Jump performance in male and female football players.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To examine differences between men and women football players in clinically feasible jumping measures. METHODS:Female football players (N?=?46, ages 16-25) were matched based on age, training frequency, and playing position with 46 male players. All players performed the tuck jump and drop vertical jump (DVJ). DVJ was assessed quantitatively for valgus knee motion and probability of a high peak knee abduction moment (pKAM), as well as sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle angles, and qualitatively with visual assessment of the player's knees upon landing; graded as good, reduced, or poor control. RESULT:Women had higher total tuck jump scores (5?±?2) (more technique flaws), than men (3?±?2, P?
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate changes in jump-landing technique in football-playing boys and girls after 8 weeks of injury prevention training. METHODS:Four boys' and four girls' teams (mean age 14.1?±?0.8 years) were instructed to use either the original Knee Control injury prevention exercise programme (IPEP) or a further developed IPEP, Knee Control?+?, at every training session for 8 weeks. Baseline and follow-up testing of jump-landing technique included drop vertical jumps (DVJ), assessed subjectively and with two-dimensional movement analysis, and tuck jump assessment (TJA). RESULTS:Only minor differences in intervention effects were seen between the two IPEPs, and results are therefore presented for both intervention groups combined. At baseline 30% of the boys showed good knee control during the DVJ, normalised knee separation distances of 77-96% (versus hip) and a median of 3 flaws during the TJA. Among girls, 22% showed good knee control, normalised knee separation distances of 67-86% and a median of 4 flaws during the TJA. At follow-up, boys and girls performed significantly more jumps during TJA. No changes in jump-landing technique were seen in boys, whereas girls improved their knee flexion angle at initial contact in the DVJ (mean change?+?4.7°, p?<?0.001, 95% CI 2.36-6.99, d?=?0.7) and their TJA total score (- 1 point, p?=?0.045, r?=?- 0.4). CONCLUSION:The study showed small positive effects on jump-landing technique in girls, but not in boys, after 8 weeks of injury prevention training. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level II. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical Trials gov identifier: NCT03251404.
Project description:Varus-valgus (LAX(VV)) and internal-external (LAX(IER)) rotational knee laxity have received attention as potential contributing factors in anterior cruciate ligament injury. This study compared persons with above-and below-average LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) values on hip and knee neuromechanics during drop jump landings.People with greater LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) values will have greater challenges controlling frontal and transverse plane knee motions, as evidenced by greater joint excursions, joint moments, and muscle activation levels during the landing phase.Descriptive laboratory study.Recreationally active participants (52 women and 44 men) between 18 and 30 years old were measured for LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) and for their muscle activation and transverse and frontal plane hip and knee kinetics and kinematics during the initial landing phase of a drop jump. The mean value was obtained for each sex, and those with above-average values on LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) (LAX(HIGH) = 17 women, 16 men) were compared with those with below-average values (LAX(LOW) = 18 women, 17 men).Women with LAX(HIGH) verus LAX(LOW) were initially positioned in greater hip adduction and knee valgus and also produced more prolonged internal hip adduction and knee varus moments as they moved toward greater hip adduction and internal rotation as the landing progressed. These patterns in LAX(HIGH) women were accompanied by greater prelanding and postlanding muscle activation amplitudes. Men with LAX(HIGH) versus LAX(LOW) also demonstrated greater hip adduction motion and produced greater internal hip internal rotation and knee varus and internal rotation moments.Participants with greater LAX(VV) and LAX(IER) landed with greater hip and knee transverse and frontal plane hip and knee motions.People (especially, women) with increased frontal and transverse plane knee laxity demonstrate motions associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic and knee kinematic measurements from male and female anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-intact (ACLINT) and ACL-reconstructed (ACLREC) subjects during a jump-cut maneuver using biplanar videoradiography.Twenty subjects were recruited; 10 ACLINT (5 men and 5 women) and 10 ACLREC (4 men and 6 women, 5 yr postsurgery). Each subject performed a jump-cut maneuver by landing on a single leg and performing a 45° side-step cut. Ground reaction force (GRF) was measured by a force plate and expressed relative to body weight. Six-degree-of-freedom knee kinematics were determined from a biplanar videoradiography system and an optical motion capture system.ACLINT female subjects landed with a larger peak vertical GRF (P < 0.001) compared with ACLINT male subjects. ACLINT subjects landed with a larger peak vertical GRF (P ? 0.036) compared with ACLREC subjects. Regardless of ACL reconstruction status, female subjects underwent less knee flexion angle excursion (P = 0.002) and had an increased average rate of anterior tibial translation (0.05%·ms ± 0.01%·ms, P = 0.037) after contact compared with male subjects. Furthermore, ACLREC subjects had a lower rate of anterior tibial translation compared with ACLINT subjects (0.05%·ms ± 0.01%·ms, P = 0.035). Finally, no striking differences were observed in other knee motion parameters.Women permit a smaller amount of knee flexion angle excursion during a jump-cut maneuver, resulting in a larger peak vertical GRF and increased rate of anterior tibial translation. Notably, ACLREC subjects also perform the jump cut maneuver with lower GRF than ACLINT subjects 5 yr postsurgery. This study proposes a causal sequence whereby increased landing stiffness (larger peak vertical GRF combined with less knee flexion angle excursion) leads to an increased rate of anterior tibial translation while performing a jump-cut maneuver.
