Optimized Workflow for Multiplexed Phosphorylation Analysis of TMT-Labeled Peptides Using High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry.
ABSTRACT: Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification with a vital role in cellular signaling. Isobaric labeling-based strategies, such as tandem mass tags (TMT), can measure the relative phosphorylation states of peptides in a multiplexed format. However, the low stoichiometry of protein phosphorylation constrains the depth of phosphopeptide analysis by mass spectrometry. As such, robust and sensitive workflows are required. Here we evaluate and optimize high-Field Asymmetric waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) coupled to Orbitrap Tribrid mass spectrometers for the analysis of TMT-labeled phosphopeptides. We determined that using FAIMS-MS3 with three compensation voltages (CV) in a single method (e.g., CV = -40/-60/-80 V) maximizes phosphopeptide coverage while minimizing inter-CV overlap. Furthermore, consecutive analyses using MSA-CID (multistage activation collision-induced dissociation) and HCD (higher-energy collisional dissociation) fragmentation at the MS2 stage increases the depth of phosphorylation analysis. The methodology and results outlined herein provide a template for tailoring optimized FAIMS-based methods.
Project description:The depth of proteomic analyses is often limited by the overwhelming proportion of confounding background ions that compromise the identification and quantification of low abundance peptides. To alleviate these limitations, we present a new high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) interface that can be coupled to the Orbitrap Tribrid mass spectrometers. The interface provides several advantages over previous generations of FAIMS devices, including ease of operation, robustness, and high ion transmission. Replicate LC-FAIMS-MS/MS analyses (<i>n</i> = 100) of HEK293 protein digests showed stable ion current over extended time periods with uniform peptide identification on more than 10,000 distinct peptides. For complex tryptic digest analyses, the coupling of FAIMS to LC-MS/MS enabled a 30% gain in unique peptide identification compared with non-FAIMS experiments. Improvement in sensitivity facilitated the identification of low abundance peptides, and extended the limit of detection by almost an order of magnitude. The reduction in chimeric MS/MS spectra using FAIMS also improved the precision and the number of quantifiable peptides when using isobaric labeling with tandem mass tag (TMT) 10-plex reagent. We compared quantitative proteomic measurements for LC-MS/MS analyses performed using synchronous precursor selection (SPS) and LC-FAIMS-MS/MS to profile the temporal changes in protein abundance of HEK293 cells following heat shock for periods up to 9 h. FAIMS provided 2.5-fold increase in the number of quantifiable peptides compared with non-FAIMS experiments (30,848 peptides from 2,646 proteins for FAIMS <i>versus</i> 12,400 peptides from 1,229 proteins with SPS). Altogether, the enhancement in ion transmission and duty cycle of the new FAIMS interface extended the depth and comprehensiveness of proteomic analyses and improved the precision of quantitative measurements.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation is vital for the regulation of cellular signaling. Isobaric tag-based proteomic techniques, such as tandem mass tags (TMT), can measure the relative phosphorylation states of peptides in a multiplexed format. However, the overall low stoichiometry of protein phosphorylation constrains the analytical depth of phosphopeptide analysis by mass spectrometry, thereby requiring robust and sensitive workflows. Here we evaluate and optimize high-Field Asymmetric waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) coupled to Orbitrap Tribrid mass spectrometers for the analysis of TMT10plex-labeled phosphopeptides. We determined that using FAIMS-SPS-MS3 with three compensation voltages (CV) in a single method minimizes inter-CV overlap and maximizes peptide coverage (e.g., CV=-40V/-60V/-80V) and that consecutive analyses using CID-MSA and HCD fragmentation at the MS2 stage increases the depth of phosphorylation analysis.
