CusS-CusR Two-Component System Mediates Tigecycline Resistance in Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.
ABSTRACT: Background:The increase in carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP), especially the emergence of tigecycline-resistant K. pneumoniae (KP), is a serious public health concern. However, the underlying mechanism of tigecycline resistance is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of the CusS-CusR two-component system (TCS), which is associated with copper/silver resistance, in tigecycline resistance in CRKP. Methods:Following the in vitro evolution of tigecycline-resistant KP, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of tigecycline were determined using the micro-broth dilution method. RNA sequencing and data analysis were performed to identify differentially expressed genes. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to verify the genes of interest. Genes associated with tigecycline resistance, such as ramR, tex (T), and tet (A), were detected by PCR, and then mutants were confirmed by sequencing. Additionally, the efflux pump-associated genes soxS, oqxA, oqxB, acrE, and acrF were also analyzed by qPCR. CusR was deleted and complemented by the suicide vector pKO3-Km plasmid and pGEM-T-easy plasmid, respectively. Results:Nine strains of KP were evaluated in our study. Strains A2 and A3 were evolved from A1, B2, and B3 were evolved from B1, and C2 and C3 were evolved from C1. The tigecycline minimum inhibitory concentration for A1, B1, and C1 was 0.5 ?g/mL; that for A2, B2, and C3 was 16.0 ?g/mL; and that for A3, B3, and C3 was 32.0 ?g/mL. RNA-sequencing and qPCR confirmed that the differentially expressed genes cusE, cusS, cusR, cusC, cusF, cusB, and cusA showed higher expression in C2 and C3 than in C1. Genes related to the efflux pump AcrAB-TolC showed higher expression in B2 and B3 than in B1. No mutants of ramR, tex (T), or tet (A) were detected. SoxS, oqxA, oqxB, acrE, and acrF did not show increased expression in any group. After deletion and complementation of cusR among C3, the MIC of tigecycline decreased to 4 ?g/mL, and then recovered to 32 ?g/mL. The expression of cusFBCA, correspondingly decreased and increased significantly. Conclusion:In addition to its primary function in resistance to copper/silver, the CusS-CusR two-component system is associated with CRKP resistance to tigecycline.
Project description:Tigecycline is a treatment option for infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP). Emerging tigecycline resistance in CRKP represents a growing threat. Knowledge of the clinical, microbiological, and molecular characteristics of tigecycline- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (TCRKP) is limited.Patients infected with TCRKP were identified from a Taiwanese national surveillance study. Clinical data were collected from medical records. We performed susceptibility tests, carbapenemase gene detection, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Furthermore, we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses to assess the expression levels of the efflux pump genes acrB and oqxB.We identified 16 patients infected with TCRKP, with urinary tract infection (UTI) being the most common type of infection (63%). The all-cause 30-day mortality rate was 44% in patients with TCRKP infection. Patients with a site of infection other than the urinary tract had a significantly higher mortality rate than patients with UTIs (83% vs. 20%, p = 0.035). PFGE and MLST revealed no dominant clone or sequence type. Using qRT-PCR, overexpression of both the acrB and oqxB genes was identified in seven isolates, and overexpression of the oqxB gene was observed in another seven. There was poor correlation between acrB or oqxB expression and tigecycline MICs (r = -0.038 and -0.166, respectively).The mortality rate in patients infected with TCRKP in this study was 44% and this is an important subset of patients. The absence of a linear relationship between efflux pump genes expression and MICs indicates that tigecycline resistance may be mediated by other factors. Continuous monitoring of tigecycline resistance among CRKP isolates and resistance mechanisms are necessary.
