Utilization of dried and long-term stored polyacrylamide gels for the advanced proteomic profiling of mitochondrial contact sites from rat liver.
ABSTRACT: Following subcellular fractionation, the complexity of proteins derived from a particular cellular compartment is often evaluated by gel electrophoretic analysis. For the proteomic cataloguing of these distinct protein populations and their biochemical characterization, gel electrophoretic protein separation can be conveniently combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Here we describe a gel-enhanced liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS)/MS approach with a new bioanalytical focus on the proteomic profiling of mitochondrial contact sites from rat liver using the highly sensitive Orbitrap Fusion Tribrid mass spectrometer for optimum protein identification following extraction from dried and long-term stored gels. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 964 protein species in the mitochondrial contact site fraction, whereby 459 proteins were identified by??3 unique peptides. This included mitochondrial components of the supramolecular complexes that form the ATP synthase, the respiratory chain, ribosomal subunits and the cytochrome P450 system, as well as crucial components of the translocase complexes translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) and translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) of the two mitochondrial membranes. Proteomics also identified contact site markers, such as glutathione transferase, monoamine oxidase and the pore protein voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC)-1. Hence, this report demonstrates that the GeLC-MS/MS method can be used to study complex mixtures of proteins that have been embedded and stored in dried polyacrylamide gels for a long period of time. Careful re-swelling and standard in-gel digestion is suitable to produce peptide profiles from old gels that can be used to extract sophisticated proteomic maps and enable the subsequent bioinformatics analysis of the distribution of protein function and the determination of potential protein clustering within the contact site system.
Project description:Profiling of cellular and subcellular proteomes by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) after fractionation by SDS-PAGE is referred to as GeLC (gel electrophoresis liquid chromatography)-MS. The GeLC approach decreases complexity within individual MS analyses by size fractionation with SDS-PAGE. SDS-PAGE is considered an excellent fractionation technique for intact proteins because of good resolution for proteins of all sizes, isoelectric points, and hydrophobicities. Additional information derived from the mobility of the intact proteins is available after an SDS-PAGE fractionation, but that information is usually not incorporated into the proteomic analysis. Any chemical or proteolytic modification of a protein that changes the mobility of that protein in the gel can be detected. The ability of SDS-PAGE to resolve proteins with chemical modifications has not been widely utilized within profiling experiments. In this work, we examined the ability of the GeLC-MS approach to help identify proteins that were modified after a small hairpin RNA-dependent knockdown in an experiment using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based quantitation.
Project description:Proteomic analysis of gastroduodenal fluid offers an alternative strategy to study diseases, such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. We use in-gel tryptic digestion followed by LC-MS/MS (GeLC-MS/MS) to profile the proteome of gastroduodenal fluid collected during the endoscopic pancreatic function test (ePFT).Gastroduodenal fluid specimens collected during ePFT from six patients with upper abdominal pain were subjected to proteomic analysis. We extracted proteins using three chemical precipitation reagents (acetone, ethanol, and trichloroacetic acid) and analyzed each sample by SDS-PAGE and GeLC-MS/MS for protein identification. Cellular origin and molecular function of the identified proteins were determined via gene ontology analysis.All three precipitation techniques successfully extracted protein from gastroduodenal fluid, with acetone resulting in excellent resolution and minimal protein degradation compared with the other methods. A total of 134 unique proteins were found in our GeLC-MS/MS analysis of ePFT-collected gastroduodenal fluid samples. Sixty-seven proteins were identified in at least two of the three samples. Gene ontology analysis classified these proteins mainly as being peptidases and localized extracellularly.ePFT, followed by acetone precipitation, and coupled with LC-MS/MS, can be used to safely collect gastroduodenal fluid from the upper gastrointestinal tract for MS-based proteomic analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel digestion (IGD) is a popular workflow in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In GeLC-MS/MS, a protein lysate of a biological sample is separated by SDS-PAGE and each gel lane is sliced in 5-20 slices which, after IGD, are analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The database search results for all slices of a biological sample are combined yielding global protein identification and quantification for each sample. In large scale GeLC-MS/MS experiments the manual processing steps including washing, reduction and alkylation become a bottleneck. Here we introduce the whole gel (WG) procedure where, prior to gel slice cutting, the processing steps are carried out on the whole gel. RESULTS: In two independent experiments human HCT116 cell lysate and mouse tumor tissue lysate were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. In a back to back comparison of the IGD procedure and the WG procedure, both protein identification (>80% overlap) and label-free protein quantitation (R2=0.94) are highly similar between procedures. Triplicate analysis of the WG procedure of both HCT116 cell lysate and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue showed identification reproducibility of >88% with a CV<20% on protein quantitation. CONCLUSIONS: The whole gel procedure allows for reproducible large-scale differential GeLC-MS/MS experiments, without a prohibitive amount of manual processing and with similar performance as conventional in-gel digestion. This procedure will especially enable clinical proteomics for which GeLC-MS/MS is a popular workflow and sample numbers are relatively high.
