ABSTRACT: Pain is a frequent symptom in leprosy patients. It may be predominantly nociceptive, as in neuritis, or neuropathic, due to injury or nerve dysfunction. The differential diagnosis of these two forms of pain is a challenge in clinical practice, especially because it is quite common for a patient to suffer from both types of pain. A better understanding of cytokine profile may serve as a tool in assessing patients and also help to comprehend pathophysiology of leprosy pain. Patients with leprosy and neural pain (n = 22), neuropathic pain (n = 18), neuritis (nociceptive pain) (n = 4), or no pain (n = 17), further to those with diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain (n = 17) were recruited at Souza Araujo Out-Patient Unit (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil). Serum levels of IL1?, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF, CCL-2/MCP-1, IFN-?, CXCL-10/IP-10, and TGF-? were evaluated in the different Groups. Impairment in thermal or pain sensitivity was the most frequent clinical finding (95.5%) in leprosy neuropathy patients with and without pain, but less frequent in Diabetic Group (88.2%). Previous reactional episodes have occurred in patients in the leprosy and Pain Group (p = 0.027) more often. Analysis of cytokine levels have demonstrated that the concentrations of IL-1?, TNF, TGF-?, and IL-17 in serum samples of patients having leprosy neuropathy in combination with neuropathic or nociceptive pain were higher when compared to the samples of leprosy neuropathy patients without pain. In addition, these cytokine levels were significantly augmented in leprosy patients with neuropathic pain in relation to those with neuropathic pain due to diabetes. IL-1? levels are an independent variable associated with both types of pain in patients with leprosy neuropathy. IL-6 concentration was increased in both groups with pain. Moreover, CCL-2/MCP-1 and CXCL-10/IP-10 levels were higher in patients with diabetic neuropathy over those with leprosy neuropathy. In brief, IL-1? is an independent variable related to neuropathic and nociceptive pain in patients with leprosy, and could be an important biomarker for patient follow-up. IL-6 was higher in both groups with pain (leprosy and diabetic patients), and could be a therapeutic target in pain control.
Project description:Neuropathic pain is believed to arise from damage to nociceptive C fibres in diabetic neuropathy (DN). We have utilised corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) to quantify the severity of small nerve fibre damage in relation to the severity of neuropathic pain and quality of life (QoL) in patients with and without painful DN. 30 controls and patients with painful (n?=?78) and painless (n?=?62) DN underwent assessment of large and small nerve fibre function, CCM, neuropathic symptoms (small fibre neuropathy symptom inventory questionnaire, neuropathic pain scale) and QoL (SF-36, pre-R-ODS and hospital anxiety and depression scale). Patients with painful compared to painless DN, had comparable neurophysiology and vibration perception, but lower corneal nerve fibre density (20.1?±?0.87 vs. 24.13?±?0.91, P?=?0.005), branch density (44.4?±?3.31 vs. 57.74?±?3.98, P?=?0.03), length (19.61?±?0.81 vs. 22.77?±?0.83, P?=?0.01), inferior whorl length (18.03?±?1.46 vs. 25.1?±?1.95, P?=?0.005) and cold sensation threshold (21.35?±?0.99 vs. 26.08?±?0.5, P?<?0.0001) and higher warm sensation threshold (43.7?±?0.49 vs. 41.37?±?0.51, P?=?0.004) indicative of small fibre damage. There was a significant association between all CCM parameters and the severity of painful neuropathic symptoms, depression score and QoL. CCM identifies small nerve fibre loss, which correlates with the severity of neuropathic symptoms and reduced QoL in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy.
Project description:Increasing evidence has indicated that activated glial cells releasing nociceptive factors, such as interleukins and chemokines, are of key importance for neuropathic pain. Significant changes in the production of nociceptive factors are associated with the low effectiveness of opioids in neuropathic pain. Recently, it has been suggested that CCL2/CCR2 signaling is important for nociception. Here, we studied the time course changes in the mRNA/protein level of CD40/Iba-1, CCL2 and CCR2 in the spinal cord/dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Moreover, we examined the influence of intrathecal preemptive and repeated (daily for 7 days) administration of RS504393, CCR2 antagonist, on pain-related behavior and the associated biochemical changes of some nociceptive factors as well as its influence on opioid effectiveness. We observed simultaneous upregulation of Iba-1, CCL2, CCR2 in the spinal cord on 7th day after CCI. Additionally, we demonstrated that repeated administration of RS504393 not only attenuated tactile/thermal hypersensitivity but also enhanced the analgesic properties of morphine and buprenorphine under neuropathy. Our results proof that repeated administration of RS504393 reduced the mRNA and/or protein levels of pronociceptive factors, such as IL-1beta, IL-18, IL-6 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and some of their receptors in the spinal cord and/or DRG. Furthermore, RS504393 elevated the spinal protein level of antinociceptive IL-1alpha and IL-18 binding protein. Our data provide new evidence that CCR2 is a promising target for diminishing neuropathic pain and enhancing the opioid analgesic effects.