Project description:Liquid chromatography (LC) prefractionation is often implemented to increase proteomic coverage; however, while effective, this approach is laborious, requires considerable sample amount, and can be cumbersome. We describe how interfacing a recently described high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) device between a nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) emitter and an Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer (MS) enables the collection of single-shot proteomic data with comparable depth to that of conventional two-dimensional LC approaches. This next generation FAIMS device incorporates improved ion sampling at the ESI-FAIMS interface, increased electric field strength, and a helium-free ion transport gas. With fast internal compensation voltage (CV) stepping (25 ms/transition), multiple unique gas-phase fractions may be analyzed simultaneously over the course of an MS analysis. We have comprehensively demonstrated how this device performs for bottom-up proteomics experiments as well as characterized the effects of peptide charge state, mass loading, analysis time, and additional variables. We also offer recommendations for the number of CVs and which CVs to use for different lengths of experiments. Internal CV stepping experiments increase protein identifications from a single-shot experiment to >8000, from over 100?000 peptide identifications in as little as 5 h. In single-shot 4 h label-free quantitation (LFQ) experiments of a human cell line, we quantified 7818 proteins with FAIMS using intra-analysis CV switching compared to 6809 without FAIMS. Single-shot FAIMS results also compare favorably with LC fractionation experiments. A 6 h single-shot FAIMS experiment generates 8007 protein identifications, while four fractions analyzed for 1.5 h each produce 7776 protein identifications.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) coupled toisobaric labeling has developed rapidly into a powerful strategy for high-throughput protein quantification. Sample multiplexing and exceptional sensitivity allow for the quantification of tens of thousands of peptides and, by inference, thousands of proteins from multiple samples in a single MS experiment. Accurate quantification demands a consistent and robust sample-preparation strategy. Here, we present a detailed workflow for SPS-MS3-based quantitative abundance profiling of tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled proteins and phosphopeptides that we have named the streamlined (SL)-TMT protocol. We describe a universally applicable strategy that requires minimal individual sample processing and permits the seamless addition of a phosphopeptide enrichment step ("mini-phos") with little deviation from the deep proteome analysis. To showcase our workflow, we profile the proteome of wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast grown with either glucose or pyruvate as the carbon source. Here, we have established a streamlined TMT protocol that enables deep proteome and medium-scale phosphoproteome analysis.
Project description:Comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is now feasible, but reproducible quantification remains challenging, especially for post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. Here, we compare the most popular quantification techniques for global phosphoproteomics: label-free quantification (LFQ), stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and MS2- and MS3-measured tandem mass tags (TMT). In a mixed species comparison with fixed phosphopeptide ratios, we find LFQ and SILAC to be the most accurate techniques. MS2-based TMT yields the highest precision but lowest accuracy due to ratio compression, which MS3-based TMT can partly rescue. However, MS2-based TMT outperforms MS3-based TMT when analyzing phosphoproteome changes in the DNA damage response, since its higher precision and larger identification numbers allow detection of a greater number of significantly regulated phosphopeptides. Finally, we utilize the TMT multiplexing capabilities to develop an algorithm for determining phosphorylation site stoichiometry, showing that such applications benefit from the high accuracy of MS3-based TMT.
Project description:Labeling peptides with isobaric tags is a popular strategy in quantitative bottom-up proteomics. In this study, we labeled six breast tumor cell lysates (1.34 mg proteins per channel) using 10-plex tandem mass tag reagents and analyzed the samples on a Q Exactive HF Quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. We identified a total of 8,706 proteins and 28,186 phosphopeptides, including 7,394 proteins and 23,739 phosphosites common to all channels. The majority of technical replicates correlated with a R2 ? 0.98, indicating minimum variability was introduced after labeling. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of phosphopeptide data sets successfully classified the breast tumor samples into Her2 (epidermal growth factor receptor 2) positive and Her2 negative groups, whereas mRNA abundance did not. The tyrosine phosphorylation levels of receptor tyrosine kinases, phosphoinositide-3-kinase, protein kinase C delta, and Src homology 2, among others, were significantly higher in the Her2 positive than the Her2 negative group. Despite ratio compression in MS2-based experiments, we demonstrated the ratios calculated using an MS2 method are highly correlated (R2 > 0.65) with ratios obtained using MS3-based quantitation (using a Thermo Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer) with reduced ratio suppression. Given the deep coverage of global and phosphoproteomes, our data show that MS2-based quantitation using TMT can be successfully used for large-scale multiplexed quantitative proteomics.
Project description:A key application of field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) has been in selectively transmitting trace analyte ions that are present in a complex ion mixture to a mass spectrometer (MS) for identification and quantification. The overall sensitivity of FAIMS-MS, however, still needs to be significantly improved through the optimization of ion transmission into FAIMS and at the FAIMS-MS interface. Processes that cause ion losses include diffusion, space charge, separation field in the FAIMS and fringe fields around the edges of the FAIMS electrodes. These were studied here by first developing an algorithm using SIMION as its core structure to compute ion trajectory at different ratios of electric field to buffer gas number density (E/N). The E/N was varied from a few Td to approximately 80 Td by using an asymmetric square waveform. The algorithm was then combined with statistical diffusion simulation (SDS) model, columbic repulsion, and a parabolic gas flow profile to realistically simulate current transmission and peak shape. The algorithm was validated using a FAIMS model identical to the Sionex Corporation SVAC model. Ions modeled included low mass ions with K(o) in the range of 2.17 (m = 55) to 1.39 cm(2) x V(-1) x s(-1) (m = 368). Good agreement was achieved between simulated and experimental CV (peak maxima) values, peak width (fwhm), and transmitted ion current I(output). The model was then used to study fringe fields in a simple arrangement where a 0.5 mm (w) gap was created between the FAIMS exit and a capillary inlet (i.d. = 0.5 mm). At an optimum CV (11.8 V), only approximately 17% (1.3 pA) of the total ion current that correlate to CV = 11.8 V, entered the capillary; bulk of the ion loss was caused by the fringe fields. Current transmission into the capillary was improved, however, by applying a 500 V DC bias across w (0.5 mm).