Project description:Purpose:To characterize the clinical, resistance, and virulence features of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonaie (CRKP) and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) and also provide an effective selection of drug in CRKP and hvKP treatment. Materials and Methods:Twelve strains were collected and investigated these isolates for their antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular features. Resistance mechanisms, virulence-associated genes, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and serotypes were detected by PCR and sequencing. Next general sequencing (NGS) was carried out to determine the features of carbapenem resistance and virulence. The synergistic activity of tigecycline-imipenem (TGC+IPM), tigecycline-meropenem (TGC+MEM), and tigecycline-aztreonam (TGC+ATM) combinations were performed by microdilution checkerboard method. Results:Eleven CRKP and one hvKP strains were collected. All strains showed highly sensitive rates to tigecycline (TGC) and amikacin (AMK). NDM (33.3%, 4/12) was the main resistance mechanism and MLST assigned 3 of them to ST11. CTX-M-producing (n = 1) and KPC-2-producing (n = 1) isolates belonged to ST147 and ST11, respectively. The MICs of ATM and quinolones in NDM-1 CRKP and NDM-5 CRKP strains were different. The serotype of the majority strains was KL22KL137 (58.3%, 7/12), hvKP stain belonged to K64. CRKP strains harbored plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (oqxA, oqxB, qnrS, qnrB), ?-lactams (bla CTX-M-3), aminoglycosides, type I and type III fimbriae genes, siderophore genes, and transporter and pumps. SIM-producing ST1764 K64 showed typical features of hvKP, showing hypermucoviscosity phenotype. The virulence genes, including rmpA2, alls and aerobactin genes, linked to hvKP, were found in ST1764 hvKP. hvKP was sensitive to quinolone; also, oqxA gene was detected. All TGC combinations showed highly synergistic effects and TGC+IPM was more effective treatment. Conclusion:We first identified the NDM-5-producing ST690 CRKP and SIM-producing ST1764 hvKP strains in Shanxi province. Tigecycline-carbapenem combinations were available treatments for CRKP.
Project description:Two-component systems (TCSs) are essential for bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to changing environments, such as elevation of Cu(I)/Ag(I) ions in the periplasm. In Escherichia coli, the CusS-CusR TCS up-regulates the cusCFBA genes under increased periplasmic Cu(I)/Ag(I) concentrations to help maintain metal ion homeostasis. The CusS histidine kinase is a homodimeric integral membrane protein that binds to periplasmic Cu(I)/Ag(I) and transduces a signal to its cytoplasmic kinase domain. However, the mechanism of how metal binding in the periplasm activates autophosphorylation in the cytoplasm is unknown. Here, we report that only one of the two metal ion-binding sites in CusS enhances dimerization of the sensor domain. Utilizing nanodisc technology to study full-length CusS, we show that metal-induced dimerization in the sensor domain triggers kinase activity in the cytoplasmic domain. We also investigated autophosphorylation in the cytoplasmic domain of CusS and phosphotransfer between CusS and CusR. In vitro analyses show that CusS autophosphorylates its conserved H271 residue at the N1 position of the histidine imidazole. The phosphoryl group is removed by the response regulator CusR in a reaction that requires a conserved aspartate at position 51. Functional analyses in vivo of CusS and CusR variants with mutations in the autophosphorylation or phosphoacceptor residues suggest that the phosphotransfer event is essential for metal resistance in E. coli Biochemical analysis shows that the CusS dimer autophosphorylates using a cis mechanism. Our results support a signal transduction model in which rotation and bending movements in the cytoplasmic domain maintain the mode of autophosphorylation.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the prevalence of infections due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) among ICU admission patients in central China and develop a reliable prediction model. Methods:Five hundred and seven consecutive ICU admission patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) infection were enrolled in this retrospective multicenter case-control study from January 2014 to June 2018. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression modeling to determine the risk factors. A prediction model was developed and verified using data from six hospitals in central China. Results:Of the total 507 isolates of KP, 244 (48.1%) strains were carbapenem resistant. The majority of these isolates were from sputum (30.9%) and blood (20.9%) samples. Tigecycline had good activity against CRKP (95.5%). The most common sequence type (ST) of CRKP was ST11 (84.4%), and 98.6% of them had the blaKPC-2 antimicrobial resistance gene. Thirteen variables were identified as independent risk factors for CRKP infection, including KP colonization or infection in the preceding year (OR=3.32, 95% CI 2.01-4.38), CD4/CD8 ratio <1 (OR=2.98, 95% CI 2.02-4.19), and parenteral nutrition ?48 h (OR=1.88, 95% CI 1.22-3.04). The model developed to predict CRKP infection was effective, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.854 (95% CI 0.821-0.884, p<0.001). Conclusions:ST11 carrying the blaKPC-2 antimicrobial resistance gene was the most common type of CRKP among the ICU admission patients in central China. The model demonstrated excellent predictive performance and exhibited good discrimination.
