Partial Monosomy 4p and Trisomy 12q due to a t(4;12)(p16.3;q24.31) Familial Translocation in Two Cousins.
ABSTRACT: Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by a distal 4p monosomy usually involving the region of the WHSC1 and WHSC2 genes. About 40-45% of WHS patients show an unbalanced translocation leading to both 4p monosomy and partial trisomy of another chromosome arm. In this case report, we describe 2 female cousins (P1 and P2) with a derivative chromosome leading to a 4p16.3pter deletion and 12q24.31qter duplication. Conventional karyotyping and genomic analyses showed that they both had the same rearrangement derived from a balanced parental translocation involving chromosomes 4 and 12, t(4;12)(p16.3;q24.31). The rearrangements occurred between 4p16.3pter and 12q24.31qter detected by array-CGH analysis, with a 2.7-Mb loss at 4p and a large 12.4-Mb gain at 12q. Both affected patients shared global developmental delay and craniofacial dysmorphisms with some distinct phenotypic findings associated with both WHS and 12qter trisomy. P2 was more severely impaired than P1, and she showed severe intellectual disability, seizures, midface hypoplasia, unilateral microtia, and deafness which were absent in P1. Previous studies of distal 4p monosomies have found phenotypic variability in WHS which does not correlate with haploinsufficiency of specific genes. Features of 12q trisomies are diverse with developmental and growth delay, intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and facial abnormalities. Collectively, our analysis of the literature of 3 similar translocations involving 4p and 12q, together with the clinical features of the affected cousins in this familial translocation, permits an evaluation of genes closely linked to WHSC1 and WHSC2 in the context of WHS and the genes involved in 12q trisomy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Carriership of a reciprocal chromosomal translocation (RCT) involving the short arm of chromosome 4 (4p) may result in birth of a child with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) due to monosomy 4p, a priori modified by the impact of the partner chromosome imbalance. Familial transmission studies of RCT enable obtaining empirical risk figures that are essential for genetic counseling. In this study, pedigree data from carriers of a unique t(4;19)(p15.32;p13.3), ascertained by two children with WHS phenotype, were collected through five generations and empirical risk for different pregnancy outcomes was assessed. In addition, the phenotype-karyotype correlation was studied in two unbalanced children against the phenotypes of children (literature data) with pure monosomy 4p15.32 ? pter and pure trisomy 19p13.3 ? pter, accordingly. The phenotype analysis was conducted using the catalogue of traits according to the Munich Dysmorphology Database. Pedigree segregation analysis was conducted by the direct method according to Stengel- Rutkowski et al. RESULTS:A double segment imbalance, trisomy 19p13.3 ? pter with monosomy 4p15.32 ? pter, was diagnosed in WHS progeny at birth. No essential modification of WHS phenotype by the additional trisomy 19p was observed, except for a limited survivability (death in infancy). Pedigree segregation analysis covered 39 relatives showed the probability rate for liveborn with unbalanced karyotype of 3.7 ± 3.6% (1/27), for stillbirth/neonatal death at 7.4 ± 5.0% (2/27), for miscarriage at 22.2 ± 8.0% (6/27), for the chance of having a baby without unbalanced karyotype was estimated at 66.7 ± 9.1% (18/27). In addition, the value of 7.4% for genetic counseling for any carrier of RCT at risk for single segment 19p13.3 ? pter imbalance at birth was evaluated as such value have not been estimated so far. CONCLUSION:Carriership of a t(4;19)(p15.32;p13.3) is at low risk for an unbalanced child at birth and for stillbirth/neonatal death but high for miscarriages. The chance of having a baby without unbalanced karyotype was estimated to be high. Monosomy 4p15.32 ? pter together with trisomy 19p13.3 ? pter as a double segment imbalance in children with WHS may be connected with a limited survivability in infancy.
Project description:Immunodeficiency is one of the most important causes of mortality associated with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), a severe rare disease originated by a deletion in chromosome 4p. The WHS candidate 1 (WHSC1) gene has been proposed as one of the main genes responsible for many of the alterations in WHS, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. Here, we present in vivo genetic evidence showing that Whsc1 plays an important role at several points of hematopoietic development. Particularly, our results demonstrate that both differentiation and function of Whsc1-deficient B cells are impaired at several key developmental stages due to profound molecular defects affecting B cell lineage specification, commitment, fitness, and proliferation, demonstrating a causal role for WHSC1 in the immunodeficiency of WHS patients.
