A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and factors associated with symptoms of perinatal depression and anxiety in Rwanda.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Perinatal depression and anxiety are increasingly recognized as important public health issues in low and middle-income countries such as Rwanda and may have negative consequences for both mothers and their infants. Maternal mental health may be particularly challenged in Rwanda because of the prevalence of risk factors such as poverty, low education levels, negative life events and marital problems. However, there are limited data about perinatal depression and anxiety symptoms in Rwanda. This study thus aimed to explore the prevalence of symptoms of perinatal depression and anxiety in Rwanda, and factors associated with them. METHODS:A sample of 165 women in the perinatal period (second and third trimester of pregnancy, up to 1 year postnatal) were interviewed individually over 1 month in October 2013. Women were interviewed at 5 of 14 health centres in the Eastern Province or the affiliated district hospital. Participants answered socio-demographic questions and scales measuring symptoms of perinatal depression (EPDS: Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and anxiety (SAS: Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale). RESULTS:Among women in the antenatal period (N?=?85), 37.6% had symptoms indicating possible depression (EPDS ?10) and 28.2% had symptoms associated with clinical levels of anxiety (SAS?>?45). Among women within the postnatal period (N?=?77), 63.6% had symptoms of possible depression, whereas 48,1% had symptoms of probable anxiety. Logistic regression showed that symptoms of postnatal depression were higher for respondents who had four or more living children relative to those having their first child (Odds Ratio: 0.07, C.I. = 0.01-0.42), and for those with a poor relationship with their partner (Odds Ratio: .09, C.I. =0.03-0.25). Any lifetime exposure to stressful events was the only predictor of symptoms of postnatal anxiety (Odds Ratio?=?0.20, C.I. = 0.09-0.44). CONCLUSIONS:Symptoms of postnatal depression and anxiety were prevalent in this Rwandan sample and most strongly predicted by interpersonal and social factors, suggesting that social interventions may be a successful strategy to protect against maternal mental health problems in the Rwandan context.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The perinatal period is a time of high risk for onset of depressive disorders and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, including maternal suicide. Perinatal depression comprises a heterogeneous group of clinical subtypes, and further refinement is needed to improve treatment outcomes. We sought to empirically identify and describe clinically relevant phenotypic subtypes of perinatal depression, and further characterise subtypes by time of symptom onset within pregnancy and three post-partum periods. METHODS:Data were assembled from a subset of seven of 19 international sites in the Postpartum Depression: Action Towards Causes and Treatment (PACT) Consortium. In this analysis, the cohort was restricted to women aged 19-40 years with information about onset of depressive symptoms in the perinatal period and complete prospective data for the ten-item Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Principal components and common factor analysis were used to identify symptom dimensions in the EPDS. The National Institute of Mental Health research domain criteria functional constructs of negative valence and arousal were applied to the EPDS dimensions that reflect states of depressed mood, anhedonia, and anxiety. We used k-means clustering to identify subtypes of women sharing symptom patterns. Univariate and bivariate statistics were used to describe the subtypes. FINDINGS:Data for 663 women were included in these analyses. We found evidence for three underlying dimensions measured by the EPDS: depressed mood, anxiety, and anhedonia. On the basis of these dimensions, we identified five distinct subtypes of perinatal depression: severe anxious depression, moderate anxious depression, anxious anhedonia, pure anhedonia, and resolved depression. These subtypes have clear differences in symptom quality and time of onset. Anxiety and anhedonia emerged as prominent symptom dimensions with post-partum onset and were notably severe. INTERPRETATION:Our findings show that there might be different types and severity of perinatal depression with varying time of onset throughout pregnancy and post partum. These findings support the need for tailored treatments that improve outcomes for women with perinatal depression. FUNDING:Janssen Research & Development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Maternal depression in the postpartum period confers substantial morbidity and mortality, but the definition of postpartum depression remains controversial. We investigated the heterogeneity of symptoms with the aim of identifying clinical subtypes of postpartum depression. METHODS:Data were aggregated from the international perinatal psychiatry consortium Postpartum Depression: Action Towards Causes and Treatment, which represents 19 institutions in seven countries. 17,912 unique subject records with phenotypic data were submitted. We applied latent class analyses in a two-tiered approach to assess the validity of empirically defined subtypes of postpartum depression. Tier one assessed heterogeneity in women with complete data on the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS) and tier two in those with postpartum depression case status. FINDINGS:6556 individuals were assessed in tier one and 4245 in tier two. A final model with three latent classes was optimum for both tiers. The most striking characteristics associated with postpartum depression were severity, timing of onset, comorbid anxiety, and suicidal ideation. Women in class 1 had the least severe symptoms (mean EPDS score 10·5), followed by those in class 2 (mean EPDS score 14·8) and those in class 3 (mean EPDS score 20·1). The most severe symptoms of postpartum depression were significantly associated with poor mood (mean EPDS score 20·1), increased anxiety, onset of symptoms during pregnancy, obstetric complications, and suicidal ideation. In class 2, most women (62%) reported symptom onset within 4 weeks postpartum and had more pregnancy complications than in other two classes (69% vs 67% in class 1 and 29% in class 3). INTERPRETATION:PPD seems to have several distinct phenotypes. Further assessment of PPD heterogeneity to identify more precise phenotypes will be important for future biological and genetic investigations. FUNDING:Sources of funding are listed at the end of the article.
