Phytohormone metabolism in human cells: Cytokinins are taken up and interconverted in HeLa cell culture.
ABSTRACT: Cytokinins (CKs) encompass a group of phytohormones, known to orchestrate many critical processes in plant development. Excluding Archaea, CKs are pervasive among all kingdoms, but much less is reported about their metabolism beyond plants. Recent evidence from mammalian tissues indicates the presence of six additional CK forms beyond the previously identified, single mammalian CK, N6-isopentenyladenosine (i6A). There is limited understanding of CK biosynthesis pathways in mammalian systems; therefore, human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were used to further characterize CK processing by tracking the interconversion of CKs into their various structural derivatives in mammalian cells in a time-course study. Through high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-(+ESI)-MS/MS), we document changes in the functional profiles of endogenous CKs in a human cell line following metabolism by HeLa cell cultures. The nucleotide CK fraction (iPRP) was found exclusively within the cell pellet (0.34 pmol/106 cells), and the active free base (FB) form (iP) and riboside fraction (iPR) were found in greater abundance extracellularly (1.67 and 0.10 nmol/L respectively). For further confirmation, we demonstrate that HeLa cells metabolize an exogenously supplied CK, N6-benzyladenosine (BAR). In the HeLa culture supernatant, a 12-fold decrease in BAR concentration was observed within the first 24 hours of incubation accompanied by a fivefold increase in the FB form, N6-benzyladenine (BA). These findings support the hypothesis that HeLa cells have the enzymatic pathways required for the metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous CKs.
Project description:Cytokinins (CKs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved growth regulating hormones. While CKs are well-characterized in plant systems, these N6-substituted adenine derivatives are found in a variety of organisms beyond plants, including bacteria, fungi, mammals, and the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. Within Dictyostelium, CKs have only been studied in the late developmental stages of the life cycle, where they promote spore encapsulation and dormancy. In this study, we used ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-(ESI+)-HRMS/MS) to profile CKs during the Dictyostelium life cycle: growth, aggregation, mound, slug, fruiting body, and germination. Comprehensive profiling revealed that Dictyostelium produces 6 CK forms (cis-Zeatin (cZ), discadenine (DA), N6-isopentenyladenine (iP), N6-isopentenyladenine-9-riboside (iPR), N6-isopentenyladenine-9-riboside-5' phosphate (iPRP), and 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenine (2MeSiP)) in varying abundance across the sampled life cycle stages, thus laying the foundation for the CK biosynthesis pathway to be defined in this organism. Interestingly, iP-type CKs were the most dominant CK analytes detected during growth and aggregation. Exogenous treatment of AX3 cells with various CK types revealed that iP was the only CK to promote the proliferation of cells in culture. In support of previous studies, metabolomics data revealed that DA is one of the most significantly upregulated small molecules during Dictyostelium development, and our data indicates that total CK levels are highest during germination. While much remains to be explored in Dictyostelium, this research offers new insight into the nature of CK biosynthesis, secretion, and function during Dictyostelium growth, development, and spore germination.
Project description:2-Methylthio-N6-isopentenyl modification of adenosine (ms2i6A) is an evolutionally conserved modification found in mitochondrial (mt)-tRNAs. Cdk5 regulatory subunit-associated protein 1 (CDK5RAP1) specifically converts N6-isopentenyladenosine (i6A) to ms2i6A at position A37 of four mt-DNA-encoded tRNAs, and the modification regulates efficient mitochondrial translation and energy metabolism in mammals. Here, we report that the ms2 conversion mediated by CDK5RAP1 in mt-tRNAs is required to sustain glioma-initiating cell (GIC)-related traits. CDK5RAP1 maintained the self-renewal capacity, undifferentiated state, and tumorigenic potential of GICs. This regulation was not related to the translational control of mt-proteins. CDK5RAP1 abrogated the antitumor effect of i6A by converting i6A to ms2i6A and protected GICs from excessive autophagy triggered by i6A. The elevated activity of CDK5RAP1 contributed to the amelioration of the tumor-suppressive effect of i6A and promoted GIC maintenance. This work demonstrates that CDK5RAP1 is crucial for the detoxification of endogenous i6A and that GICs readily utilize this mechanism for survival.