Project description:Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene syndrome that is typically caused by a deletion of the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4. However, there are few reports about the features of Chinese WHS patients. This study aimed to characterize the clinical and molecular cytogenetic features of Chinese WHS patients using the combination of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH).Clinical information was collected from ten patients with WHS. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of the patients. The deletions were analyzed by MLPA and array CGH.All patients exhibited the core clinical symptoms of WHS, including severe growth delay, a Greek warrior helmet facial appearance, differing degrees of intellectual disability, and epilepsy or electroencephalogram anomalies. The 4p deletions ranged from 2.62 Mb to 17.25 Mb in size and included LETM1, WHSC1, and FGFR3.The combined use of MLPA and array CGH is an effective and specific means to diagnose WHS and allows for the precise identification of the breakpoints and sizes of deletions. The deletion of genes in the WHS candidate region is closely correlated with the core WHS phenotype.
Project description:RATIONALE:Chromosomal rearrangements are the major cause of multiple congenital abnormalities and intellectual disability. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS:We report 2 first cousins with unbalanced chromosomal aberrations of chromosomes 1 and 21, resulting from balanced familial translocation. Chromosome microarray analysis revealed 8.5?Mb1q43q44 duplication/21q22.2q22.3 deletion and 6.8?Mb 1q43q44 deletion/21q22.2q22.3 duplication. Among other features, cognitive and motor development delay and craniofacial anomalies are present in both patients, whereas congenital heart defect and hearing impairment is only present in patient carrying 1q43q44 duplication/21q22.2q22.3 deletion. LESSONS:In this report, we provide detailed analysis of the phenotypic features of both patients as well as compare our data with previously published reports of similar aberrations and discuss possible functional effects of AKT3, CEP170, ZBTB18, DSCAM, and TMPRSS3 genes included in the deleted and/or duplicated regions. Partial trisomy 1q/monosomy 21q has only been reported once before, and this is the first report of partial monosomy 1q/trisomy 21q. The expressed phenotype of mirroring chromosomal aberrations in our patients supports the previous suggestion that the dosage effect of some of the genes included in deleted/duplicated regions may result in opposite phenotypes of the patients.
Project description:The deletion of the chromosome 4p16.3 Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region (WHSCR-2) typically results in a characteristic facial appearance, varying intellectual disability, stereotypies and prenatal onset of growth retardation, while gains of the same chromosomal region result in a more variable degree of intellectual deficit and dysmorphism. Similarly the phenotype of individuals with terminal deletions of distal chromosome 3p (3p deletion syndrome) varies from mild to severe intellectual deficit, micro- and trigonocephaly, and a distinct facial appearance.We investigated a large Indian five-generation pedigree with ten affected family members in which chromosomal microarray and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses disclosed a complex rearrangement involving chromosomal subregions 4p16.1 and 3p26.3 resulting in a 4p16.1 deletion and 3p26.3 microduplication in three individuals, and a 4p16.1 duplication and 3p26.3 microdeletion in seven individuals. A typical clinical presentation of WHS was observed in all three cases with 4p16.1 deletion and 3p26.3 microduplication. Individuals with a 4p16.1 duplication and 3p26.3 microdeletion demonstrated a range of clinical features including typical 3p microdeletion or 4p partial trisomy syndrome to more severe neurodevelopmental delay with distinct dysmorphic features.We present the largest pedigree with complex t(4p;3p) chromosomal rearrangements and diverse clinical outcomes including Wolf Hirschorn-, 3p deletion-, and 4p duplication syndrome amongst affected individuals.