Project description:Background:Postnatal depression (PND) and anxiety (PNA) among women are prevalent and impairing health problems, with adverse outcomes for mothers and their infants. This study assessed the prevalence of depression, anxiety and associated factors in a sample of postnatal women. Method:A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 270 postpartum women attending public health facilities in the study area. Postnatal depression was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and anxiety was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A). Data on maternal demographics, health characteristics, pregnancy-related characteristics, labor and birth characteristics, were collected via structured questionnaire. Binary Logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify the factors associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms in women. Results:The EPDS identified 92 women (34.6%) as possibly depressed (using a cut-off ?13) while the HADS-A identified 89 women (33.3%) with anxiety symptoms (using a cut-off +?8). A total of 69 women were identified with symptoms of anxiety and depression (anxious-depression). The multinomial regression analysis (MLA) showed that the history of depression (AOR?=?0.12, 95% (CI 0.02, 0.76), and being a mother aged 15-29?years (AOR?=?10.31, 95% (CI 1.13, 94.11) had a significant effect on the development of anxiety symptoms in women. Although not significant, mother's income level (AOR?=?1.53, 95% (CI 0.72, 3.25), and being a younger mother (AOR?=?1.06, 95% (CI 0.21, 5.26) were more likely to predict depressive symptoms in postnatal women. Attendance at postnatal care services in the PHCs (AOR?=?0.14, 95% CI (0.04, 0.48) was significantly associated with anxious-depressed in the studied postnatal women. Conclusion:The findings of this study showed a direct association between depressive symptoms, anxiety and younger maternal age, rural residence, and low income. The higher prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in this study is a call for postnatal care that is culturally sensitive, patient-centered, accessible and affordable by women, most importantly poor and rural women.
Project description:Perinatal depression involves interplay between individual chronic and acute disease burdens, biological and psychosocial environmental and behavioural factors. Here we explored the predictive potential of specific psycho-socio-demographic characteristics for antenatal and postpartum depression symptoms and contribution to severity scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) screening tool. We determined depression risk trajectories in 480 women that prospectively completed the EPDS during pregnancy (TP1) and postpartum (TP2). Multinomial logistic and penalised linear regression investigated covariates associated with increased antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores contributing to the average or the difference of paired scores across time points. History of anxiety was identified as the strongest contribution to antenatal EPDS scores followed by the social status, whereas a history of depression, postpartum depression (PPD) and family history of PPD exhibited the strongest association with postpartum EPDS. These covariates were the strongest differentiating factors that increased the spread between antenatal and postpartum EPDS scores. Available covariates appeared better suited to predict EPDS scores antenatally than postpartum. As women move from the antenatal to the postpartum period, socio-demographic and lifestyle risk factors appear to play a smaller role in risk, and a personal and family history of depression and PPD become increasingly important.