Project description:In bacteria, two-component systems act as signaling systems to respond to environmental stimuli. Two-component systems generally consist of a sensor histidine kinase and a response regulator, which work together through histidyl-aspartyl phosphorelay to result in gene regulation. One of the two-component systems in Escherichia coli, CusS-CusR, is known to induce expression of cusCFBA genes at increased periplasmic Cu(I) and Ag(I) concentrations to help maintain metal ion homeostasis. CusS is a membrane-associated histidine kinase with a periplasmic sensor domain connected to the cytoplasmic ATP binding and catalytic domains through two transmembrane helices. The mechanism of how CusS senses increasing metal ion concentrations and activates CusR is not yet known. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Ag(I)-bound periplasmic sensor domain of CusS at a resolution of 2.15 Å. The structure reveals that CusS forms a homodimer with four Ag(I) binding sites per dimeric complex. Two symmetric metal binding sites are found at the dimeric interface, which are each formed by two histidines and one phenylalanine with an unusual cation-? interaction. The other metal ion binding sites are in a nonconserved region within each monomer. Functional analyses of CusS variants with mutations in the metal sites suggest that the metal ion binding site at the dimer interface is more important for function. The structural and functional data provide support for a model in which metal-induced dimerization results in increases in kinase activity in the cytoplasmic domains of CusS.
Project description:Two-component systems are widely used by bacteria to mediate adaptive responses to a variety of environmental stimuli. The CusR/CusS two-component system in Escherichia coli induces expression of genes involved in metal efflux under conditions of elevated Cu(I) and Ag(I) concentrations. As seen in most prototypical two-component systems, signal recognition and transmission is expected to occur by ligand binding in the periplasmic sensor domain of the histidine kinase CusS. Although discussed in the extant literature, little experimental evidence is available to establish the role of CusS in metal homeostasis. In this study, we show that the cusS gene is required for Cu(I) and Ag(I) resistance in E. coli and that CusS is linked to the expression of the cusCFBA genes. These results show a metal-dependent mechanism of CusS activation and suggest an absolute requirement for CusS in Cu(I)- and Ag(I)-dependent upregulation of cusCFBA expression in E. coli.
Project description:Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) strains that also exhibit resistance to tigecycline and colistin have become a major clinical concern, as these two agents are the last-resort antibiotics used for treatment of CRKP infections. A leukemia patient infected with CRKP was subjected to follow-up analysis of variation in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of CRKP strains isolated from various specimens at different stages of treatment over a period of 3 years. Our data showed that (1) carbapenem treatment led to the emergence of CRKP in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the patient, which subsequently caused infections at other body sites as well as septicemia; (2) treatment with tigecycline led to the emergence of tigecycline-resistant CRKP, possibly through induction of the expression of a variant tet(A) gene located in a conjugative plasmid; (3) colistin treatment was effective in clearing CRKP from the bloodstream but led to the emergence of mcr-1-positive Enterobacteriaceae strains as well as colistin-resistant CRKP in the GI tract due to inactivation of the mgrB gene; and (4) tigecycline- and colistin-resistant CRKP could persist in the human GI tract for a prolonged period even without antibiotic selection pressure. In conclusion, clinical CRKP strains carrying a conjugative plasmid that harbors the blaKPC-2 and tet(A) variant genes readily evolve into tigecycline- and colistin-resistant CRKP upon treatment with these two antibiotics and persist in the human GI tract.
