Delayed vaccination and its predictors among children under 2?years in India: Insights from the national family health survey-4.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Delayed vaccination increases the susceptibility window for vaccine preventable diseases. Our analysis estimates the proportion of children between 10 and 23?months of age with delayed vaccination in India and the associated socio-demographic, maternal and child related factors. METHODS:We used individual level data from the National Family and Health Survey 4, conducted in 2015-2016. The primary outcome of the study was delayed vaccination for BCG, DPT- 1st dose and Measles. Delayed vaccination for each vaccine was defined as administration of the vaccine dose after 28?days of the minimum recommended age, as per the national immunization schedule in India. We estimated the proportion of children with delayed vaccination for each vaccine and used multivariable logistic regression to explore associated factors. FINDINGS:In the current analysis, 23.1%, 29.3% and 34.8% of children aged 10 to 23?months had delayed vaccination for BCG, DPT-1st dose and Measles respectively. Children from Muslim families (aOR 1.36 for BCG; aOR 1.45 for DPT-1; aOR 1.26 for Measles); birth weight?
Project description:Low birth weight (LBW) infants constitute a vulnerable subset of infants with impaired immunity in early life. In India, there is scarcity of studies that focus on immunization practices in such infants. This analysis aimed to examine immunization practices in LBW infants with the intention to identify areas requiring intervention.Data on immunization status of LBW infants enrolled in an individually randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of neonatal vitamin A supplementation were analysed. Study outcomes were full immunization by one year of age and delayed vaccination with DPT1 and DPT3. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with the outcome(s).Out of 10 644 LBW infants enrolled in trial, immunization data were available for 10 517 (98.8%). Less than one-third (29.7%) were fully immunized by one year of age. Lowest wealth quintile (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.47), Muslim religion (AOR 0.41, 95% CI 0.35-0.48) and age of mother <20 years (AOR 0.62, 95% CI 0.52-0.73) were associated with decreased odds of full immunization. Proportion of infants with delayed vaccination for DPT1 and DPT3 were 52% and 81% respectively. Lowest wealth quintiles (AOR 1.51, 95% CI 1.25-1.82), Muslim religion (AOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.21-1.65), mother aged <20 years (AOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.53) and birth weight <2000 g (AOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.03-1.40) were associated with higher odds of delayed vaccination for DPT-1. Maternal education (≥12 years of schooling) was associated with high odds of full immunization (AOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.97-2.91) and low odds of delayed vaccination for both DPT-1 (AOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.49-0.73) and DPT-3 (AOR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43-0.76).In this population, LBW infants are at a risk of delayed and incomplete immunization and therefore need attention. The risks are even higher in identified subgroups that should specifically be targeted.
Project description:Background:Childhood immunization is one of the most cost effective health interventions but its rate has been declining recently in Ghana. Information on immunization coverage and determinants is needed to improve immunization programmes. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with incomplete immunization of children (12-23 months) in Kwabre East District, Ghana. Methods:A cross-sectional, community-based survey involving 322 children and their mothers was carried out. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics of mothers, childhood immunization history and mothers' knowledge and practices of immunization using a structured questionnaire. Children were classified as incompletely immunized if they failed to receive at least one of 8 vaccine doses: - one dose of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), 3 doses each of pentavalent, 3 doses of polio and one dose of measles per WHO/UNICEF definition. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with incomplete immunisation. Results:The prevalence of incomplete immunization was low (15.5%) suggesting high immunisation coverage but the coverage of the second measles dose, taken at 18 months of age, was the lowest (23.9%). Most of the mothers knew the importance of immunisation (95.7%) and at least one vaccine-preventable disease or symptom (84.9%). Two factors associated with incomplete immunisation in bivariate analyses (community of residence, and mother's knowledge of number of oral polio vaccines given to children) were no longer significant in a logistic regression model. Compared to children in Aboaso, children in Gyamfi Wonoo (AOR?=?1.81, 95% CI?=?0.80-4.08), Mamponteng (Bonwunu) (AOR?=?0.59, 95% CI?=?0.24-1.48) and Mamponteng (Town) (AOR?=?0.63, 95% CI?=?0.26-1.55) had similar odds of incomplete immunisation. Similarly, mother's lack of knowledge of the number of doses of polio vaccine given to children had no effect on the odds of incomplete immunisation (AOR?=?0.53, 95% CI?=?0.22-1.26). Conclusions:Immunization coverage is high in the Kwabre East district but very few children received the second measles dose. None of the maternal and child factors assessed is associated with immunisation coverage. Further research is needed to identify the determinants of immunisation coverage and the reasons for the low uptake of second measles dose in the study area.