Project description:Young female soccer players are at high risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury due to the fast-paced nature of the sport and surplus of unplanned movements during play. Neuromuscular training programs that aim to reduce this injury by targeting the associated biomechanical movements are a potential solution. While previous studies have examined the lack of dynamic knee control during landing, there are few that outline the role that maturation can play during unanticipated cutting. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if young female soccer players across multiple phases of maturation exhibited the before seen differences in knee control during a drop landing as well as an unanticipated cutting task. 139 female soccer players volunteered to participate in this study and were classified in three maturational groups based on percent adult stature: prepubertal (PRE), pubertal (PUB), and post-pubertal (POST). Each group performed a drop vertical jump (DVJ) and an unanticipated cutting task (CUT). Standard 3D motion capture techniques were used to determine peak knee flexion/abduction angles and moments during each task. Within tasks, POST exhibited significantly greater peak abduction angles and moments compared to PUB/PRE. While each maturational group exhibited greater peak knee abduction angles during the DVJ compared to the CUT, peak knee abduction moments during the CUT were greater compared to the DVJ. Participants within each maturational group exhibited greater knee flexion during the DVJ compared to the CUT, however there were no differences identified between groups. During both tasks, POST/PUB exhibited greater peak knee flexion moments compared to PRE, as well as POST compared to PUB. Overall, each group exhibited significantly greater peak knee flexion moments during the CUT compared to the DVJ. These observed differences indicate the need for neuromuscular training programs that target both jumping and cutting techniques to reduce ACL injuries.
Project description:PURPOSE:Running at high speed and sudden change in direction or activity stresses the knee. Surprisingly, not many studies have investigated the effects of sprinting on knee's kinetics and kinematics of soccer players. Hence, this study is aimed to investigate indices of injury risk factors of jumping-landing maneuvers performed immediately after sprinting in male soccer players. METHODS:Twenty-three collegiate male soccer players (22.1±1.7 years) were tested in four conditions; vertical jump (VJ), vertical jump immediately after slow running (VJSR), vertical jump immediately after sprinting (VJFR) and double horizontal jump immediately after sprinting (HJFR). The kinematics and kinetics data were measured using Vicon motion analyzer (100Hz) and two Kistler force platforms (1000Hz), respectively. RESULTS:For knee flexion joint angle, (p = 0.014, ? = 0.15) and knee valgus moment (p = 0.001, ? = 0.71) differences between condition in the landing phase were found. For knee valgus joint angle, a main effect between legs in the jumping phase was found (p = 0.006, ? = 0.31), which suggests bilateral deficit existed between the right and left lower limbs. CONCLUSION:In brief, the important findings were greater knee valgus moment and less knee flexion joint angle proceeding sprint (HJFR & VJFR) rather than no sprint condition (VJ) present an increased risk for knee injuries. These results seem to suggest that running and sudden subsequent jumping-landing activity experienced during playing soccer may negatively change the knee valgus moment. Thus, sprinting preceding a jump task may increase knee risk factors such as moment and knee flexion joint angle.
