutting down protein translation thus preventing further exacerbation of ER stress.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) utilizes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for replication and assembling. Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen leads to ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). Three branches of UPRs temporally modulated DENV infection. Moreover, ER stress can also induce autophagy. DENV infection induces autophagy which plays a promotive role in viral replication has been reported. However, the role of ER stress in DENV-induced autophagy, viral titer, and pathogenesis remain unclear. Here, we reveal that ER stress and its downstream UPRs are indispensable for DENV-induced autophagy in various human cells. We demonstrate that PERK-eIF2? and IRE1?-JNK signaling pathways increased autophagy and viral load after DENV infection. However, ATF6-related pathway showed no effect on autophagy and viral replication. IRE1?-JNK downstream molecule Bcl-2 was phosphorylated by activated JNK and dissociated from Beclin 1, which playing a critical role in autophagy activation. These findings were confirmed as decreased viral titer, attenuated disease symptoms, and prolonged survival rate in the presence of JNK inhibitor in vivo. In summary, we are the first to reveal that DENV2-induced ER stress increases autophagy activity, DENV replication, and pathogenesis through two UPR signaling pathways both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive pathway that restores cellular homeostasis after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The ER-resident kinase/RNase Ire1 is the only UPR sensor conserved during evolution. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative pathway, also contributes to the recovery of cell homeostasis after ER stress, but the interplay between these two pathways is still poorly understood. We describe the Dictyostelium discoideum ER stress response and characterize its single bona fide Ire1 orthologue, IreA. We found that tunicamycin (TN) triggers a gene-expression reprogramming that increases the protein folding capacity of the ER and alleviates ER protein load. Further, IreA is required for cell survival after TN-induced ER stress and is responsible for nearly 40% of the transcriptional changes induced by TN. The response of Dictyostelium cells to ER stress involves the combined activation of an IreA-dependent gene expression program and the autophagy pathway. These two pathways are independently activated in response to ER stress but, interestingly, autophagy requires IreA at a later stage for proper autophagosome formation. We propose that unresolved ER stress in cells lacking IreA causes structural alterations of the ER, leading to a late-stage blockade of autophagy clearance. This unexpected functional link may critically affect eukaryotic cell survival under ER stress.
Project description:In the unfolded protein response (UPR), Ire1 activates Hac1 to coordinate the transcription of hundreds of genes to mitigate ER stress. Recent work in Caenorhabditis elegans suggests that oxidative stress inhibits this canonical Ire1 signalling pathway, activating instead an antioxidant stress response. We sought to determine whether this novel mode of UPR function also existed in yeast, where Ire1 has been best characterized. We show that the yeast UPR is also subject to inhibition by oxidative stress. Inhibition is mediated by a single evolutionarily conserved cysteine, and affects both luminal and membrane pathways of Ire1 activation. In yeast, Ire1 appears dispensable for resistance to oxidative stress and, therefore, the physiological significance of this pathway remains to be demonstrated.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to changes in intracellular homeostasis through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR can facilitate the restoration of cellular homeostasis, via the concerted activation of three ER stress sensors, namely IRE1, PERK and ATF6. Global approaches in several cellular contexts have revealed that UPR regulates the expression of many miRNAs that play an important role in the regulation of life and death decisions during UPR. Here we show that expression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster is downregulated during UPR. IRE1 inhibitor (4 μ8C) and deficiency of XBP1 had no effect on downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 during UPR. Treatment of cells with CCT030312, a selective activator of EIF2AK3/PERK signalling, leads to the downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 expression. The repression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster during conditions of ER stress is compromised in PERK-deficient MEFs. miR-424 regulates the expression of ATF6 via a miR-424 binding site in its 3' UTR and attenuates the ATF6 transcriptional activity during UPR. Further miR-424 had no effect on IRE1-XBP1 axis but enhanced the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD). Our results suggest that miR-424 constitutes an obligatory fine-tuning mechanism where PERK-mediated downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 cluster regulates optimal activation of IRE1 and ATF6 during conditions of ER stress.