Community-Based Essential Newborn Care Practices and Associated Factors among Women of Enderta, Tigray, Ethiopia, 2018.
ABSTRACT: Introduction. Neonatal mortality contributes a higher percentage of infant mortality, especially in developing countries including Ethiopia where the rate of institutional delivery is low. In Ethiopia, scientific evidences on the level of community-based essential newborn care practice were scanty and inconclusive. Objectives:The aim of the study was to assess community-based essential newborn care practices and associated factors among women who have infant < 12 months. Methods:A community-based cross-sectional study was employed among 634 randomly selected women who have infant < 12 months from June 23, 2017, to August 29, 2017, at Enderta district. Data was collected by a face-to-face interview through structured questionnaires, and it was coded, entered, and cleaned using EpiData version 3.1. Then, the data was exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Odds ratios and p value were computed to know the association between the independent variables with the dependent variable. Finally, a variable at p value were computed to know the association between the independent variables with the dependent variable. Finally, a variable at p value were computed to know the association between the independent variables with the dependent variable. Finally, a variable at. Result:The overall community-based essential newborn care practice was found 40.7%. Educational status (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI, 2.49-11.97), previous ANC follow-up (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI, 1.2-3.80), weight of the child during birth (AOR = 1.3, 95% CI, 1.12-2.98), and place of delivery (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI, 1.50-4.63) were found to be significantly associated with community-based essential newborn care. Even though overall newborn practice was found to be good, the cord care practices were found to be poor that indicated there is a need to rise community awareness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Globally 3.1 million children die each year in their neonatal period (first 28 days of life) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 2011 report. Half of these surprisingly occur within the first 24 h of delivery and 75% occur in the early neonatal period. METHODS:A community based cross-sectional study design was carried out from March 2016 to April, 2016 in Damot Pulasa district, Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia to assess selected essential newborn care practices and associated factors among home delivered mothers in Damot pulasa district. Data were entered into Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 software for analysis. Multiple logistic analyses were done to control possible confounding variable. A P-value less than 0.05 was taken as a significant association. RESULT:The study showed that the prevalence of essential newborn care practice was 24%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that variables like ANC visit (AOR =0.213,P?=?0.015,CI?=?0.102-0.446),PNC visit (AOR?=?0.209, P?=?0.00,CI?=?0.110-0.399), advice about essential newborn care practice (AOR =0.114,P?=?0.0001, CI?=?0.058-0.221),urban areas women (AOR =2,P?=?0.042, CI?=?1.024-3.693), planned pregnancy (AOR?=?7, P?=?0.00, CI =3.732-11.813), and knowledge about newborn danger signs (AOR?=?0.277, P?=?0.006, CI?=?0.110-0.697) were the independent predictors of ENBC practices. CONCLUSION:Generally, coverage of essential newborn care practices was low. ANC visit, advice about ENBC, PNC visit, residence, planned pregnancy and knowledge about newborn danger signs were predictors of essential newborn care practice in the study area. Therefore, Health facilities should enhance linkage with health posts to increase ANC and PNC service utilization. Health extension workers should also promote and give health education about pre-lacteal feeding, early bathing, planned pregnancy, newborn danger signs and application of materials on the newborn stump.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Ethiopia, neonatal mortality remains high and accounts for about half of the under-five mortality. However, there is limited data on the knowledge and practice of mothers about newborn care at the community level, particularly in urban settings. Therefore, this study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of mothers on Essential Newborn Care in urban communities. METHODS:A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in December 2016 in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia. A total of 456(weighted) postpartum mothers were included in this study. A three-stage cluster sampling was used to select the study subjects in which districts, Kebeles and respondents formed the first, second and third stage, respectively. Postnatal mothers were recruited from each cluster/Kebele until the required sample size was achieved. They were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Mothers who responded correctly to at least 75% of the knowledge and practice questions were considered to have good knowledge and practice, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the knowledge and practice of Essential Newborn Care. RESULTS:In this study, 36.1% of mothers had good knowledge and 81.1% had a good practice on Essential Newborn Care. Newborn care practice was positively associated with those mothers who were educated [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.94; 95% CI (1.07, 3.50)], counseled during delivery and postpartum [AOR = 4.97; 95% CI (1.93, 12.76)], who had good knowledge of newborn care [AOR = 2.32; 95%CI (1.18, 4.55)] and who had good knowledge of newborn danger signs [AOR = 2.43; 95%CI (1.21, 4.87)]. CONCLUSIONS:A substantial number of postpartum mothers had poor knowledge and practice on Essential Newborn Care in Mekelle City. Therefore, improving quality and access to maternal health services and home visit using the urban health extension workers at the community level should be encouraged.
