TRPC6 inactivation does not protect against diabetic kidney disease in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats.
ABSTRACT: Canonical transient receptor potential-6 (TRPC6) channels have been implicated in the progression of several forms of kidney disease (1). While there is strong evidence that glomerular TRPC6 channels are dysregulated in diabetic nephropathy (DN), there is no consensus as to whether deletion or inactivation of TRPC6 is protective in animal models of DN. A previous study in Dahl salt-sensitive rats suggests that TRPC6 knockout has a modest protective effect in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN (2). In the present study, we examined whether inactivation of TRPC6 channels by CRISPR/Cas9 editing (Trpc6 del/del rats) affects progression of STZ-induced DN in Sprague-Dawley rats. Wild-type littermates (Trpc6 wt/wt rats) were used as controls. We observed that a single injection of STZ resulted in severe hyperglycemia that was sustained over a 10-week period, accompanied by a marked reduction in circulating C-peptide, dyslipidemia, and failure to gain weight compared to vehicle-treated animals. Those effects were equally severe in Trpc6 wt/wt and Trpc6 del/del rats. STZ treatment resulted in increased urine albumin excretion at 4, 8, and 10 weeks after injection, and this effect was equally severe in Trpc6 wt/wt and Trpc6 del/del rats. TRPC6 inactivation had no effect on blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma creatinine concentration, urine nephrin excretion, or kidney weight:body weight ratio measured 10 weeks after STZ injection. STZ treatment evoked modest and equivalent mesangial expansion in Trpc6 wt/wt and Trpc6 del/del rats. In summary, we observed no protective effect of TRPC6 inactivation on STZ-induced DN in rats on the Sprague-Dawley background.
Project description:Canonical transient receptor potential-6 (TRPC6) channels have been implicated in a variety of chronic kidney diseases including familial and acquired forms of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) and renal fibrosis following ureteral obstruction. Here we have examined the role of TRPC6 in progression of inflammation and fibrosis in the nephrotoxic serum (NTS) model of crescentic glomerulonephritis. This was assessed in rats with non-functional TRPC6 channels due to genomic disruption of an essential domain in TRPC6 channels (Trpc6 del/del rats) and wild-type littermates (Trpc6 wt/wt rats). Administration of NTS evoked albuminuria and proteinuria observed 4 and 28 days later that was equally severe in Trpc6 wt/wt and Trpc6 del/del rats. By 28 days, there were dense deposits of complement and IgG within glomeruli in both genotypes, accompanied by severe inflammation and fibrosis readily observed by standard histological methods, and also by increases in renal cortical expression of multiple markers (?-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, NLRP3, and CD68). Tubulointerstitial fibrosis appeared equally severe in Trpc6 wt/wt and Trpc6 del/del rats. TRPC6 inactivation did not protect against the substantial declines in renal function (increases in blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and kidney:body weight ratio) in NTS-treated animals, and increases in a urine maker of proximal tubule pathology (?2-macroglobulin) were actually more severe in Trpc6 del/del animals. By contrast, glomerular pathology, blindly scored from histology, and from renal cortical expression of podocin suggested a partial but significant protective effect of TRPC6 inactivation within the glomerular compartment, at least during the autologous phase of the NTS model.
