Application of Ultra-Centrifugation and Bench-Top 19F NMR for Measuring Drug Phase Partitioning for the Ophthalmic Oil-in-Water Emulsion Products.
ABSTRACT: Generic drug products are expected to have the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) (Q1) with the same content (Q2) and microstructure arrangement (Q3) as the innovator product. In complex oil-in-water emulsion drugs, the hydrophobic API is mainly formulated in oil droplets stabilized by surfactant and micelles composed of extra surfactant molecules. The API phase partition in oil and water (mainly micelle) is a critical quality attribute (CQA) of emulsion product in demonstrating physicochemical equivalence using difluprednate (DFPN) emulsion product Durezol® as a model, we developed a novel low-field benchtop NMR method to demonstrate its applicability in measuring DFPN phase partition for ophthalmic oil-in-water emulsion products. Low-field 19F spectra were collected for DFPN in formulation, in water phase and oil phase after separation from ultra-centrifugation. The NMR data showed the mass balance of DFPN before and after phase separation. The average water phase content of different Durezol® lots was 32 ± 3% with 1% variation from method reproducibility test. The partition results were 52 ± 2% for the in-house control products prepared in Q1/Q2 equivalence to Durezol® but by a different process. The significant difference in DFPN-phase partition between Durezol® and the in-house formulation demonstrated manufacture difference readily changed the API partition. The newly developed ultra-centrifugation and 19F NMR by benchtop instrument is a simple, robust, and sensitive analytical method for ophthalmic emulsion drug product development and control.
Project description:In a typical oil-in-water emulsion drug product, oil droplets with varied sizes are dispersed in a water phase and stabilized by surfactant molecules. The size and polydispersity of oil droplets are critical quality attributes of the emulsion drug product that can potentially affect drug bioavailability. More critically, to ensure accuracy in characterization of the finished drug product, analytical methods should introduce minimal physical perturbation (e.g., temperature variation or dilution) before the analysis. The classical methods of dynamic light scattering or electron microscopy can be used but they generally require sample dilution or harsh preparation conditions, respectively. By contrast, the size distribution of emulsion formulations can be assessed with a simple and noninvasive solution nuclear magnetic resonance method, namely, two-dimensional Diffusion Ordered SpectroscopY. The two-dimensional Diffusion Ordered SpectroscopY method probed signal decay of methyl resonances from oil and sorbate molecules and was applied to 3 types of U.S.-marketed emulsion drug products, that is, difluprednate, cyclosporine, and propofol, yielding measured droplet sizes of 40-280 nm in diameter. The high precision of ±6 nm of the new nuclear magnetic resonance method allows analytical differentiation of lot-to-lot and brand-to-brand droplet size differences in emulsion drug products, critical for drug-quality development, control, and surveillance.
Project description:The processes in which droplets evaporate from solid surfaces, leaving behind distinct deposition patterns, have been studied extensively for variety of solutions. In this work, by combining different microscopy techniques (confocal fluorescence, video and Raman) we investigate pattern formation and evaporation-induced phase change in drying oil-in-water emulsion drops. This combination of techniques allows us to perform drop shape analysis while visualizing the internal emulsion structure simultaneously. We observe that drying of the continuous water phase of emulsion drops on hydrophilic surfaces favors the formation of ring-like zones depleted of oil droplets at the contact line, which originate from geometrical confinement of oil droplets by the meniscus. From such a depletion zone, a "coffee ring" composed of surfactant molecules forms as the water evaporates. On all surfaces drying induces emulsion destabilization by coalescence of oil droplets, commencing at the drop periphery. For hydrophobic surfaces, the coalescence of the oil droplets leads to a uniform oil film spreading out from the initial contact line. The evaporation dynamics of these composite drops indicate that the water in the continuous phase of the emulsion drops evaporates predominantly by diffusion through the vapor, showing no large differences to the evaporation of simple water drops.