Project description:Neuropathic pain is an integral component of several chronic pain conditions and poses a major health problem worldwide. Despite emerging understanding of mechanisms behind neuropathic pain, the available treatment options are still limited in efficacy or associated with side effects, therefore making it necessary to find viable alternatives. In a genetic screen, we recently identified SerpinA3N, a serine protease inhibitor secreted in response to nerve damage by the dorsal root ganglion neurons and we showed that SerpinA3N acts against induction of neuropathic pain by inhibiting the T-cell- and neutrophil-derived protease, leucocyte elastase (LE). In the current study, via detailed in vivo pharmacology combined with analyses of evoked- and spontaneous pain-related behaviors in mice, we report that on systemic delivery, a single dose of 3 independent LE inhibitors can block established nociceptive hypersensitivity in early and late phases in the spared nerve injury model of traumatic neuropathic pain in mice. We further report the strong efficacy of systemic LE inhibitors in reversing ongoing pain in 2 other clinically relevant mouse models-painful diabetic neuropathy and cancer pain. Detailed immunohistochemical analyses on the peripheral tissue samples revealed that both T-Lymphocytes and neutrophils are the sources of LE on peripheral nerve injury, whereas neutrophils are the primary source of LE in diabetic neuropathic conditions. In summary, our results provide compelling evidence for a strong therapeutic potential of generic LE inhibitors for the treatment of neuropathic pain and other chronic pain conditions harboring a neuropathic pain component.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Neuropathic pain has been little studied in leprosy. We assessed the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain and the validity of the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in patients with treated leprosy. The association of neuropathic pain with psychological morbidity was also evaluated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Adult patients who had completed multi-drug therapy for leprosy were recruited from several Bombay Leprosy Project clinics. Clinical neurological examination, assessment of leprosy affected skin and nerves and pain evaluation were performed for all patients. Patients completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire to identify neuropathic pain and psychological morbidity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: One hundred and one patients were recruited, and 22 (21.8%) had neuropathic pain. The main sensory symptoms were numbness (86.4%), tingling (68.2%), hypoesthesia to touch (81.2%) and pinprick (72.7%). Neuropathic pain was associated with nerve enlargement and tenderness, painful skin lesions and with psychological morbidity. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 92% in diagnosing neuropathic pain. The Douleur Neuropathique 4 is a simple tool for the screening of neuropathic pain in leprosy patients. Psychological morbidity was detected in 15% of the patients and 41% of the patients with neuropathic pain had psychological morbidity.
Project description:Different sensory profiles in diabetic distal symmetrical sensory-motor polyneuropathy (DSPN) may be associated with pain and the responsiveness to analgesia. We aimed to characterize sensory phenotypes of patients with painful and painless diabetic neuropathy and to assess demographic, clinical, metabolic, and electrophysiological parameters related to the presence of neuropathic pain in a large cohort of well-defined DSPN subjects. This observational cross-sectional multi-center cohort study (performed as part of the ncRNAPain EU consortium) of 232 subjects with nonpainful (n = 74) and painful (n = 158) DSPN associated with diabetes mellitus of type 1 and 2 (median age 63 years, range 21-87 years; 92 women) comprised detailed history taking, laboratory tests, neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction studies, and neuropathy severity scores. All parameters were analyzed with regard to the presence and severity of neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was positively correlated with the severity of neuropathy and thermal hyposensitivity (P < 0.001). A minority of patients with painful DSPN (14.6%) had a sensory profile, indicating thermal hypersensitivity that was associated with less severe neuropathy. Neuropathic pain was further linked to female sex and higher cognitive appraisal of pain as assessed by the pain catastrophizing scale (P < 0.001), while parameters related to diabetes showed no influence on neuropathic pain with the exception of laboratory signs of nephropathy. This study confirms the value of comprehensive DSPN phenotyping and underlines the importance of the severity of neuropathy for the presence of pain. Different sensory phenotypes might be useful for stratification of patients with painful DSPN for analgesic treatment and drug trials.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Neuropathy is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Our first aim was to determine the clinical characteristics of a population of diabetic patients with different types of neuropathy. Our next goal was to characterize the cytokine profile (IL-6 and IL-10), nerve growth factor (NGF) and circulating cell-adhesion molecules in these patients. Finally, we aimed to compare the renal function among the groups of neuropathic patients.<h4>Methods</h4>In a cross-sectional study, we included 217 diabetic patients classified in three groups: sensory polyneuropathy with hypoesthesia (DS<sub>h</sub>P) or hyperesthesia (DS<sub>H</sub>P), and motor neuropathy (DMN). Two control groups were included: one of 26 diabetic non-neuropathic patients (DNN), and the other of 375 non-diabetic (ND) healthy subjects. The participants were attending to the Mexican Institute of Social Security.<h4>Results</h4>The circulating levels of NGF were significantly lower in diabetic patients, compared to healthy subjects. The range of IL-6 and IL-10 levels in neuropathic patients was higher than the control groups; however, several samples yielded null measurements. Neuropathic patients also showed increased circulating levels of the adhesion molecules ICAM, VCAM, and E-Selectin, compared to the ND group. Moreover, neuropathic patients showed reduced glomerular filtration rates compared to healthy subjects (82-103 ml/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup>, data as range from 25th-75th percentiles), especially in the group with DMN (45-76 ml/min per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup>).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Some particular alterations in neuropathic patients included -but were not limited to- changes in circulating NGF, cell adhesion molecules, inflammation, and the worsening of the renal function. This study supports the need for further clinical surveillance and interventions considering a neuropathy-related basis.