Project description:The World Health Organisation recommends home visits conducted by Community Health Workers (in Uganda known as Village Health Teams--VHTs) in order to improve maternal and newborn health. This study measured the effect of home visits combined with mobile phone consultations on maternal and newborn care practices.In a community intervention trial design 16 health centres in Masindi and Kiryandongo districts, Uganda were randomly and equally allocated to one of two arms: control and intervention arms. Eight control health centres received the usual maternal and newborn educational messages offered by professional health workers and eight intervention health centres that received an intervention package for maternal care and essential newborn care practices. In the intervention arm VHTs made two prenatal and one postnatal home visit to households. VHTs were provided with mobile phones to enable them make regular telephone consultations with health workers at the health centre serving the catchment area. The primary outcome was health facility delivery. Other outcomes included antenatal attendances, birth preparedness, cord and thermal care and breastfeeding practices. Analysis was by intention-to-treat.A total of 1385 pregnant women were analysed: 758 and 627 in the control and intervention arms respectively. Significant post-intervention differences were: delivery place [adjusted Odds Ratio aOR: 17.94(95%CI: 6.26-51.37); p<0.001], cord care [aOR: 3.05(95%CI: 1.81-5.12); p<0.001] thermal care [aOR: 7.58(95%CI: 2.52-22.82); p<0.001], and timely care-seeking for newborn illness [aOR: 4.93(95%CI: 1.59-15.31); p = 0.006].VHTs can have an effect in promoting proper cord and thermal care for the newborn and improve timely care-seeking for health facility delivery and newborn illness, because they could answer questions and refer patients correctly. However, VHTs should be supported by professional health workers through the use of mobile phones.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02084680.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite recent improvements in child survival, neonatal mortality remains high in most developing countries. Countries affected by humanitarian emergencies continue to report the highest neonatal mortality rates. OBJECTIVE:To assess essential newborn care practices and its determinants amongst mothers of infants aged 0-6 months in refugee settlements in Adjumani district. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers of infants aged 0-6 months in refugee settlements, Adjumani district. A total of 561 mothers of infants were selected using systematic sampling technique from households. Data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. A composite outcome variable, Essential Newborn Care practices was created by merging different care practices (neonatal feeding, thermal care, and cord care). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of Essential Newborn Care. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS:Over half (57%) of the mothers breastfed their newborns within one hour. Half (50.1%) of mothers cleaned the umbilical cord of their newborns. Only 17% of the newborns received optimal thermal care immediately after birth. Mothers aged 20-24 years (OR 0.38, CI 0.17-0.96) and those involved in subsistence farming (OR 0.67, CI 0.38-1.45) were less likely to practice good newborn care compared to those in other occupations. Newborn care practices were sub-optimal in this refugee setting. To improve newborn care practices, there is need to educate mothers through community-based health interventions in order to promote delayed bathing, ideal infant feeding, thermal and umbilical cord care.