Project description:Dynamic knee valgus during landings is associated with an increased risk of non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In addition, the impact on the body during landings must be attenuated in the lower extremity joints. The purpose of this study was to investigate landing biomechanics during landing with dynamic knee valgus by measuring the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and angular impulses in the lower extremity during a single-leg landing. The study included 34 female college students, who performed the single-leg drop vertical jump. Lower extremity kinetic and kinematic data were obtained from a 3D motion analysis system. Participants were divided into valgus (N = 19) and varus (N = 15) groups according to the knee angular displacement during landings. The vGRF and angular impulses of the hip, knee, and ankle were calculated by integrating the vGRF-time curve and each joint's moment-time curve. vGRF impulses did not differ between two groups. Hip angular impulse in the valgus group was significantly smaller than that in the varus group (0.019 ± 0.033 vs. 0.067 ± 0.029 Nms/kgm, p<0.01), whereas knee angular impulse was significantly greater (0.093 ± 0.032 vs. 0.045 ± 0.040 Nms/kgm, p<0.01). There was no difference in ankle angular impulse between the groups. Our results indicate that dynamic knee valgus increases the impact the knee joint needs to attenuate during landing; conversely, the knee varus participants were able to absorb more of the landing impact with the hip joint.
Project description:There is a current need to produce a simple, yet effective method for screening and targeting possible deficiencies related to increased anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk.Frontal plane knee angle (FPKA) during a drop vertical jump will decrease upon implementing augmented feedback into a standardized sport training program.Controlled laboratory study.Thirty-seven female participants (mean ± SD: age, 14.7 ± 1.5 years; height, 160.9 ± 6.8 cm; weight, 54.5 ± 7.2 kg) were trained over 8 weeks. During each session, each participant received standardized training consisting of strength training, plyometrics, and conditioning. They were also videotaped running on a treadmill at a standardized speed and performing a repeated tuck jump for 10 seconds. Study participants were randomized into 2 groups and received augmented feedback on either their jumping (AF) or sprinting (CTRL) form. Average (mean of 3 trials) and most extreme (trial with greatest knee abduction) FPKA were calculated from 2-dimensional video captured during performance of the drop vertical jump.After testing, a main effect of time was noted, with the AF group reducing their FPKA average by 37.9% over the 3 trials while the CTRL group demonstrated a 26.7% reduction average across the 3 trials (P < .05). Conversely, in the most extreme drop vertical jump trial, a significant time-by-group interaction was noted (P < .05). The AF group reduced their most extreme FPKA by 6.9° (pretest, 18.4° ± 12.3°; posttest, 11.4° ± 10.1°) on their right leg and 6.5° (pretest, 16.3° ± 14.5°; posttest, 9.8° ± 10.7°) on their left leg, which represented a 37.7% and 40.1% reduction in FPKA, respectively. In the CTRL group, no similar changes were noted in the right (pretest, 16.9° ± 14.3°; posttest, 14.0° ± 12.3°) or left leg (pretest, 9.8° ± 11.1°; posttest, 7.2° ± 9.2°) after training.Providing athletes with augmented feedback on deficits identified by the tuck jump assessment has a positive effect on their biomechanics during a different drop vertical jump task that is related to increased ACL injury risk. The ability of the augmented feedback to support the transfer of skills and injury risk factor reductions across different tasks provides exciting new evidence related to how neuromuscular training may ultimately cross over into retained biomechanics that reduce ACL injuries during sport.The tuck jump assessment's ease of use makes it a timely and economically favorable method to support ACL prevention strategies in young girls.