Project description:Large scale analysis of proteins by mass spectrometry is becoming increasingly routine; however, the presence of peptide isomers remains a significant challenge for both identification and quantitation in proteomics. Classes of isomers include sequence inversions, structural isomers, and localization variants. In many cases, liquid chromatography is inadequate for separation of peptide isomers. The resulting tandem mass spectra are composite, containing fragments from multiple precursor ions. The benefits of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) for proteomics have been demonstrated by a number of groups, but previously work has focused on extending proteome coverage generally. Here, we present a systematic study of the benefits of FAIMS for a key challenge in proteomics, that of peptide isomers. We have applied FAIMS to the analysis of a phosphopeptide library comprising the sequences GPSGXVpSXAQLX(K/R) and SXPFKXpSPLXFG(K/R), where X = ADEFGLSTVY. The library has defined limits enabling us to make valid conclusions regarding FAIMS performance. The library contains numerous sequence inversions and structural isomers. In addition, there are large numbers of theoretical localization variants, allowing false localization rates to be determined. The FAIMS approach is compared with reversed-phase liquid chromatography and strong cation exchange chromatography. The FAIMS approach identified 35% of the peptide library, whereas LC-MS/MS alone identified 8% and LC-MS/MS with strong cation exchange chromatography prefractionation identified 17.3% of the library.
Project description:As a driver for many biological processes, phosphorylation remains an area of intense research interest. Advances in multiplexed quantitation utilizing isobaric tags (e.g., TMT and iTRAQ) have the potential to create a new paradigm in quantitative proteomics. New instrumentation and software are propelling these multiplexed workflows forward, which results in more accurate, sensitive, and reproducible quantitation across tens of thousands of phosphopeptides. This study assesses the performance of multiplexed quantitative phosphoproteomics on the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer. Utilizing a two-phosphoproteome model of precursor ion interference, we assessed the accuracy of phosphopeptide quantitation across a variety of experimental approaches. These methods included the use of synchronous precursor selection (SPS) to enhance TMT reporter ion intensity and accuracy. We found that (i) ratio distortion remained a problem for phosphopeptide analysis in multiplexed quantitative workflows, (ii) ratio distortion can be overcome by the use of an SPS-MS3 scan, (iii) interfering ions generally possessed a different charge state than the target precursor, and (iv) selecting only the phosphate neutral loss peak (single notch) for the MS3 scan still provided accurate ratio measurements. Remarkably, these data suggest that the underlying cause of interference may not be due to coeluting and cofragmented peptides but instead from consistent, low level background fragmentation. Finally, as a proof-of-concept 10-plex experiment, we compared phosphopeptide levels from five murine brains to five livers. In total, the SPS-MS3 method quantified 38?247 phosphopeptides, corresponding to 11?000 phosphorylation sites. With 10 measurements recorded for each phosphopeptide, this equates to more than 628?000 binary comparisons collected in less than 48 h.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation is critically important for many cellular processes, including progression through the cell cycle, cellular metabolism, and differentiation. Isobaric labeling, for example, tandem mass tags (TMT), in phosphoproteomics workflows enables both relative and absolute quantitation of these phosphorylation events. Traditional TMT workflows identify peptides using fragment ions at the MS2 level and quantify reporter ions at the MS3 level. However, in addition to the TMT reporter ions, MS3 spectra also include fragment ions that can be used to identify peptides. Here we describe using MS3 spectra for both phosphopeptide identification and quantification, a process that we term MS3-IDQ. To maximize quantified phosphopeptides, we optimize several instrument parameters, including the modality of mass analyzer (i.e., ion trap or Orbitrap), MS2 automatic gain control (AGC), and MS3 normalized collision energy (NCE), to achieve the best balance of identified and quantified peptides. Our optimized MS3-IDQ method included the following parameters for the MS3 scan: NCE = 37.5 and AGC target = 1.5 × 105, and scan range = 100-2000. Data from the MS3 scan were complementary to those of the MS2 scan, and the combination of these scans can increase phosphoproteome coverage by >50%, thereby yielding a greater number of quantified and accurately localized phosphopeptides.