Project description:Adolescent childbearing remains a major challenge to improving neonatal mortality especially in Sub Saharan countries which are still struggling with high neonatal mortality rates. We explored essential newborn care practices and associated factors among adolescent mothers in Western Uganda.Data were collected among 410 adolescent mothers with children aged one to six months in Hoima district. Three composite variables (appropriate neonatal breastfeeding, cord care and thermal protection) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify factors independently associated with practice of essential newborn care.Appropriate newborn feeding, optimal thermal protection and dry cord care were practiced by 60.5%, 67.2% and 31% of adolescent mothers respectively. Independent predictors' of cord care were: knowledge of cord care (AOR 5.34, 95% CI (1.51-18.84) and having delivered twins (AOR 0.04, 95% CI (0.01-0.22). The only predictor of thermal care was knowledge (AOR 25.15, 95% CI (7.01-90.20). Staying in a hospital for more than one day postpartum (AOR 2.45, 95%CI (1.23-4.86), knowledge of the correct time of breastfeeding initiation (AOR 14.71, 95% CI (5.20-41.58), predicted appropriate neonatal feeding, whereas; adolescent mothers who had had a caesarean delivery (AOR 0.19, 95% CI (I 0.04-0.96) and a male caretaker in the postnatal period (AOR 0.18, 95% CI (0.07-0.49) were less likely to practice the recommended newborn feeding.Sub optimal essential newborn care practice was noted especially suboptimal cord care. Adolescent mothers should be a focus of strategies to improve maternal and neonatal health.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The community-based newborn care (CBNC) is a newborn care package along the maternal and newborn health continuum of care that has been implemented at the community level in Ethiopia. The utilisation which might be affected by several factors has not been well assessed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the utilisation of CBNC and associated factors among women who delivered recently in Geze Gofa rural district, south Ethiopia. DESIGN:Cross-sectional study. SETTING:Community-based. PARTICIPANTS:Three-hundred seventy-one women who had their newborns recently were randomly selected. Then, they were interviewed at their places using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. METHODS:A binary logistic regression analysis was done. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, a p value of <0.05?and adjusted OR (AOR) with 95% CI were used to identify factors statistically associated with CBNC utilisation. OUTCOMES:CBNC utilisation. RESULTS:The findings showed that the overall utilisation of CBNC by women who delivered recently with their newborns was 37.5% (95% CI: 32.6 to 42.6). Factors associated with the utilisation of CBNC included women who attended elementary school (AOR: 1.76, 95%?CI: 1.01 to 3.07), college and above (AOR: 3.71, 95%?CI: 1.12 to 12.24), farmer women (AOR: 0.35, 95%?CI: 0.16 to 0.79), women in the lowest (AOR: 3.76, 95%?CI: 1.65 to 8.54) and middle quantile of wealth status (AOR: 1.96, 95%?CI: 1.01 to 3.76), and those whose preference was visiting hospital only when they faced any signs of danger (AOR: 0.29, 95%?CI: 0.11 to 0.78). CONCLUSION:The use of the CBNC programme in the study area was surprisingly low. To increase utilisation and potentially improve the outcomes of these neonates, we need to increase awareness at community levels, make convenient arrangements and increase the availability of services at nearby health facilities that are essential to improve the uptake of CBNC in the rural district.
Project description:There was less than satisfactory progress, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, towards child and maternal mortality targets of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5. The main aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and determinants of essential new newborn care practices in the Lawra District of Ghana.A cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2014 on a sample of 422 lactating mothers and their children aged between 1 and 12 months. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select the study participants who attended post-natal clinic in the Lawra district hospital.Of the 418 newborns, only 36.8% (154) was judged to have had safe cord care, 34.9% (146) optimal thermal care, and 73.7% (308) were considered to have had adequate neonatal feeding. The overall prevalence of adequate new born care comprising good cord care, optimal thermal care and good neonatal feeding practices was only 15.8%. Mothers who attained at least Senior High Secondary School were 20.5 times more likely to provide optimal thermal care [AOR 22.54; 95% CI (2.60-162.12)], compared to women had no formal education at all. Women who received adequate ANC services were 4.0 times (AOR??=??4.04 [CI: 1.53, 10.66]) and 1.9 times (AOR??=??1.90 [CI: 1.01, 3.61]) more likely to provide safe cord care and good neonatal feeding as compared to their counterparts who did not get adequate ANC. However, adequate ANC services was unrelated to optimal thermal care. Compared to women who delivered at home, women who delivered their index baby in a health facility were 5.6 times more likely of having safe cord care for their babies (AOR?=?5.60, Cl: 1.19-23.30), p?=?0.03.The coverage of essential newborn care practices was generally low. Essential newborn care practices were positively associated with high maternal educational attainment, adequate utilization of antenatal care services and high maternal knowledge of newborn danger signs. Therefore, greater improvement in essential newborn care practices could be attained through proven low-cost interventions such as effective ANC services, health and nutrition education that should span from community to health facility levels.