Project description:Mutations in canonical transient receptor potential-6 (TRPC6) channels give rise to rare familial forms of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here we examined a possible role for TRPC6 in the progression of chronic puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrosis in Sprague-Dawley rats, a classic model of acquired nephrotic syndromes. We used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to delete a 239-bp region within exon 2 of the Trpc6 gene (Trpc6del allele). Trpc6del/del rats expressed detectable Trpc6 transcripts missing exon 2, and TRPC6 proteins could be detected by immunoblot of renal cortex. However, the abundance of Trpc6 transcripts and TRPC6 protein in renal cortex was much lower than in Trpc6wt/wt littermates, and functional TRPC6 channels could not be detected in whole-cell recordings from glomerular cells cultured from Trpc6del/del animals, possibly because of disruption of ankyrin repeats 1 and 2. During the chronic phase of PAN nephrosis, Trpc6del/del rats had reduced urine albumin excretion, reduced serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and improved azotemia compared to wild-type Trpc6wt/wt littermates. Glomerulosclerosis was severe during chronic PAN nephrosis in Trpc6wt/wt rats but was markedly reduced in Trpc6del/del littermates. Trpc6del/del animals also had less severe tubulointerstitial fibrosis as assessed by several biochemical and histological analyses, as well as reduced foot process effacement and glomerular basement thickening compared to Trpc6wtt/wt controls. None of the manipulations in this study affected the abundance of TRPC5 channels in renal cortex. TRPC3 was increased in PAN nephrosis and in Trpc6del/del rats. These data support a role for TRPC6 channels in driving an acquired form of secondary FSGS. KEY MESSAGES:We examined aminonucleoside nephrosis in rats with wild type and inactivated TRPC6. TRPC6 channels were inactivated by CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the Trpc6 gene. TRPC6 inactivation reduced albuminuria in the chronic but not the acute phase. TRPC6 inactivation reduced glomerulosclerosis and ultrastructural changes. TRPC6 inactivation also reduced interstitial changes and renal fibrosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Peripheral diabetic neuropathy can be painful and its symptoms include hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in diabetes-induced hyperalgesia and allodynia. However, the molecular target through which H2S induces hyperalgesia in diabetic animals is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the possible involvement of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in H2S-induced hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. RESULTS:Streptozotocin (STZ) injection produced hyperglycemia in rats. Intraplantar injection of NaHS (an exogenous donor of H2S, 3-100 µg/paw) induced hyperalgesia, in a time-dependent manner, in formalin-treated diabetic rats. NaHS-induced hyperalgesia was partially prevented by local intraplantar injection of capsazepine (0.3-3 µg/paw), HC-030031 (100-316 µg/paw) and SKF-96365 (10-30 µg/paw) blockers, at 21 days post-STZ injection. At the doses used, these blockers did not modify formalin-induced nociception. Moreover, capsazepine (0.3-30 µg/paw), HC-030031 (100-1000 µg/paw) and SKF-96365 (10-100 µg/paw) reduced formalin-induced nociception in diabetic rats. Contralateral injection of the highest doses used did not modify formalin-induced flinching behavior. Hyperglycemia, at 21 days, also increased protein expression of cystathionine-?-synthase enzyme (CBS) and TRPC6, but not TRPA1 nor TRPV1, channels in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Repeated injection of NaHS enhanced CBS and TRPC6 expression, but hydroxylamine (HA) prevented the STZ-induced increase of CBS protein. In addition, daily administration of SKF-96365 diminished TRPC6 protein expression, whereas NaHS partially prevented the decrease of SKF-96365-induced TRPC6 expression. Concordantly, daily intraplantar injection of NaHS enhanced, and HA prevented STZ-induced intraepidermal fiber loss, respectively. CBS was expressed in small- and medium-sized cells of DRG and co-localized with TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPC6 in IB4-positive neurons. CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that H2S leads to hyperalgesia in diabetic rats through activation of TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPC channels and, subsequent intraepidermal fibers loss. CBS enzyme inhibitors or TRP-channel blockers could be useful for treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy.