Project description:Neuropathic pain is a frequent condition caused by a lesion or disease of the central or peripheral somatosensory nervous system. A frequent cause of peripheral neuropathic pain is diabetic neuropathy. Its complex pathophysiology is not yet fully elucidated, which contributes to underassessment and undertreatment. A mechanism-based treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy is challenging but phenotype-based stratification might be a way to develop individualized therapeutic concepts. Our goal is to review current knowledge of the pathophysiology of peripheral neuropathic pain, particularly painful diabetic neuropathy. We discuss state-of-the-art clinical assessment, validity of diagnostic and screening tools, and recommendations for the management of diabetic neuropathic pain including approaches towards personalized pain management. We also propose a research agenda for translational research including patient stratification for clinical trials and improved preclinical models in relation to current knowledge of underlying mechanisms.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus is a global challenge with many diverse health sequelae, of which diabetic peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common. A substantial number of patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy develop chronic pain, but the genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients to develop neuropathic pain are poorly understood. Recent targeted genetic studies have identified mutations in ?-subunits of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) in patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Mutations in proteins that regulate trafficking or functional properties of Navs could expand the spectrum of patients with Nav-related peripheral neuropathies. The auxiliary sodium channel ?-subunits (?1-4) have been reported to increase current density, alter inactivation kinetics, and modulate subcellular localization of Nav. Mutations in ?-subunits have been associated with several diseases, including epilepsy, cancer, and diseases of the cardiac conducting system. However, mutations in ?-subunits have never been shown previously to contribute to neuropathic pain. We report here a patient with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy and negative genetic screening for mutations in SCN9A, SCN10A, and SCN11A-genes encoding sodium channel ?-subunit that have been previously linked to the development of neuropathic pain. Genetic analysis revealed an aspartic acid to asparagine mutation, D109N, in the ?2-subunit. Functional analysis using current-clamp revealed that the ?2-D109N rendered dorsal root ganglion neurons hyperexcitable, especially in response to repetitive stimulation. Underlying the hyperexcitability induced by the ?2-subunit mutation, as evidenced by voltage-clamp analysis, we found a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of Nav1.7 fast inactivation and reduced use-dependent inhibition of the Nav1.7 channel.
Project description:Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5?µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1?, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-?B, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1?, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.
Project description:Nociception is protective and prevents tissue damage but can also facilitate chronic pain. If a general principle governs these two types of pain is unknown. Here, we show that both basal mechanical and neuropathic pain are controlled by microRNA-183 cluster in mice. This single cluster controls more than 80% of neuropathic pain-regulated genes and scales basal mechanical sensitivity and mechanical allodynia by regulating auxiliary voltage-gated calcium channel subunits a2d. Basal sensitivity is controlled in nociceptors and allodynia involves TrkB+ light-touch mechanoreceptors. These light-touch sensitive neurons that normally do not elicit pain produce pain during neuropathy that is reversed by gabapentin. Thus, a single miRNA cluster continuously scales acute noxious mechanical sensitivity in nociceptive neurons and suppresses neuropathic pain transduction in a specific, light-touch sensitive neuronal type recruited during mechanical allodynia. Overall design: Bulk DRG RNA sequencing of control and tissue-specific knock-out animals, naive and after nerve injury