Project description:The formation, manufacture and characterization of low energy water-in-oil (w/o) nanoemulsions prepared using cold pressed flaxseed oil containing efavirenz was investigated. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the nanoemulsion region(s). Other potential lipid-based drug delivery phases containing flaxseed oil with 1:1 m/m surfactant mixture of Tween® 80, Span® 20 and different amounts of ethanol were tested to characterize the impact of surfactant mixture on emulsion formation. Flaxseed oil was used as the oil phase as efavirenz exhibited high solubility in the vehicle when compared to other vegetable oils tested. Optimization of surfactant mixtures was undertaken using design of experiments, specifically a D-optimal design with the flaxseed oil content set at 10% m/m. Two solutions from the desired optimization function were produced based on desirability and five nanoemulsion formulations were produced and characterized in terms of in vitro release of efavirenz, physical and chemical stability. Metastable nanoemulsions containing 10% m/m flaxseed oil were successfully manufactured and significant isotropic gel (semisolid) and o/w emulsions were observed during phase behavior studies. Droplet sizes ranged between 156 and 225 nm, zeta potential between -24 and -41 mV and all formulations were found to be monodisperse with polydispersity indices ? 0.487.
Project description:Tubular liposomes containing a hydrophilic model compound (fluorescein sodium salt, FSS) were entrapped inside the internal aqueous phase (W(1)) of water-in-oil-in-water (W(1)/O/W(2)) double-emulsion globules. Our hypothesis was that the oil membrane of double emulsions can function as a layer of protection to liposomes and their contents and thus better control their release. Liposomes were prepared in bulk, and their release was observed microscopically from individual double-emulsion globules. The liposomes containing FSS were released through external coalescence, and the behavior of this system was monitored visually by capillary video microscopy. Double-emulsion globules were stabilized with Tween 80 as the water-soluble surfactant, with Span 80 as the oil-soluble surfactant, while the oil phase (O) was n-hexadecane. The lipids in the tubular liposomes consist of L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine and Ceramide-VI. Variations of Tween 80 concentration in the external aqueous phase (W(2)) and Span 80 concentration in the O phase controlled the release of liposomes from the W(1) phase to the W(2) phase. The major finding of this work is that the sheer presence of liposomes in the W(1) phase is by itself a stabilizing factor for double-emulsion globules.
Project description:Separation of oil/water mixtures has been one of the leading green technologies for applications such as oil recovery and water purification. Conventional methods to separate oil from water are based on phase separation via physical settlement or distillation. However, challenges still remain in the effective extraction of micron-sized oil droplets dispersed in water, in which case gravity fails to work as separating force. Here, we conformably decorate porous titanium (average pore size 30 ?m) with superhydrophilic nanotubes. The resulting three-dimensional superhydrophilic micro channels thus provide a driving force for oil-water separation at the nanotube/emulsion interface, enhancing significantly the water infiltration rate. The high efficiency (>99.95%, with oil droplets of average diameter 10 ?m) and strong mechanical durability make the structure a reusable oil/water separator. Our findings pave the way for future applications of oil-in-water emulsion separation, which can be readily scaled up for massive demulsification.
Project description:Environmental pollution with dyes released from industrial effluent is one of the major and most critical problems in the world. To alleviate this issue, advanced and safe materials with fast and highly efficient dye removal should be designed. Great attention has been paid recently to hydrogels based on polysaccharides such as Arabic Gum (AG) grafted with polyacrylamide (PAM) and polyacrylic acid (PAA). These materials combine the merits of natural polymers such as biodegradability and non-toxicity with the high adsorption ability of PAM and PAA towards cationic dyes such as methylene blue (MB). Many previous works have been done to enhance three-dimensional (3D) structure and swelling ability of the graft copolymers by using a crosslinking agent or even adding nanomaterials as a filler inside the hydrogel matrix. However, these additives may negatively affect the adsorption ability, and few previous studies could reach 2000 mg/g of maximum MB capacity removal within a good period of time. In our work, we synthesized partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted Arabic gum (AG-g-PAM/PAA) to have both amide and carboxylate groups. The modified water dissolved graft product undergoes water in oil (W/O) emulsion using paraffin oil as the continuous phase and Triton X-100 as a stabilizing agent; then, the system was inversed to oil in water (O/W) emulsion by increasing the shear mixing rate and cross-linked using Epichlorohydrin (ECH). The precipitated graft product showed hierarchically interconnected micro and macropores' sponge like shape with fast water swelling and high MB adsorption capacity (2300 mg g-1) after 45 min at near neutral pH conditions.