Project description:Among phytohormones, cytokinins (CKs) play an important role in controlling crucial aspects of plant development. Not only plants but also diverse microorganisms are able to produce phytohormones, including CKs, though knowledge concerning their biosynthesis and metabolism is still limited. In this work we demonstrate that the fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, a hemi-biotrophic pathogen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), causing one of the most damaging diseases of this crop, is able to modify the CK profile in infected B. napus tissues, as well as produce a wide range of CKs in vitro, with the cis-zeatin derivatives predominating. The endogenous CK spectrum of L. maculans in vitro consists mainly of free CK bases, as opposed to plants, where other CK forms are mostly more abundant. Using functional genomics, enzymatic and feeding assays with CK bases supplied to culture media, we show that L. maculans contains a functional: (i) isopentenyltransferase (IPT) involved in cZ production; (ii) adenosine kinase (AK) involved in phosphorylation of CK ribosides to nucleotides; and (iii) CK-degradation enzyme cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX). Our data further indicate the presence of cis-trans isomerase, zeatin O-glucosyltransferase(s) and N6-(?2-isopentenyl)adenine hydroxylating enzyme. Besides, we report on a crucial role of LmAK for L. maculans fitness and virulence. Altogether, in this study we characterize in detail the CK metabolism of the filamentous fungi L. maculans and report its two novel components, the CKX and CK-related AK activities, according to our knowledge for the first time in the fungal kingdom. Based on these findings, we propose a model illustrating CK metabolism pathways in L. maculans.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:N6 -Isopentenyladenosine (i6A) is a modified nucleoside exerting in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative effects. We previously demonstrated that the actions of i6A correlate with the expression and activity of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), a key enzyme involved in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, which is aberrant in brain cancer. To develop new anti-glioma strategies, we tested related compounds exhibiting greater activity than i6A. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:We designed and synthesized i6A derivatives characterized by the introduction of diverse chemical moieties in the N6 position of adenosine and tested for their efficacy in U87 cells and in primary glioma cultures, derived from patients. NMR-based structural analysis, molecular docking calculations and siRNA mediated knockdown were used to clarify the molecular basis of their action, targeting FPPS protein. KEY RESULTS:CM223, the i6A derivative including a benzyl moiety in N6 position of adenine, showed marked activity in selectively targeting glioma cells, but not normal human astrocytes. This was due to induction of intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation, along with blockade of FPPS-dependent protein prenylation, which counteracted oncogenic signalling mediated by EGF receptors. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:The biological effects together with structural data on interaction of CM223 with FPPS, provided additional evidence for the correlation of the i6A/CM223 antitumor activity with FPPS modulation. Because the MVA pathway is an important promising target, CM223 and its derivatives should be considered interesting active molecules in antiglioma research.
Project description:Endophytic insects provide the textbook examples of herbivores that manipulate their host plant's physiology, putatively altering source/sink relationships by transferring cytokinins (CK) to create 'green islands' that increase the nutritional value of infested tissues. However, unambiguous demonstrations of CK transfer are lacking. Here we show that feeding by the free-living herbivore Tupiocoris notatus on Nicotiana attenuata is characterized by stable nutrient levels, increased CK levels and alterations in CK-related transcript levels in attacked leaves, in striking similarity to endophytic insects. Using 15N-isotope labeling, we demonstrate that the CK N6-isopentenyladenine (IP) is transferred from insects to plants via their oral secretions. In the field, T. notatus preferentially attacks leaves with transgenically increased CK levels; plants with abrogated CK-perception are less tolerant of T. notatus feeding damage. We infer that this free-living insect uses CKs to manipulate source/sink relationships to increase food quality and minimize the fitness consequences of its feeding.
Project description:The platinum(II) complexes trans-[PtCl?(Ln)?]?xSolv 1-13 (Solv = H?O or CH3OH), involving N6-benzyladenosine-based N-donor ligands, were synthesized; L(n) stands for N6-(2-methoxybenzyl)adenosine (L?, involved in complex 1), N6-(4-methoxy-benzyl)adenosine (L?, 2), N6-(2-chlorobenzyl)adenosine (L?, 3), N6-(4-chlorobenzyl)-adenosine (L?, 4), N6-(2-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine (L?, 5), N6-(3-hydroxybenzyl)-adenosine (L?, 6), N6-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)adenosine (L?, 7), N6-(4-fluoro-benzyl)adenosine (L?, 8), N6-(4-methylbenzyl)adenosine (L?, 9), 2-chloro-N6-(3-hydroxy-benzyl)adenosine (L??, 10), 2-chloro-N6-(4-hydroxybenzyl)adenosine (L??, 11), 2-chloro-N6-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)adenosine (L??, 12) and 2-chloro-N6-(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)adenosine (L??, 13). The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, IR and multinuclear (¹H-, ¹³C-, ¹??Pt- and ¹?N-) and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, which proved the N7-coordination mode of the appropriate N6-benzyladenosine derivative and trans-geometry of the title complexes. The complexes 1-13 were found to be non-toxic in vitro against two selected human cancer cell lines (HOS and MCF7; with IC?? > 50.0 µM). However, they were found (by ESI-MS study) to be able to interact with the physiological levels of the sulfur-containing biogenic biomolecule L-methionine by a relatively simple 1:1 exchange mechanism (one L(n) molecule was replaced by one L-methionine molecule), thus forming a mixed-nitrogen/sulfur-ligand dichlorido-platinum(II) coordination species.