Project description:Perinatal distress and depression can have significant impacts on both the mother and baby. The present study investigated psychosocial and obstetric factors associated with perinatal distress and depressive symptoms among culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) Australian women in Sydney, New South Wales. The study used retrospectively linked maternal and child health data from two Local Health Districts in Australia (N = 25,407). Perinatal distress was measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, scores of 10-12) and depressive symptoms, with EPDS scores of 13 or more. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial and obstetric factors with perinatal distress and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of perinatal distress and depressive symptoms among CALD Australian women was 10.1% for antenatal distress; 7.3% for antenatal depressive symptoms; 6.2% for postnatal distress and 3.7% for postnatal depressive symptoms. Antenatal distress and depressive symptoms were associated with a lack of partner support, intimate partner violence, maternal history of childhood abuse and being known to child protection services. Antenatal distress and depressive symptoms were strongly associated with postnatal distress and depressive symptoms. Higher socioeconomic status had a protective effect on antenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms. Our study suggests that current perinatal mental health screening and referral for clinical assessment is essential, and also supports a re-examination of perinatal mental health policy to ensure access to culturally responsive mental health care that meets patients' needs.
Project description:Suicide is a leading cause of perinatal maternal deaths in industrialised countries but there has been little research to investigate prevalence or correlates of postpartum suicidality. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale is widely used in primary and maternity services to screen for perinatal depressive disorders, and includes a question on suicidal ideation (question 10). We aimed to investigate the prevalence, persistence and correlates of suicidal thoughts in postpartum women in the context of a randomised controlled trial of treatments for postnatal depression.Women in primary care were sent postal questionnaires at 6 weeks postpartum to screen for postnatal depression before recruitment into an RCT. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to screen for postnatal depression and in those with high levels of symptoms, a home visit with a standardised psychiatric interview was carried out using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised version (CIS-R). Other socio-demographic and clinical variables were measured, including functioning (SF12) and quality of the marital relationship (GRIMS). Women who entered the trial were followed up for 18 weeks.9% of 4,150 women who completed the EPDS question relating to suicidal ideation reported some suicidal ideation (including hardly ever); 4% reported that the thought of harming themselves had occurred to them sometimes or quite often. In women who entered the randomised trial and completed the EPDS question relating to suicidal ideation (n = 253), suicidal ideation was associated with younger age, higher parity and higher levels of depressive symptoms in the multivariate analysis. Endorsement of 'yes, quite often' to question 10 on the EPDS was associated with affirming at least two CIS-R items on suicidality. We found no association between suicidal ideation and SF-12 physical or mental health or the EPDS total score at 18 weeks.Healthcare professionals using the EPDS should be aware of the significant suicidality that is likely to be present in women endorsing 'yes, quite often' to question 10 of the EPDS. However, suicidal ideation does not appear to predict poor outcomes in women being treated for postnatal depression.Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16479417.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data linking labor pain and postpartum depression are emerging. Robust, prospective evaluations of this relationship while factoring other important variables are lacking. We assessed perinatal pain and other factors predicting postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms. METHODS:Third trimester women, stratified by a priori plan to receive or avoid labor epidural analgesia, were longitudinally followed from the prenatal period through labor and delivery, until 6 weeks and 3 months postpartum. Electronic pain data was collected hourly during labor in real time, capturing pain unpleasantness, intensity, pain management satisfaction, and expectations. Prenatal and postpartum data included anxiety, depression, the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), pain catastrophizing, resiliency, and perceived social support and stress. The primary outcome was Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) as a marker of PPD symptoms. The primary pain variable of interest was labor pain emotional valence (unpleasantness burden, area under the curve for entire labor duration). Single and multivariable linear regressions examined perinatal pain variables in relation to EPDS. RESULTS:Of 72 subjects included, 55 planned/received labor epidural analgesia and 17 planned avoidance/avoided it. In the planned epidural group, the emotional valence of labor pain independently predicted six-week EPDS (labor pain unpleasantness burden, R2?=?0.42, P?=?0.002). In addition to labor pain, prenatal and postpartum pain variables from the BPI independently predicted six-week EPDS. Three-month depression scores were linked to labor and acute pain (6 weeks postpartum), but not to chronic (3 months postpartum) pain variables. Intrapartum pain management satisfaction and expectations were largely met or exceeded and did not differ between analgesia groups. CONCLUSION:For susceptible women, pain at all perinatal time points-prenatal, labor, and postpartum-appear to be independently linked to depression scores at 6 weeks postpartum. The relationships are true, even though satisfaction and expectations regarding labor pain management were met or exceeded. These data support the concept that labor and acute postpartum pain influences both acute and long-term PPD symptoms, although additional data are needed to assess how analgesia preference interacts with these relationships.