Project description:In this study, two saponins-rich plant extracts, viz. Saponaria officinalis and Quillaja saponaria, were used as surfactants in an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion based on hempseed oil (HSO). This study focused on a low oil phase content of 2% v/v HSO to investigate stable emulsion systems under minimum oil phase conditions. Emulsion stability was characterized by the emulsification index (EI), centrifugation tests, droplet size distribution as well as microscopic imaging. The smallest droplets recorded by dynamic light scattering (droplets size v. number), one day after the preparation of the emulsion, were around 50-120 nm depending the on use of Saponaria and Quillaja as a surfactant and corresponding to critical micelle concentration (CMC) in the range 0-2 g/L. The surface and interfacial tension of the emulsion components were studied as well. The effect of emulsions on environmental bacteria strains was also investigated. It was observed that emulsions with Saponaria officinalis extract exhibited slight toxic activity (the cell metabolic activity reduced to 80%), in contrast to Quillaja emulsion, which induced Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 growth. The highest-stability samples were those with doubled CMC concentration. The presented results demonstrate a possible use of oil emulsions based on plant extract rich in saponins for the food industry, biomedical and cosmetics applications, and nanoemulsion preparations.
Project description:1. Equations are derived for the steady-state kinetics of substrate conversion by enzymes confined within the water-droplets of water-in-oil microemulsion systems. 2. Water-soluble substrates initially confined within droplets that do not contain enzyme are assumed to be converted into product only after they enter enzyme-containing droplets via the inter-droplet exchange process. 3. Hyperbolic (Michaelis-Menten) kinetics are predicted when the substrate concentration is varied in microemulsions of fixed composition. Both kcat. and Km are predicted to be dependent on the size and concentration of the water-droplets in the microemulsion. 4. The predicted behaviour is shown to be supported by published experimental data. A physical interpretation of the form of the rate equation is presented. 5. The rate equation for an oil-soluble substrate was derived assuming a pseudo-two-phase (oil & water) model for the microemulsion. Both kcat. and Km are shown to be independent of phi aq. Km is larger than the aqueous solution value by a factor approximately equal to the oil/water partition coefficient of the substrate. The validity of the rate equation is confirmed by published data.
Project description:We demonstrate a new, scalable, simple, and generally applicable two-step method to prepare hollow colloidosomes. First, a high volume fraction oil-in-water emulsion was prepared. The oil phase consisted of CH2Cl2 containing a hydrophobic structural polymer, such as polycaprolactone (PCL) or polystyrene (PS), which was fed into the water phase. The water phase contained poly(vinylalcohol), poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), or a range of cationic graft copolymer surfactants. The emulsion was rotary evaporated to rapidly remove CH2Cl2. This caused precipitation of PCL or PS particles which became kinetically trapped at the periphery of the droplets and formed the shell of the hollow colloidosomes. Interestingly, the PCL colloidosomes were birefringent. The colloidosome yield increased and the polydispersity decreased when the preparation scale was increased. One example colloidosome system consisted of hollow PCL colloidosomes stabilized by PVA. This system should have potential biomaterial applications due to the known biocompatibility of PCL and PVA.
Project description:The biodegradable cellular capsule, being prepared from simple vaporization of liquid marbles, is an ideal vehicle for the potential application of drug encapsulation and release. This paper reports the fabrication of cellular capsules via facile vaporization of Pickering emulsion marbles in an ambient atmosphere. Stable Pickering emulsion (water in oil) was prepared while utilizing dichloromethane (containing poly(l-lactic acid)) and partially hydrophobic silica particles as oil phase and stabilizing agents respectively. Then, the Pickering emulsion marbles were formed by dropping emulsion into a petri dish containing silica particles with a syringe followed by rolling. The cellular capsules were finally obtained after the complete vaporization of both oil and water phases. The technique of scanning electron microscope (SEM) was employed to research the microstructure and surface morphology of the prepared capsules and the results showed the cellular structure as expected. An in vitro drug release test was implemented which showed a sustained release property of the prepared cellular capsules. In addition, the use of biodegradable poly(l-lactic acid) and the biocompatible silica particles also made the fabricated cellular capsules of great potential in the application of sustained drug release.