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Childhood immunization is a cost effective public health strategy. Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) services have been provided in a rural Nigerian community (Sabongidda-Ora, Edo State) at no cost to the community since 1998 through a privately financed vaccination project (private public partnership). The objective of this survey was to assess vaccination coverage and its determinants in this rural community in Nigeria METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September 2006, which included the use of interviewer-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge of mothers of children aged 12-23 months and vaccination coverage. Survey participants were selected following the World Health Organization's (WHO) immunization coverage cluster survey design. Vaccination coverage was assessed by vaccination card and maternal history. A child was said to be fully immunized if he or she had received all of the following vaccines: a dose of Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG), three doses of oral polio (OPV), three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT), three doses of hepatitis B (HB) and one dose of measles by the time he or she was enrolled in the survey, i.e. between the ages of 12-23 months. Knowledge of the mothers was graded as satisfactory if mothers had at least a score of 3 out of a maximum of 5 points. Logistic regression was performed to identify determinants of full immunization status. RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 339 children (each mother had one eligible child) were included in the survey. Most of the mothers (99.1%) had very positive attitudes to immunization and > 55% were generally knowledgeable about symptoms of vaccine preventable diseases except for difficulty in breathing (as symptom of diphtheria). Two hundred and ninety-five mothers (87.0%) had a satisfactory level of knowledge. Vaccination coverage against all the seven childhood vaccine preventable diseases was 61.9% although it was significantly higher (p = 0.002) amongst those who had a vaccination card (131/188, 69.7%) than in those assessed by maternal history (79/151, 52.3%). Multiple logistic regression showed that mothers' knowledge of immunization (p = 0.006) and vaccination at a privately funded health facility (p < 0.001) were significantly correlated with the rate of full immunization. CONCLUSION: Eight years after initiation of this privately financed vaccination project (private-public partnership), vaccination coverage in this rural community is at a level that provides high protection (81%) against DPT/OPV. Completeness of vaccination was significantly correlated with knowledge of mothers on immunization and adequate attention should be given to this if high coverage levels are to be sustained.
Project description:Understanding modifiable determinants of full immunization of children provide a valuable contribution to immunization programs and help reduce disease, disability, and death. This study is aimed to assess the individual and community-level determinants of full immunization coverage among children in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study used data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14 from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Data regarding total 3,366 children between 12 and 23 months of age were used in this study. Children who were immunized with one dose of BCG, three doses of polio, three doses of DPT, and a dose of measles vaccine was considered fully immunized. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the prevalence and distribution of full immunization coverage. Two-level multilevel logistic regression analysis, with individual-level (level 1) characteristics nested within community-level (level 2) characteristics, was used to assess the individual- and community-level determinants of full immunization coverage. This study found that about 45.3% [95%CI: 42.02, 48.52] of children aged 12-23 months were fully immunized in the DRC. The results confirmed immunization coverage varied and ranged between 5.8% in Mongala province to 70.6% in Nord-Kivu province. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that, four Antenatal Care (ANC) visits [AOR: 1.64; 95%CI: 1.23, 2.18], institutional delivery [AOR: 2.37; 95%CI: 1.52, 3.72], and Postnatal Care (PNC) service utilization [AOR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.04, 1.95] were statistically significantly associated with the full immunization coverage. Similarly, children of mothers with secondary or higher education [AOR: 1.32; 95%CI: 1.00, 1.81] and from the richest wealth quintile [AOR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.18, 3.27] had significantly higher odds of being fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers were relatively poorer and less educated. Among the community-level characteristics, residents of the community with a higher rate of institutional delivery [AOR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.59, 3.51] were found to be positively associated with the full immunization coverage. Also, the random effect result found about 35% of the variation in immunization coverage among the communities was attributed to community-level factors.The Democratic Republic of Congo has a noteworthy gap in full immunization coverage. Modifiable factors-particularly health service utilization including four ANC visits, institutional delivery, and postnatal visits-had a strong positive effect on full immunization coverage. The study underlines the importance of promoting immunization programs tailored to the poor and women with little education.