Project description:Base 37 in tRNA, 3'-adjacent to the anticodon, is occupied by a purine base that is thought to stabilize codon recognition by stacking interactions on the first Watson-Crick base pair. If the first codon position forms an A.U or U.A base pair, the purine is likely further modified in all domains of life. One of the first base modifications found in tRNA is N6-isopentenyl adenosine (i6A) present in a fraction of tRNAs in bacteria and eukaryotes, which can be further modified to 2-methyl-thio-N6-isopentenyladenosine (ms2i6A) in a subset of tRNAs. Homologous tRNA isopentenyl transferase enzymes have been identified in bacteria (MiaA), yeast (Mod5, Tit1), roundworm (GRO-1), and mammals (TRIT1). In eukaryotes, isopentenylation of cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs is mediated by products of the same gene. Accordingly, a patient with homozygous mutations in TRIT1 has mitochondrial disease. The role of i6A in a subset of tRNAs in gene expression has been linked with translational fidelity, speed of translation, skewed gene expression, and non-sense suppression. This review will not cover the action of i6A as a cytokinin in plants or the potential function of Mod5 as a prion in yeast.
Project description:Decades ago, the importance of cytokinins (CKs) during Rhodococcus fascians pathology had been acknowledged, and an isopentenyltransferase gene had been characterized in the fas operon of the linear virulence plasmid, but hitherto, no specific CK(s) could be associated with virulence. We show that the CK receptors AHK3 and AHK4 of Arabidopsis thaliana are essential for symptom development, and that the CK perception machinery is induced upon infection, underlining its central role in the symptomatology. Three classical CKs [isopentenyladenine, trans-zeatin, and cis-zeatin (cZ)] and their 2-methylthio (2MeS)-derivatives were identified by CK profiling of both the pathogenic R. fascians strain D188 and its nonpathogenic derivative D188-5. However, the much higher CK levels in strain D188 suggest that the linear plasmid is responsible for the virulence-associated production. All R. fascians CKs were recognized by AHK3 and AHK4, and, although they individually provoked typical CK responses in several bioassays, the mixture of bacterial CKs exhibited clear synergistic effects. The cis- and 2MeS-derivatives were poor substrates of the apoplastic CK oxidase/dehydrogenase enzymes and the latter were not cytotoxic at high concentrations. Consequently, the accumulating 2MeScZ (and cZ) in infected Arabidopsis tissue contribute to the continuous stimulation of tissue proliferation. Based on these results, we postulate that the R. fascians pathology is based on the local and persistent secretion of an array of CKs.
Project description:Potassium (K) is an important plant macronutrient that has various functions throughout the whole plant over its entire life span. Cytokinins (CKs) are known to regulate macronutrient homeostasis by controlling the expression of nitrate, phosphate and sulfate transporters. Although several studies have described how CKs signal deficiencies for some macronutrients, the roles of CKs in K signaling are poorly understood. CK content has been shown to decrease under K-starved conditions. Specifically, a CK-deficient mutant was more tolerant to low K than wild-type; however, a plant with an overaccumulation of CKs was more sensitive to low K. These results suggest that K deprivation alters CK metabolism, leading to a decrease in CK content. To investigate this phenomenon further, several Arabidopsis lines, including a CK-deficient mutant and CK receptor mutants, were analyzed in low K conditions using molecular, genetic and biochemical approaches. ROS accumulation and root hair growth in low K were also influenced by CKs. CK receptor mutants lost the responsiveness to K-deficient signaling, including ROS accumulation and root hair growth, but the CK-deficient mutant accumulated more ROS and exhibited up-regulated expression of HAK5, which is a high-affinity K uptake transporter gene that is rapidly induced by low K stress in ROS- and ethylene-dependent manner in response to low K. From these results, we conclude that a reduction in CK levels subsequently allows fast and effective stimulation of low K-induced ROS accumulation, root hair growth and HAK5 expression, leading to plant adaptation to low K conditions.
Project description:Nearly half a century ago insect herbivores were found to induce the formation of green islands by manipulating cytokinin (CK) levels. However, the response of the CK pathway to attack by chewing insect herbivores remains unclear. Here, we characterize the CK pathway of Nicotiana attenuata (Torr. ex S. Wats.) and its response to wounding and perception of herbivore-associated molecular patterns (HAMPs). We identified 44 genes involved in CK biosynthesis, inactivation, degradation, and signaling. Leaf wounding rapidly induced transcriptional changes in multiple genes throughout the pathway, as well as in the levels of CKs, including isopentenyladenosine and cis-zeatin riboside; perception of HAMPs present in the oral secretions (OS) of the specialist herbivore Manduca sexta amplified these responses. The jasmonate pathway, which triggers many herbivore-induced processes, was not required for these HAMP-triggered changes, but rather suppressed the CK responses. Interestingly CK pathway changes were observed also in systemic leaves in response to wounding and OS application indicating a role of CKs in mediating long distance systemic processes in response to herbivory. Since wounding and grasshopper OS elicited similar accumulations of CKs in Arabidopsis thaliana L., we propose that CKs are integral components of wounding and HAMP-triggered responses in many plant species.