Project description:Injury to podocytes is considered a major contributor to diabetic kidney disease: their loss causes proteinuria and progressive glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte depletion may result from improper calcium handling due to abnormal activation of the calcium permeant TRPC (Transient Receptor Potential Canonical) channels. Angiotensin II (Ang II) levels are found to be elevated in diabetes; furthermore, it was reported that Ang II causes activation of TRPC6 in podocytes. We hypothesized here that Ang II-mediated calcium influx is aggravated in the podocytes under the conditions of type 1 diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetes was induced in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive rats by an injection of streptozotocin (STZ-SS). Eleven weeks post treatment was sufficient for the animals to develop hyperglycemia, excessive urination, weight loss, microalbuminuria, nephrinuria and display renal histological lesions typical for patients with DN. Patch-clamp electrophysiology performed on podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli showed enhanced basal TRPC channel activity in the STZ-SS rats, and increased response to Ang II; total calcium influx triggered by Ang II application was also augmented in podocytes of these rats. Our studies have a strong potential for advancing the understanding of TRPC-mediated effects on podocytopenia in DN initiation.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown to alleviate renal injury of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats. However, the underlying mechanism of this beneficial effect is not fully understood. The aims of this study are to evaluate effects of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) on renal cell apoptosis in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats and explore the underlying mechanisms. Characteristics of UC-MSCs were identified by flow cytometry and differentiation capability. Six weeks after DN induction by STZ injection in Sprague-Dawley rats, the DN rats received UC-MSCs once a week for consecutive two weeks. DN-related physical and biochemical parameters were measured at 2 weeks after UC-MSC infusion. Renal histological changes were also assessed. Moreover, the apoptosis of renal cells and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated. Compared with DN rats, rats treated with UC-MSCs showed suppressed increase in 24-hour urinary total protein, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen. UC-MSC treatment ameliorated pathological abnormalities in the kidney of DN rats as evidenced by H&E, PAS, and Masson Trichrome staining. Furthermore, UC-MSC treatment reduced apoptosis of renal cells in DN rats. UC-MSCs promoted expression of antiapoptosis protein Bcl-xl and suppressed expression of high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in the kidney of DN rats. Most importantly, UC-MSCs suppressed upregulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), downregulation of thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and P38 MAPK in the kidney of DN rats. Our results suggest that UC-MSCs could alleviate nephrocyte injury and albuminuria of DN rats through their antiapoptotic property. The protective effects of UC-MSCs may be mediated by inhibiting TXNIP upregulation in part.
Project description:Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inactivates incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. DPP4 inhibitors may exert beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy (DN) independently of glycemic control; however, the mechanisms underlying are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of the beneficial effects of DPP4 inhibition on DN using DPP4-deficient (DPP4-def) rats and rat mesangial cells.Blood glucose and HbA1c significantly increased by streptozotocin (STZ) and no differences were between WT-STZ and DPP4-def-STZ. The albumin level in urine decreased significantly and the albumin/creatinine ratio decreased slightly in DPP4-def-STZ. The glomerular volume in DPP4-def-STZ significantly decreased compared with that of WT-STZ. Advanced glycation end products formation, receptor for AGE (RAGE) protein expression, and its downstream inflammatory cytokines and fibrotic factors in kidney tissue, were significantly suppressed in the DPP4-def-STZ compared to the WT-STZ with increasing glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1) expression responsible for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MGO). In vitro, exendin-4 suppressed MGO-induced AGEs production by enhancing the expression of GLO-1 and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2, resulting in decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. This effect was abolished by GLO-1 siRNA.Our data suggest that endogenously increased GLP-1 in DPP4-deficient rats contributes to the attenuation of DN partially by regulating AGEs formation via upregulation of GLO-1 expression.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Macrophage-mediated inflammation plays a significant role in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Studies suggest that T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) has complicated roles in regulating macrophage activation, but its roles in the progression of DN are still completely unknown. METHODS:We downregulated Tim-3 expression in kidney (intrarenal injection of Tim-3 shRNA expressing lentivirus or global Tim-3 knockout mice) and induced DN by streptozotocin (STZ). We analyzed the degree of renal injury, especially the podocyte injury induced by activated macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Then, we transferred different bone marrow derived macrophages (BMs) into STZ-induced Tim-3 knockdown mice to examine the effects of Tim-3 on macrophages in DN. RESULTS:First, we found that Tim-3 expression on renal macrophages was increased in patients with DN and in two diabetic mouse models, i.e. STZ-induced diabetic mice and db/db mice, and positively correlated with renal dysfunction of DN patients. Tim-3 deficiency ameliorated renal damage in STZ-induced diabetes with concurrent increase in protein levels of Nephrin and WT-1. Similar effects were observed in mice with Tim-3 knockdown diabetic mice. Second, adoptive transfer of Tim-3-expressing macrophages, but not Tim-3 knockout macrophages, accelerated diabetic renal injury in DN mice, suggesting a key role for Tim-3 on macrophages in the development of DN. Furthermore, we found NF-?B activation and TNF-? excretion were upregulated by Tim-3 in diabetic kidneys, and podocyte injury was associated with the Tim-3-mediated activation of the NF-?B/TNF-? signaling pathway in DN macrophages both in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that Tim-3 functions as a key regulator in renal inflammatory processes and serves as a potential therapeutic target for renal injury in DN.