Project description:This study aimed (1) to investigate the pattern of perinatal depressive symptoms, and (2) to determine the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric factors, antenatal morbidities, postnatal conditions, and perinatal depressive symptoms using a structural equation model (SEM).A three-wave prospective longitudinal design was used for 361 women in their second trimester, third trimester, and at six weeks postpartum. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess the depressive symptoms.The intensity of depressive symptoms was the highest in the second trimester among the three waves. The SEM showed that unmarried status, unplanned pregnancy, gestational diabetes, and headache were significantly associated with EPDS in the first and second waves. The EPDS in the first wave was able to predict the EPDS in the second and third waves. The SEM has satisfactorily fit with the data (chi-square/degree of freedom = 1.42, incremental fit index = 0.91, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.90, comparative fit index = 0.91, and root mean square error of approximation = 0.03).The findings highlight the significance of monitoring depressive symptoms in the second trimester. Findings from this study could be useful in the design of effective intervention among women with unmarried status, unplanned pregnancy, gestational diabetes, and headache in order to reduce risk of perinatal depressive symptoms.
Project description:The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is widely recommended for perinatal anxiety and depression screening. However, many Aboriginal women find EPDS language complex and confusing, and providers find using it with Aboriginal women challenging. The two part Kimberley Mum's Mood Scale (KMMS) was developed to improve screening: Part 1 is a Kimberley version of EPDS; Part 2 is a psychosocial tool that enables contextualisation of Part 1 scores. We aimed to determine if KMMS is a valid and acceptable method of identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety or depressive disorders compared to a semi-structured clinical interview.Across 15 sites in the Kimberley, Western Australia, 97 Aboriginal women aged 16 years and older who intended to continue with their pregnancy or had a baby within the previous 12 months were administered the KMMS by trained healthcare providers who provided an overall assessment of no, low, moderate or high risk; 91 participants were then independently assessed by a blinded clinical expert using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. A qualitative approach was used to determine KMMS' acceptability.Part 1 had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, 0.89), and overall KMMS risk equivalence for screening for anxiety or depressive disorders was moderate (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 87%; positive predictive value, 68%). Participants found the process easy and useful, and healthcare providers found KMMS more useful than EPDS. Part 2 allowed healthcare providers to ask questions that gave participants an opportunity to express themselves, resulting in a deeper understanding between them.KMMS is an effective tool for identifying Kimberley Aboriginal perinatal women at risk of anxiety and depressive disorders. Adoption of KMMS with culturally safe training and support is likely to improve screening processes, and with further validation may have broader applicability across remote Australia.
Project description:Perinatal depression is highly prevalent in low-and-middle-income countries and has been linked to poor child health. Suboptimal maternal nutrition may be a risk factor for perinatal depression. In this randomised-controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi, we set out to test the hypothesis that women taking a fatty acid-rich lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) would have fewer depressive symptoms postpartum than those taking iron-folate (IFA) or multiple-micronutrient (MMN) capsules. Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and randomised to receive LNS or MMN during pregnancy and for 6?months postpartum, or IFA during pregnancy only. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using validated translations of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), antenatally (SRQ only) and at 6?months postpartum (SRQ and EPDS). Analysis was by modified intention to treat. One thousand three hundred and ninety one women were randomised (LNS?=?462, MMN?=?466, IFA?=?463). The groups were similar across a range of baseline variables. At 6?months postpartum, 1078 (77.5%) had SRQ completed; mean (SD) scores were LNS 1.76(2.73), MMN 1.92(2.75), IFA 1.71(2.66), P?=?0.541. One thousand and fifty seven (76.0%) had EPDS completed; mean (SD) scores were LNS 5.77(5.53), MMN 5.43(4.97), IFA 5.52(5.18), P?=?0.676. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on SRQ or EPDS scores (continuous or dichotomised) in unadjusted or adjusted models. In conclusion, fortification of maternal diet with LNS compared with MMN or IFA did not reduce postnatal depressive symptoms in this study.