Identification and functional characterization of mutations in LPL gene causing severe hypertriglyceridaemia and acute pancreatitis.
ABSTRACT: Hypertriglyceridaemia is a very rare disorder caused by the mutations of LPL gene, with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Here, we identified two unrelated Chinese patients manifested with severe hypertriglyceridaemia and acute pancreatitis. The clinical symptoms of proband 1 are more severe than proband 2. Whole exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing were performed. Functional analysis of the identified mutations has been done. Whole exome sequencing identified two pairs of variants in LPL gene in the proband 1 (c.162C>A and c.1322+1G>A) and proband 2 (c.835C>G and c.1322+1G>A). The substitution (c.162C>A) leads to the formation of a truncated (p.Cys54*) LPL protein. The substitution (c.835C>G) leads to the replacement of leucine to valine (p.Leu279Val). The splice donor site mutation (c.1322+1G>A) leads to the formation of alternative transcripts with the loss of 134 bp in exon 8 of the LPL gene. The proband 1 and his younger son also harbouring a heterozygous variant (c.553G>T; p.Gly185Cys) in APOA5 gene. The relative expression level of the mutated LPL mRNA (c.162C>A, c.835C>G and c.1322+1G>A) showed significant differences compared to wild-type LPL mRNA, suggesting that all these three mutations affect the transcription of LPL mRNA. These three mutations (c.162C>A, c.835C>G and c.1322+1G>A) showed noticeably decreased LPL activity in cell culture medium but not in cell lysates. Here, we identified three mutations in LPL gene which causes severe hypertriglyceridaemia with acute pancreatitis in Chinese patients. We also described the significance of whole exome sequencing for identifying the candidate gene and disease-causing mutation in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia and acute pancreatitis.
Project description:Severe hypertriglyceridaemia due to chylomicronemia may trigger an acute pancreatitis. However, the basic underlying mechanism is usually not well understood. We decided to analyze some proteins involved in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia.Twenty-four survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis (cases) and 31 patients with severe hypertriglyceridaemia (controls) were included. Clinical and anthropometrical data, chylomicronaemia, lipoprotein profile, postheparin lipoprotein lipase mass and activity, hepatic lipase activity, apolipoprotein C II and CIII mass, apo E and A5 polymorphisms were assessed.Only five cases were found to have LPL mass and activity deficiency, all of them thin and having the first episode in childhood. No cases had apolipoprotein CII deficiency. No significant differences were found between the non-deficient LPL cases and the controls in terms of obesity, diabetes, alcohol consumption, drug therapy, gender distribution, evidence of fasting chylomicronaemia, lipid levels, LPL activity and mass, hepatic lipase activity, CII and CIII mass or apo E polymorphisms. However, the SNP S19W of apo A5 tended to be more prevalent in cases than controls (40% vs. 23%, NS).Primary defects in LPL and C-II are rare in survivors of acute hypertriglyceridaemic pancreatitis; lipase activity measurements should be restricted to those having their first episode during childhood.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2), apolipoprotein A-V (APOA5), GPIHBP1 and LMF1 genes may cause severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), which is now the second-leading aetiology of acute pancreatitis in China. METHODS:The patient and his family were assessed for gene variants by Sanger sequencing of exons and exon-intron junctions of the LPL, GPIHBP1, APOA5, APOC2, and LMF1 genes. Post-heparin blood was collected for LPL mass and activity detection. RESULTS:The patient had suffered from long-term severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent abdominal pain for over 30 years, since age 26, and 3 bouts of acute pancreatitis. Two heterozygous LPL single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compound but dislinked: a single-nucleotide substitution (c.42G > A) resulting in the substitution of tryptophan with a stop codon (p.W14X) in one allele, and a single-nucleotide substitution (c.835C > G) resulting in a leucine-to-valine substitution (p.L279 V) in another allele. Only one SNP, p.L279 V, was detected in his son. Post-heparin LPL activity and mass were also lower in the patient. CONCLUSION:Two heterozygous LPL SNPs, W14X and L279 V, were newly found to be compound but dislinked, which may cause long-term severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent acute pancreatitis.