Project description:Tigecycline is one of the last resort treatments for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections. Tigecycline resistance often occurs during the clinical treatment of CRKP, yet its mechanism has still not been clearly elucidated. This study presents an analysis of a tigecycline resistance mechanism that developed in clinical isolates from a 56-year-old female patient infected with CRKP during tigecycline treatment. Consecutive clonal consistent K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained during tigecycline treatment. Whole genome sequencing of the isolates was performed, and putative single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertion and deletion mutations were analyzed in susceptible and resistant isolates. The identified gene of interest was examined through experiments involving transformations and conjugations. Four isolates, two of which were susceptible and two resistant, were collected from the patient. All of the isolates belonged to Sequence Type 11 (ST11) and were classified as extensively drug resistant (XDR). One amino acid substitution S251A in TetA was identified in the tigecycline-resistant isolates. Subsequent transformation experiments confirmed the contribution of the TetA variant (S251A) to tigecycline resistance. The transfer capacity of tigecycline resistance via this mutation was confirmed by conjugation experiments. Using southern blot hybridization and PCR assays, we further proved that the tetA gene was located on a transferable plasmid of ca. 65 kb in an Escherichia coli EC600 transconjugant. Our results provide direct in vivo evidence that evolution in the tetA gene can lead to tigecycline treatment failure in CRKP clinical strains that carry tetA. Moreover, the transfer capacity of tigecycline resistance mediated by mutated tetA is a threat.
Project description:We describe the first outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP), the infection control measures adopted and the shift in resistance patterns of isolates during antibiotic treatment. The ST258 KPC-KP strain exhibited a multiresistant antibiotic phenotype including co-resistance to gentamycin, colistin and tigecycline intermediate susceptibility. Isolates before and after treatment had different behaviour concerning their antibiotic susceptibility and the population analysis profile study. A progressive increase in the aminoglycosides (acquiring amicacin resistance) and ?-lactam MICs, and a decreased susceptibility to fosfomycin was observed throughout the administration of combined antimicrobial regimens including meropenem. A high meropenem resistance KPC-KP homogeneous population (MIC 256 Jg/mL), could arise from the meropenem heterogeneous low-level resistance KPC-KP population (MIC 8 Jg/mL), by the selective pressure of the prolonged meropenem therapy. The kpc gene was inserted in a Tn4401 isoform a, and no transconjugants were detected. The core measures adopted were successful to prevent evolution towards resistance dissemination.
Project description:Tigecycline is regarded as a last-resort treatment for carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections, but increasing numbers of tigecycline-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates have been reported. The tigecycline resistance mechanisms in CRKP are undetermined. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying tigecycline resistance in 16 tigecycline- and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (TCRKP) isolates. Mutations in tigecycline resistance determinant genes [ramR, acrR, oqxR, tet(A), tet(L), tet(X), tet(M), rpsJ] were assessed by PCR amplicon sequencing, and mutations in ramR and tet(A) exhibited high prevalences individually (81%) and in combination (63%). Eight functional ramR mutation profiles reducing tigecycline sensitivity were verified by plasmid complementation of wild-type and mutant ramR Using a site-specific mutant, the most frequent RamR mutation, A19V (60%), had no significant effect on tigecycline susceptibility or the upregulation of ramA and acrA Two tet(A) variants with double frameshift mutations, type 1 and type 2, were identified; type 2 tet(A) is novel. A parent strain transformed with a plasmid carrying type 1 or type 2 tet(A) increased the tigecycline MIC by 8-fold or 4-fold, respectively. Synergistic effects were observed in strains harboring no ramR gene and a mutated tet(A), with an 8-fold increase in the tigecycline MIC compared with that in strains harboring only mutated tet(A) being seen. Overall, mutations in the ramR and tet(A) efflux genes constituted the major tigecycline resistance mechanisms among the studied TCRKP isolates. The identification of strains exhibiting the combination of a ramR deficiency and widespread mutated tet(A) is concerning due to the possible dissemination of increased tigecycline resistance in K. pneumoniae.