Project description:The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when this study was conducted. The WHO assesses coverage by 12 months of age. The sequence of vaccines may have an effect on child mortality, but is not considered in official statistics or assessments of programme performance. We assessed vaccination coverage and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations by 12 and 24 months of age.Observational cohort study.The Bandim Health Project's (BHP) rural Health and Demographic Surveillance site covers 258 randomly selected villages in all regions of Guinea-Bissau. Villages are visited biannually and vaccination cards inspected to ascertain vaccination status. Between 2003 and 2009 vaccination status by 12 months of age was assessed for 5806 children aged 12-23 months; vaccination status by 24 months of age was assessed for 3792 children aged 24-35 months.Coverage of EPI vaccinations and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations.Half of 12-month-old children and 65% of 24-month-old children had completed all EPI vaccinations. Many children received vaccines out of sequence: by 12 months of age 54% of BCG-vaccinated children had received DTP with or before BCG and 28% of measles-vaccinated children had received DTP with or after MV. By 24 months of age the proportion of out-of-sequence vaccinations was 58% and 35%, respectively, for BCG and MV.In rural Guinea-Bissau vaccination coverage by 12 months of age was low, but continued to increase beyond 12 months of age. More than half of all children received vaccinations out of sequence. This highlights the need to improve vaccination services.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Government of India is introducing new and relatively costly vaccines under immunization program. Monitoring of vaccine wastage is needed to guide the program implementation and forecasting. Under pilot introduction of rotavirus vaccine in two districts both 5- and 10-doses vials were used, which was considered as an opportunity for documenting the wastage. The wastage rates for other routine vaccines were also documented. METHODS:A survey conducted in two districts (Kangra, Himachal Pradesh and Pune, Maharashtra) covered 49 vaccine stores, 34 sub-centres and 34 outreach sessions collected vaccine receipt, distribution and usage data for two complete years 2016 and 2017. RESULTS:The overall wastage rates for almost all vaccines were higher in Kangra district (BCG 37.1%, DPT 32.1%, Measles 32.2%, OPV 50.8%, TT 34.1% and pentavalent 18.4%) than Pune district (BCG 35.1%, DPT 25.4%, Measles 21.7%, OPV 14.3%, TT 23.1% and pentavalent 13.2%). Wastage for pneumococcal conjugate and measles-rubella vaccines in Kangra district were 27 and 40.5%, respectively. With transition from 5- to 10-doses vials for rotavirus vaccine, wastage at stores levels increased in both Kangra (29 to 33.2%) and Pune (17.8 to 25.7%) districts. With transition from intramuscular to intradermal fractional inactivated polio vaccine, the wastage increased from 36.1 to 54.8% in Kangra and 18.4 to 26.9% in Pune district. CONCLUSIONS:The observed vaccine wastage rates for several vaccines were relatively higher than program assumption for forecasting. The observed variations in the vaccine wastage indicates need for state or region based documentation and monitoring in India for appropriate programmatic action.
Project description:We studied completeness and timeliness of vaccination and determinants for low and delayed uptake in children born between 2008 and 2009 in Zhejiang province in eastern China.We used data from a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted in 2011, which included 1146 children born from 1 Jan 2008 to 31 Dec 2009. Various vaccination history, social-demographic factors, attitude and satisfaction toward immunization from caregivers were collected by a standard questionnaire. We restricted to the third dose of HepB, PV, and DPT (HepB3, PV3, and DPT3) as outcome variables for completeness of vaccination and restricted to the first dose of HepB, PV, DPT, and MCV(HepB1, PV1, DPT1, and MCV1) as outcome variables for timeliness of vaccination. The ?(2) test and logistic regression analysis were applied to identify the determinants of completeness and timeliness of vaccination. Survival analysis by the Kaplan-Meier method was performed to present the timeliness vaccination.Coverage for HepB1, HepB3, PV1, PV3, DPT1, DPT3, and MCV1 was 93.22%, 90.15%, 96.42%, 91.63%, 95.80%, 90.16%, and 92.70%, respectively. Timely vaccination occurred in 501/1146(43.72%) children for HepB1, 520/1146(45.38%) for PV1, 511/1146(44.59%) for DPT1, and 679/1146(59.25%) for MCV1. Completeness of specific vaccines was associated with mother' age, immigration status, birth place of child, maternal education level, maternal occupation status, socio-economic development level of surveyed areas, satisfaction toward immunization service and distance of the house to immunization clinic. Timeliness of vaccination for specific vaccines was associated with mother' age, maternal education level, immigration status, siblings, birth place, and distance of the house to immunization clinic.Despite reasonably high vaccination coverage, we observed substantial vaccination delays. We found specific factors associated with low and/or delayed vaccine uptake. These findings can help to improve strategies such as Reaching Every District (RED), out-reach vaccination services and health education to reach children who remain inadequately protected.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Countries deliver vaccines either through routine health services or supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), usually community-based or door-to-door immunization campaigns. While SIAs have been successful at increasing coverage of vaccines in low- and middle-income countries, they may disrupt the delivery of routine health services. We examine the impact of SIAs on routine vaccine coverage in five low-income countries. METHODS:Data on the number and timing of SIAs conducted in various countries was compiled by WHO and obtained through UNICEF. Information on the coverage of vaccines not targeted by SIAs (e.g., DPT) was extracted from the Demographic and Health Surveys. We focus on SIAs that took place between 1996 and 2013 in Bangladesh, Senegal, Togo, Gambia, and Cote d'Ivoire, and examine outcomes for children aged 12-59 months. To avoid biases resulting from non-random placement and timing of SIAs, we use age of a child at her first SIA as an instrumental variable for total exposure to SIAs. RESULTS:We find that SIA exposure reduced the likelihood of receiving routine vaccines in all the countries included in the study; the coefficients of interest are however statistically insignificant for Gambia and Cote d'Ivoire. In countries that witnessed statistically significant SIA-induced declines in the likelihood of obtaining DPT 3, measles as well as BCG, reductions ranged from 1.3 percentage points (Senegal) to 5.5 percentage points (Bangladesh). CONCLUSION:SIA exposure reduced routine vaccination rates in study countries. Efforts should be made to limit the detrimental impact of SIAs on the services provided by routine health systems.