Project description:The severe forms of hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) are caused by mutations in genes that lead to the loss of function of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In most patients with severe HTG (TG?>?10?mmol?L(-1) ), it is a challenge to define the underlying cause. We investigated the molecular basis of severe HTG in patients referred to the Lipid Clinic at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam.The coding regions of LPL, APOC2, APOA5 and two novel genes, lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) and GPI-anchored high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), were sequenced in 86 patients with type 1 and type 5 HTG and 327 controls.In 46 patients (54%), rare DNA sequence variants were identified, comprising variants in LPL (n?=?19), APOC2 (n?=?1), APOA5 (n?=?2), GPIHBP1 (n?=?3) and LMF1 (n?=?8). In 22 patients (26%), only common variants in LPL (p.Asp36Asn, p.Asn318Ser and p.Ser474Ter) and APOA5 (p.Ser19Trp) could be identified, whereas no mutations were found in 18 patients (21%). In vitro validation revealed that the mutations in LMF1 were not associated with compromised LPL function. Consistent with this, five of the eight LMF1 variants were also found in controls and therefore cannot account for the observed phenotype.The prevalence of mutations in LPL was 34% and mostly restricted to patients with type 1 HTG. Mutations in GPIHBP1 (n?=?3), APOC2 (n?=?1) and APOA5 (n?=?2) were rare but the associated clinical phenotype was severe. Routine sequencing of candidate genes in severe HTG has improved our understanding of the molecular basis of this phenotype associated with acute pancreatitis and may help to guide future individualized therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is produced by parenchymal cells, mainly adipocytes and myocytes, but is involved in hydrolysing triglycerides in plasma lipoproteins at the capillary lumen. For decades, the mechanism by which LPL reaches its site of action in capillaries was unclear, but this mystery was recently solved. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein of capillary endothelial cells, 'picks up' LPL from the interstitial spaces and shuttles it across endothelial cells to the capillary lumen. When GPIHBP1 is absent, LPL is mislocalized to the interstitial spaces, leading to severe hypertriglyceridaemia. Some cases of hypertriglyceridaemia in humans are caused by GPIHBP1 mutations that interfere with the ability of GPIHBP1 to bind to LPL, and some are caused by LPL mutations that impair the ability of LPL to bind to GPIHBP1. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the role of GPIHBP1 in health and disease and discuss some of the remaining unresolved issues regarding the processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.
Project description:Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is widely expressed in skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles as well as adipose tissue and involved in the catabolism of triglyceride. Herein we have systematically characterized two novel loss-of-function mutations in LPL from a Chinese family in which afflicted members were manifested by severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis. DNA sequencing revealed that the proband was a heterozygote carrying a novel c.T928C (p.C310R) mutation in exon 6 of the LPL gene. Another member of the family was detected to be a compound heterozygote who along with the c.T928C mutation also carried a novel missense mutation c.A1187T (p.E396V) in exon 8 of the LPL gene. Furthermore, COS-1 cells were transfected with lentiviruses containing the mutant LPL genes. While C310R markedly reduced the overall LPL protein level, COS-1 cells carrying E396V or double mutations contained similar overall LPL protein levels to the wild-type. The specific activity of the LPL mutants remained at comparable magnitude to the wild-type. However, few LPL were detected in the culture medium for the mutants, suggesting that both mutations caused aberrant triglyceride catabolism. More specifically, E396V and double mutations dampened the transport of LPL to the cell surface, while for the C310R mutation, reducing LPL protein level might be involved. By characterizing these two novel LPL mutations, this study has expanded our understanding on the pathogenesis of familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG).
Project description:Lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) gene is a novel candidate gene in severe hypertriglyceridemia. Lmf1 is involved in the maturation of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase in endoplasmic reticulum. To date only one patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and related disorders was found to be homozygous for a nonsense mutation in LMF1 gene (Y439X).The objective of the study was to investigate LMF1 gene in hypertriglyceridemic patients in whom mutations in LPL, APOC2, and APOA5 genes had been excluded.The resequencing of LMF1 gene led to the discovery of a novel homozygous nonsense mutation in one patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. The mutation causes a G>A substitution in exon 9 (c.1395G>A), leading to a premature stop codon (W464X). LPL activity and mass were reduced by 76 and 50%, respectively, compared with normolipidemic controls. The proband over the years has shown a good response to treatment. The proband's son, heterozygous for the W464X, shows normal plasma triglyceride levels.We identified the second novel pathogenic mutation in LMF1 gene in a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia. LPL deficiency in our patient was milder than in the carrier of the Y439X previously described.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a leading cause of acute pancreatitis. HTG can be caused by either primary (genetic) or secondary etiological factors, and there is increasing appreciation of the interplay between the two kinds of factors in causing severe HTG. OBJECTIVES:The main aim of this study was to identify the genetic basis of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis (HTG-AP) in a Chinese family with three affected members (the proband, his mother and older sister). METHODS:The entire coding and flanking sequences of LPL, APOC2, APOA5, GPIHBP1 and LMF1 genes were analyzed by Sanger sequencing. The newly identified LPL nonsense variant was subjected to functional analysis by means of transfection into HEK-293?T cells followed by Western blot and activity assays. Previously reported pathogenic LPL nonsense variants were collated and compared with respect to genotype and phenotype relationship. RESULTS:We identified a novel nonsense variant, p.Gln118* (c.351C?>?T), in the LPL gene, which co-segregated with HTG-AP in the Chinese family. We provided in vitro evidence that this variant resulted in a complete functional loss of the affected LPL allele. We highlighted a role of alcohol abuse in modifying the clinical expression of the disease in the proband. Additionally, our survey of 12 previously reported pathogenic LPL nonsense variants (in 20 carriers) revealed that neither serum triglyceride levels nor occurrence of HTG-AP was distinguishable among the three carrier groups, namely, simple homozygotes, compound heterozygotes and simple heterozygotes. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings, taken together, generated new insights into the complex etiology and expression of HTG-AP.