Project description:Hyperforin, a lipophilic constituent of medicinal herb St John's wort, has been identified as the main active ingredient of St John's wort extract for antidepressant action by experimental and clinical studies. Hyperforin is currently known to activate transient receptor potential canonical (subtype) 6 (TRPC6) channel, increase the phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB), and has N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-antagonistic effect that convert potential neuroprotective effects in vitro. However, the protective effects of hyperforin on ischemic stroke in vivo remain controversial and its neuroprotective mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of hyperforin on transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Hyperforin, when applied immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) onset, significantly reduced infarct volumes and apoptotic cells, and also increased neurologic scores at 24 hours after reperfusion accompanied by elevated TRPC6 and p-CREB activity and decreased SBDP145 activity. When MEK or CaMKIV activity was specifically inhibited, the neuroprotective effect of hyperforin was attenuated, and we observed a correlated decrease in CREB activity. In conclusion, our results clearly showed that i.c.v. injection of hyperforin immediately after MCAO onset blocked calpain-mediated TRPC6 channels degradation, and then to stimulate the Ras/MEK/ERK and CaMKIV pathways that converge on CREB activation, contributed to neuroprotection.
Project description:Antioxidant potential has protective effects in diabetic neuropathy (DN); hence, the present study was designed with an objective to quantify quercetin from shade-dried leaves of Allium cepa Lam. and to study its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic DN.The shade-dried leaves of A. cepa Lam. were extracted with methanol and then fractionated using ethyl acetate (ACEA). The quantification of quercetin in ACEA was evaluated by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The STZ (40 mg/kg) was administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (180-250 g) maintained at normal housing conditions. The STZ was administered once a day for 3 consecutive days. The elevation in blood glucose was monitored for 3 weeks periodically using flavin adenine dinucleotide-glucose dehydrogenase method by Contour TS glucometer. Rats showing blood glucose above 250 mg/dl were selected for the study. Animals were divided into eight groups. ACEA (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), quercetin (40 mg/kg), metformin (120 mg/kg), and gabapentin (100 mg/kg) were given orally once a day for 2 weeks. The blood glucose level was again measured at the end of treatment to assess DN. Thermal hyperalgesia, cold allodynia, motor incoordination, and neurotoxicity were studied initially and at the end of 2-week treatment. Biochemical parameters were also evaluated after 2-week drug treatment.The quercetin present in ACEA was 4.82% by HPTLC. All the ACEA treatment reduces blood glucose level at the end of the 2-week study and shows a significant neuroprotective effect in STZ-induced DN in the above experimental models.The quercetin present in ACEA proved protective effect in STZ-induced DN.High-performance thin layer chromatography reveals the presence of 4.82% quercetin in Allium cepa ethyl acetate. (ACEA). Its investigation against various diabetic neuropathy biomarkers has proved that ACEA has significant blood glucose reducing action shown neuroprotective action in thermal hyperalgesia, motor incoordination, and biochemical parameters. Abbreviations Used: HPTLC: High-performance thin layer chromatography, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, UV: Ultraviolet, ACEA: Allium cepa ethyl acetate, STZ: Streptozotocin, LDL: Low-density lipids, HDL: High-density lipids.
Project description:Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes mellitus. NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is an antioxidant enzyme that has been involved in the progression of several kidney injuries. However, the roles of NQO1 in DN are still unclear. We investigated the effects of NQO1 deficiency in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN mice. NQO1 was upregulated in the glomerulus and podocytes under hyperglycemic conditions. NQO1 knockout (NKO) mice showed more severe changes in blood glucose and body weight than WT mice after STZ treatment. Furthermore, STZ-mediated pathological parameters including glomerular injury, blood urea nitrogen levels, and foot process width were more severe in NKO mice than WT mice. Importantly, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was higher in healthy, non-treated NKO mice than WT mice. ACR response to STZ or LPS was dramatically increased in the urine of NKO mice compared to vehicle controls, while it maintained a normal range following treatment of WT mice. More importantly, we found that NQO1 can stimulate actin polymerization in an in vitro biochemical assay without directly the accumulation on F-actin. In summary, NQO1 has an important role against the development of DN pathogenesis and is a novel contributor in actin reorganization via stimulating actin polymerization.