Project description:Knee laxity increases during exercise. However, no one, to our knowledge, has examined whether these increases contribute to higher-risk landing biomechanics during prolonged, fatiguing exercise.To examine associations between changes in fatigue (measured as sprint time [SPTIME]), multiplanar knee laxity (anterior-posterior [APLAX], varus-valgus [VVLAX] knee laxity, and internal-external rotation [IERLAX]) knee laxity and landing biomechanics during prolonged, intermittent exercise.Descriptive laboratory study.Laboratory and gymnasium.A total of 30 male (age = 20.3 ± 2.0 years, height = 1.79 ± 0.05 m, mass = 75.2 ± 7.2 kg) and 29 female (age = 20.5 ± 2.3 years, height = 1.67 ± 0.08 m, mass = 61.8 ± 9.0 kg) competitive athletes.A 90-minute intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) designed to simulate the physiologic and biomechanical demands of a soccer match.We measured SPTIME, APLAX, and landing biomechanics before and after warm-up, every 15 minutes during the IEP, and every 15 minutes for 1 hour after the IEP. We measured VVLAX and IERLAX before and after the warm-up, at 45 and 90 minutes during the IEP, and at 30 minutes after the IEP. We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine associations between exercise-related changes in SPTIME and knee laxity with exercise-related changes in landing biomechanics while controlling for initial (before warm-up) knee laxity.We found that SPTIME had a more global effect on landing biomechanics in women than in men, resulting in a more upright landing and a reduction in landing forces and out-of-plane motions about the knee. As APLAX increased with exercise, women increased their knee internal-rotation motion (P = .02), and men increased their hip-flexion motion and energy-absorption (P = .006) and knee-extensor loads (P = .04). As VVLAX and IERLAX increased, women went through greater knee-valgus motion and dorsiflexion and absorbed more energy at the knee (P ≤ .05), whereas men were positioned in greater hip external and knee internal rotation and knee valgus throughout the landing (P = .03). The observed fatigue- and laxity-related changes in landing biomechanics during exercise often depended on initial knee laxity.Both exercise-related changes in fatigue and knee laxity were associated with higher-risk landing biomechanics during prolonged exercise. These relationships were more pronounced in participants with greater initial knee laxity.
Project description:CONTEXT: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are common in female athletes and are related to poor neuromuscular control. Comprehensive neuromuscular training has been shown to improve biomechanics; however, we do not know which component of neuromuscular training is most responsible for the changes. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of either a 4-week core stability program or plyometric program in altering lower extremity and trunk biomechanics during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: High school athletic fields and motion analysis laboratory. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three high school female athletes (age = 14.8 ± 0.8 years, height = 1.7 ± 0.07 m, mass = 57.7 ± 8.5 kg). INTERVENTION(S): Independent variables were group (core stability, plyometric, control) and time (pretest, posttest). Participants performed 5 DVJs at pretest and posttest. Intervention participants engaged in a 4-week core stability or plyometric program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Dependent variables were 3-dimensional hip, knee, and trunk kinetics and kinematics during the landing phase of a DVJ. We calculated the group means and associated 95% confidence intervals for the first 25% of landing. Cohen d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all differences. RESULTS: We found within-group differences for lower extremity biomechanics for both intervention groups (P ? .05). The plyometric group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the knee-flexion and knee-abduction moments. The core stability group decreased the knee-flexion and knee internal-rotation angles and the hip-flexion and hip internal-rotation moments. The control group decreased the knee external-rotation moment. All kinetic changes had a strong effect size (Cohen d > 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Both programs resulted in biomechanical changes, suggesting that both types of exercises are warranted for ACL injury prevention and should be implemented by trained professionals.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Current knowledge on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury mechanisms in male football players is limited.<h4>Aim</h4>To describe ACL injury mechanisms in male professional football players using systematic video analysis.<h4>Methods</h4>We assessed videos from 39 complete ACL tears recorded via prospective professional football injury surveillance between 2001 and 2011. Five analysts independently reviewed all videos to estimate the time of initial foot contact with the ground and the time of ACL tear. We then analysed all videos according to a structured format describing the injury circumstances and lower limb joint biomechanics.<h4>Results</h4>Twenty-five injuries were non-contact, eight indirect contact and six direct contact injuries. We identified three main categories of non-contact and indirect contact injury situations: (1) pressing (n=11), (2) re-gaining balance after kicking (n=5) and (3) landing after heading (n=5). The fourth main injury situation was direct contact with the injured leg or knee (n=6). Knee valgus was frequently seen in the main categories of non-contact and indirect contact playing situations (n=11), but a dynamic valgus collapse was infrequent (n=3). This was in contrast to the tackling-induced direct contact situations where a knee valgus collapse occurred in all cases (n=3).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Eighty-five per cent of the ACL injuries in male professional football players resulted from non-contact or indirect contact mechanisms. The most common playing situation leading to injury was pressing followed by kicking and heading. Knee valgus was frequently seen regardless of the playing situation, but a dynamic valgus collapse was rare.