Project description:Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a well-known cause of pancreatitis. Usually, there is a moderate increase in plasma triglyceride level during pregnancy. Additionally, certain pre-existing genetic traits may render a pregnant woman susceptible to development of severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis, especially in the third trimester. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of gestational hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis, we undertook DNA mutation analysis of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL), apolipoprotein C2 (APOC2), apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5), lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1), and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1) genes in five unrelated pregnant Chinese women with severe hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis. DNA sequencing showed that three out of five patients had the same homozygous variation, p.G185C, in APOA5 gene. One patient had a compound heterozygous mutation, p.A98T and p.L279V, in LPL gene. Another patient had a compound heterozygous mutation, p.A98T & p.C14F in LPL and GPIHBP1 gene, respectively. No mutations were seen in APOC2 or LMF1 genes. All patients were diagnosed with partial LPL deficiency in non-pregnant state. As revealed in our study, genetic variants appear to play an important role in the development of severe gestational hypertriglyceridemia, and, p.G185C mutation in APOA5 gene appears to be the most common variant implicated in the Chinese population. Antenatal screening for mutations in susceptible women, combined with subsequent interventions may be invaluable in the prevention of potentially life threatening gestational hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis.
Project description:Several genes have been implicated in a highly variable presentation of developmental delay with psychomotor retardation. Mutations in EMC1 gene have recently been reported. Herein, we describe a proband born of a consanguineous marriage, who presented with early infantile onset epilepsy, scaphocephaly, developmental delay, central hypotonia, muscle wasting, and severe cerebellar and brainstem atrophy.Genetic testing in the proband was performed using custom clinical exome and targeted next-generation sequencing. This was followed by segregation analysis of the variant in the parents by Sanger sequencing and evaluation of the splice variant by RNA sequencing.Clinical exome sequencing identified a novel homozygous intronic splice variant in the EMC1 gene (chr1:19564510C>T, c.1212 + 1G>A, NM_015047.2). Neither population databases (ExAC and 1000 genomes) nor our internal database (n = 1,500) had reported this rare variant, predicted to affect the splicing. RNA sequencing data from the proband confirmed aberrant splicing with intron 11 retention, thereby introducing a stop codon in the resultant mRNA. This nonsense mutation is predicted to result in the premature termination of protein synthesis leading to loss of function of the EMC1 protein.We report, for the first time the role of aberrant EMC1RNA splicing as a potential cause of disease pathogenesis. The severe epilepsy observed in our study expands the disease-associated phenotype and also emphasizes the need for comprehensive screening of intronic splice mutations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Severe hypertriglyceridemia is a rare disease characterized by triglyceride levels higher than 1000 mg/dL (11.3 mmol/L) and acute pancreatitis. The disease is caused by pathogenic variants in genes encoding lipoprotein lipase (LPL), apolipoprotein A5, apolipoprotein C2, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored high-density lipoprotein-binding protein 1, and lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1). OBJECTIVE:We aim to identify the genetic cause of severe hypertriglyceridemia and characterize the new variants in a patient with severe hypertriglyceridemia. METHODS:The proband was a male showing severe hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides 1416 mg/dL, 16.0 mmol/L); proband's relatives were also screened. Genetic screening included direct sequencing of the above genes and identification of large rearrangements in the LPL gene. Functional characterization of mutant LMF1 variants was performed by complementing LPL maturation in transfected LMF1-deficient mouse fibroblasts. RESULTS:The proband and his affected brother were compound heterozygotes for variants in the LMF1 gene never identified as causative of severe hypertriglyceridemia c.[157delC;1351C>T];[410C>T], p.[(Arg53Glyfs*5)];[(Ser137Leu)]. Functional analysis demonstrated that the p.(Arg53Glyfs*5) truncation completely abolished and the p.(Ser137Leu) missense variant dramatically diminished the lipase maturation activity of LMF1. CONCLUSIONS:In addition to a novel truncating variant, we describe for the first time a missense variant functionally demonstrated affecting the lipase maturation function of LMF1. This is the first case in which compound heterozygous variants in LMF1 were functionally demonstrated as causative of severe hypertriglyceridemia.