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality has remained resistant to change in the wake of declining child mortality. Suboptimal newborn care practices are predisposing factors to neonatal mortality. Adherence to four ANC consultations is associated with improved newborn care practices. There is limited documentation of this evidence in sub-Saharan Africa where suboptimal newborn care practices has been widely reported. METHODS: Structured interviews were held with 928 women having children under-five months old at their homes in Masindi, Uganda, from October-December 2011. Four/more ANC consultations (sufficient ANC) was considered the exposure variable. Three composite variables (complete cord care, complete thermal care and complete newborn vaccination status) were derived by combining related practices from a list of recommended newborn care practices. Logistic regression models were used to assess for associations. RESULTS: One in five women 220(23.7%) were assessed to practice complete cord care. Less than ten percent 57(6.1%) were considered to practice complete thermal care and 611(65.8%) were assessed to have complete newborn vaccination status. Application of substance on the cord 744 (71.6%) and early bathing 816 (87.9%) were main drivers of sub-optimal newborn care practices. Multivariable logistic models did not demonstrate significant association between four/more ANC consultations and complete cord care, complete thermal care or complete newborn vaccination status. Secondary or higher education was associated with complete cord care [adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 2.72; 95% CI: 1.63-4.54] and complete newborn vaccination [aOR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04-1.82]. Women who reported health facility delivery were more likely to report complete thermal care [aOR: 3.63; 95% CI: 2.21-5.95] and newborn vaccination [aOR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.23-2.75], but not complete cord care. Having the first baby was associated with complete thermal care [aOR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.24-3.23]. CONCLUSION: Results confirm suboptimal newborn care practices in Masindi. Despite being established policy, adherence to four or more ANC consultations was not associated with complete cord care, complete thermal care or complete newborn vaccination. This finding has important implications for the implementation of focused ANC to improve newborn care practices. Future ANC interventions should focus on addressing application of substance on the cord and early bathing of the baby during the immediate neonatal period.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Low birth weight at birth is an important underlying contributor for neonatal and infant mortality. It accounts for nearly half of all perinatal deaths. Identifying predictors of low birth weight is the first essential step in designing appropriate management strategies. Hence, this study aimed to identify risk factors for low birth weight in hospitals of northeastern Ethiopia. METHODS:An institution based case-control study design was conducted from 10th April to 15th December 2016. Three hundred sixty mother-infant pairs (120 low birth weight babies as cases and 240 normal birth weights as controls) were included in the study. Data were collected by face-to-face interview. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were computed to examine the effect of independent variables on outcome variable using SPSS 20.0. Variables with p-value <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS:The mean (±SD) gestational age and birth weight (±SD) were 39.2 (±1.38) weeks and 2800 (±612), grams respectively. Partner's education/being illiterate (AOR: 4.09; 95% CI 1.45, 11.50), antenatal care visit at private health institutions (AOR: 0.13; 95% CI 0.02, 0.66), having history of obstetric complications (AOR: 5.70; 95% CI 2.38, 13.63), maternal weight during pregnancy (AOR: 4.04; 95% CI 1.50, 10.84) and gravidity (AOR: 0.36; 95% CI 0.18, 0.73) were significantly associated with low birth weight. Additionally, a site for water storage and water treatment were significant environmental factors. CONCLUSION:Maternal weight during pregnancy, paternal education, previous obstetric complication and place of antenatal follow-up were associated with low birth weight. The risk factors identified in this study are preventable. Thus, nutritional counseling, health education on improvement of lifestyle and early recognition and treatment of complications are the recommended interventions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the impact of the community-based newborn care package (CBNCP) on six essential practices to improve neonatal health. METHODS:CBNCP pilot districts were matched to comparison districts using propensity scores. Impact on birth preparedness, antenatal care seeking, antenatal care quality, delivery by skilled birth attendant, immediate newborn care and postnatal care within 48?hours were assessed using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and Health Management Information System (HMIS) data through difference-in-differences and multivariate logistic regression analyses. FINDINGS:Changes over time in intervention and comparison areas were similar in difference-in-differences analysis of DHS and HMIS data. Logistic regression of DHS data also did not reveal any significant improvement in combined outcomes: birth preparedness, adjusted OR (aOR)=0.8 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.7); antenatal care seeking, aOR=1.0 (0.6 to 1.5); antenatal care quality, aOR=1.4 (0.9 to 2.1); delivery by skilled birth attendant, aOR=1.5 (1.0 to 2.3); immediate newborn care, aOR=1.1 (0.7 to 1.9); postnatal care, aOR=1.3 (0.9 to 1.9). Health providers' knowledge and skills in intervention districts were fair but showed much variation between different providers and districts. CONCLUSIONS:This study, while representing an early assessment of impact, did not identify significant improvements in newborn care practices and raises concerns regarding CBNCP implementation. It has contributed to revisions of the package and it being merged with the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness programme. This is now being implemented in 35 districts and carefully monitored for quality and impact. The study also highlights general challenges in evaluating the impacts of a complex health intervention under 'real life' conditions.