Project description:Proteomics have been used widely to study proteins in complex materials such as cells, body fluids, tissues, and organisms. Application of advance proteomic techniques for the characterization of disease-specific proteins may provide information for the detection of potential infectious agents. In this report, two proteomics techniques, a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and a one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS), were applied for investigating viral proteins from cultured cells inoculated with a clinical sample. The 2D-DIGE method identified five viral proteins of vaccinia virus that are only present in infected cells, these results are in agreement with findings determined by genome based methods. The GeLC-MS/MS method identified eight vaccinia virus proteins out of 428 proteins detected in the sample. These results demonstrate that proteomic techniques can be used effectively for the detection of infectious agents. Given that the methods are capable of applying to proteins without a prior knowledge of the pathogen present, proteomics has a potential of being developed as a molecular tool for pathogen discovery, and disease diagnosis of emerging infectious diseases and for bioterrorism defense.
Project description:Cestodiases are common parasitic diseases of animals and humans. As cestodes have complex lifecycles, hexacanth larvae, metacestodes (including cysticercoids), and adults produce proteins allowing them to establish invasion and to survive in the hostile environment of the host. Hymenolepis diminuta is the most commonly used model cestode in experimental parasitology. The aims of the present study were to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of two consecutive developmental stages of H. diminuta (cysticercoid and adult) and to distinguish proteins which might be characteristic for each of the stages from those shared by both stages. Somatic proteins of H. diminuta were isolated from 6-week-old cysticercoids and adult tapeworms. Cysticercoids were obtained from experimentally infected beetles, Tenebrio molitor, whereas adult worms were collected from experimentally infected rats. Proteins were separated by GeLC-MS/MS (one dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry). Additionally protein samples were digested in-liquid and identified by LC-MS/MS. The identified proteins were classified according to molecular function, cellular components and biological processes. Our study showed a number of differences and similarities in the protein profiles of cysticercoids and adults; 233 cysticercoid and 182 adult proteins were identified. From these proteins, 131 were present only in the cysticercoid and 80 only in the adult stage samples. Both developmental stages shared 102 proteins; among which six represented immunomodulators and one is a potential drug target. In-liquid digestion and LC-MS/MS complemented and confirmed some of the GeLC-MS/MS identifications. Possible roles and functions of proteins identified with both proteomic approaches are discussed.
Project description:Because proteins are the major functional components of cells, knowledge of their cellular localization is crucial to gaining an understanding of the biology of multicellular organisms. We have generated a protein expression map of the Arabidopsis root providing the identity and cell type-specific localization of nearly 2,000 proteins. Grouping proteins into functional categories revealed unique cellular functions and identified cell type-specific biomarkers. Cellular colocalization provided support for numerous protein-protein interactions. With a binary comparison, we found that RNA and protein expression profiles are weakly correlated. We then performed peak integration at cell type-specific resolution and found an improved correlation with transcriptome data using continuous values. We performed GeLC-MS/MS (in-gel tryptic digestion followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) proteomic experiments on mutants with ectopic and no root hairs, providing complementary proteomic data. Finally, among our root hair-specific proteins we identified two unique regulators of root hair development.