Project description:Adequate and quality immunization coverage plays a key role in controlling the outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases. Places where immunization coverage is low, vaccine preventable diseases contribute to worse health outcomes. This is especially true in Indian slum dwellings where 33.0% of the urban population live. The aim of the study was to explore the coverage, quality, and correlates of primary immunization under national immunization program among children aged 12-23 months, living in slums of Mumbai. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted. Parents or caretakers of 550 eligible children aged 12-23 months were interviewed using a structured interview schedule. Regression analysis was used to detect correlates of full immunization coverage (children who received one dose each of BCG, measles, and three doses each of DPT, OPV, and HBV by his/her first birthday) and of quality immunization coverage (children who received primary vaccines at appropriate age and intervals as mentioned above and had filled immunization card). Out of total 550 children, 402 (73.1%), 131 (23.8%), and 17 (3.1%) were fully, partially, and unimmunized, respectively. Almost 86.0% children received quality immunization coverage. In the regression analysis, reminder for immunization services was found to be the single most significant correlate of full and quality immunization coverage. In this study, full immunization coverage was found to be below the expected level. This study also revealed that the awareness regarding the importance of adequate immunization was still lacking in the slum population. Emphasizing on reminders for immunization services, encouraging institutional deliveries, and scaling up use of postnatal care services may act as keys to improving the immunization coverage in Indian slums.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Urban childhood immunization programs face unique challenges in access, utilization, and demand due to frequent population movement between and within localities, sprawling informal settlements, and population heterogeneity. We conducted a cross-sectional household survey in the Western Area Urban district, Sierra Leone, stratified by slums and non-slums as defined by the United Nations Development Program.<h4>Methods</h4>Based on data from child vaccination cards, weighted vaccination coverage was estimated from 450 children aged 12-36 months (household response rate?=?83%). Interviews with 444 caregivers identified factors related to accessing routine immunization services. Factors associated with coverage in bivariate analyses were examined in multivariate models using backward stepwise procedure.<h4>Results</h4>Coverage was similar in slums and non-slums for 3-doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-<i>Haemophilus influenzae</i> type b (pentavalent) vaccine (86%, 92%) and second dose of measles vaccine (33%, 29%). In a multivariate logistic regression model, incomplete pentavalent vaccine coverage was associated with being second or later birth order (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)?=?4.5 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.4-14.9), a household member not approving of childhood vaccinations (aOR?=?7.55, 95% CI?=?1.52-37.38), self-reported delay of child receiving recommended vaccinations (aOR?=?4.8, 95% CI?=?1.0-22.1), and living in a household made of natural or rudimentary materials (aOR?=?3.5, 95% CI?=?1.2-10.6). Overall, the majority (>70%) of caregivers reported occupation as petty trader and <50% reported receiving vaccination information via preferred communication sources.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Although vaccination coverage in slums was similar to non-slums, study findings support the need for targeted interventions to improve coverage, especially for the second dose of measles vaccine to avoid large scale measles outbreaks. Strategies should focus on educating household members via preferred communication channels regarding the importance of receiving childhood vaccinations on time for all offspring, not just the first born. Vaccination coverage could be further improved by increasing accessibility through innovative strategies such as increasing the number of vaccination days and modifying hours.