Project description:Global understanding of tissue-specific differences in mitochondrial signal transduction requires comprehensive mitochondrial protein identification from multiple cell and tissue types. Here, we explore the feasibility and efficiency of protein identification using the one-dimensional gel electrophoresis in combination with the nano liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS). The use of only 40 mug of purified mitochondrial proteins and data analysis using stringent scoring criteria and the molecular mass validation of the gel slices enables the identification of 227 known mitochondrial proteins (membrane and soluble) and 453 additional proteins likely to be associated with mitochondria. Replicate analyses of 60 mug of mitochondrial proteins on the faster scanning LTQ mass spectrometer validate all the previously identified proteins and most of the single hit proteins except the 81 single hit proteins. Among the identified proteins, 466 proteins are known to functionally participate in various processes such as respiration, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, glycolysis, protection against oxidative stress, mitochondrial assembly, molecular transport, protein biosynthesis, cell cycle control, and many known cellular processes. The distribution of identified proteins in terms of size, pI, and hydrophobicity reveal that the present analytical strategy is largely unbiased and very efficient. Thus, we conclude that this approach is suitable for characterizing subcellular proteomes form multiple cells and tissues.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skin has a variety of functions that are incompletely understood at the molecular level. As the most accessible tissue in the body it often reveals the first signs of inflammation or infection and also represents a potentially valuable source of biomarkers for several diseases. In this study we surveyed the skin proteome qualitatively using gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) and quantitatively using an isobaric tagging strategy (iTRAQ) to characterise the response of human skin following exposure to sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS).<h4>Results</h4>A total of 653 skin proteins were assigned, 159 of which were identified using GeLC-MS/MS and 616 using iTRAQ, representing the most comprehensive proteomic study in human skin tissue. Statistical analysis of the available iTRAQ data did not reveal any significant differences in the measured skin proteome after 4 hours exposure to the model irritant SDS.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study represents the first step in defining the critical response to an irritant at the level of the proteome and provides a valuable resource for further studies at the later stages of irritant exposure.
Project description:?-Amino butyric acid type C (GABA(C)) receptors inhibit neuronal firing primarily in retina. Maintenance of GABA(C) receptor protein homeostasis in cells is essential for its function. However, a systematic study of GABA(C) receptor protein homeostasis (proteostasis) network components is absent. Here coimmunoprecipitation of human GABA(C)-?1-receptor complexes was performed in HEK293 cells overexpressing ?1 receptors. To enhance the coverage and reliability of identified proteins, immunoisolated ?1-receptor complexes were subjected to three tandem mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analyses, namely, gel-based tandem MS (GeLC-MS/MS), solution-based tandem MS (SoLC-MS/MS), and multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). From the 107 identified proteins, we assembled GABA(C)-?1-receptor proteostasis network components, including proteins with protein folding, degradation, and trafficking functions. We studied representative individual ?1-receptor-interacting proteins, including calnexin, a lectin chaperone that facilitates glycoprotein folding, and LMAN1, a glycoprotein trafficking receptor, and global effectors that regulate protein folding in cells based on bioinformatics analysis, including HSF1, a master regulator of the heat shock response, and XBP1, a key transcription factor of the unfolded protein response. Manipulating selected GABA(C) receptor proteostasis network components is a promising strategy to regulate GABA(C) receptor folding, trafficking, degradation and thus function to ameliorate related retinal diseases.
Project description:In this article, we illustrate the application of difference in-gel electrophoresis for the proteomic analysis of dystrophic skeletal muscle. The mdx diaphragm was used as a tissue model of dystrophinopathy. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis is a widely employed protein separation method in proteomic investigations. Although two-dimensional gels usually underestimate the cellular presence of very high molecular mass proteins, integral membrane proteins and low copy number proteins, this method is extremely powerful in the comprehensive analysis of contractile proteins, metabolic enzymes, structural proteins and molecular chaperones. This gives rise to two-dimensional gel electrophoretic separation as the method of choice for studying contractile tissues in health and disease. For comparative studies, fluorescence difference in-gel electrophoresis has been shown to provide an excellent biomarker discovery tool. Since aged diaphragm fibres from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy closely resemble the human pathology, we have carried out a mass spectrometry-based comparison of the naturally aged diaphragm versus the senescent dystrophic diaphragm. The proteomic comparison of wild type versus mdx diaphragm resulted in the identification of 84 altered protein species. Novel molecular insights into dystrophic changes suggest increased cellular stress, impaired calcium buffering, cytostructural alterations and disturbances of mitochondrial metabolism in dystrophin-deficient muscle tissue.