Project description:WHSC1 is a histone methyltransferase (HMT) that catalyses the addition of methyl groups to lysine 36 on histone 3. In humans, WHSC1 haploinsufficiency is associated with all known cases of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). The cardinal feature of WHS is a craniofacial dysmorphism, which is accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss in 15% of individuals with WHS. Here, we show that WHSC1-deficient mice display craniofacial defects that overlap with WHS, including cochlea anomalies. Although auditory hair cells are specified normally, their stereocilia hair bundles required for sound perception fail to develop the appropriate morphology. Furthermore, the orientation and cellular organisation of cochlear hair cells and their innervation are defective. These findings identify, for the first time, the likely cause of sensorineural hearing loss in individuals with WHS.
Project description:Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a complex genetic disorder caused by the loss of genomic material from the short arm of chromosome 4. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies indicated that the loss of genes within 4p16.3 is necessary for expression of the core features of the phenotype. Within this region, haploinsufficiency of the genes WHSC1 and LETM1 is thought to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of WHS. We present clinical findings for three patients with relatively small (<400 kb) de novo interstitial deletions that overlap WHSC1 and LETM1. 3D facial analysis was performed for two of these patients. Based on our findings, we propose that hemizygosity of WHSC1 and LETM1 is associated with a clinical phenotype characterized by growth deficiency, feeding difficulties, and motor and speech delays. The deletion of additional genes nearby WHSC1 and LETM1 does not result in a marked increase in the severity of clinical features, arguing against their haploinsufficiency. The absence of seizures and typical WHS craniofacial findings in our cohort suggest that deletion of distinct or additional 4p16.3 genes is necessary for expression of these features. Altogether, these results show that although loss-of-function for WHSC1 and/or LETM1 contributes to some of the features of WHS, deletion of additional genes is required for the full expression of the phenotype, providing further support that WHS is a contiguous gene deletion disorder.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving variable size deletions of the 4p16.3 region. Seizures are frequently, but not always, associated with WHS. We hypothesised that the size and location of the deleted region may correlate with seizure presentation. METHODS:Using chromosomal microarray analysis, we finely mapped the breakpoints of copy number variants (CNVs) in 48 individuals with WHS. Seizure phenotype data were collected through parent-reported answers to a comprehensive questionnaire and supplemented with available medical records. RESULTS:We observed a significant correlation between the presence of an interstitial 4p deletion and lack of a seizure phenotype (Fisher's exact test p=3.59e-6). In our cohort, there were five individuals with interstitial deletions with a distal breakpoint at least 751 kbp proximal to the 4p terminus. Four of these individuals have never had an observable seizure, and the fifth individual had a single febrile seizure at the age of 1.5 years. All other individuals in our cohort whose deletions encompass the terminal 751 kbp region report having seizures typical of WHS. Additional examples from the literature corroborate these observations and further refine the candidate seizure susceptibility region to a region 197 kbp in size, starting 368 kbp from the terminus of chromosome 4. CONCLUSIONS:We identify a small terminal region of chromosome 4p that represents a seizure susceptibility region. Deletion of this region in the context of WHS is sufficient for seizure occurrence.
Project description:11qter trisomy is rare, mostly occurs in combination with partial monosomy of a terminal segment of another chromosome due to unbalanced segregation of parental translocations. Pure 11qter trisomy is rarer, only five cases have so far been reported. Here we report a family with all four siblings affected with neurodevelopmental disorders and facial dysmorphism. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) identified 11q23.3-qter (15.1 Mb) deletion in one and reciprocal duplication in the other three siblings. Both father and grandfather are balanced translocation (46, XY, t (10;11) (q26;q23)) carriers. The genetic material involved on chromosome 10 is very limited (270 kb). Thus, the pedigree presented rare cases with "pure" 11qter trisomy or reciprocal 11qter monosomy (Jacobsen syndrome), offering a unique opportunity to examine clinical presentations of multiple individuals with identical genomic imbalance. The proband with 11qter monosomy presented with many features of Jacobsen syndrome. The three 11qter trisomy carriers presented with shared craniofacial features including brachycephaly and short philtrum. They are also significant for the following neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric defects: intellectual disability, expressive language deficiency, autistic features, auditory hallucination, self-talking and pain insensitivity. To our knowledge, this is the smallest "pure" trisomy 11qter so far reported and this is the first report to describe the neuropsychiatric features of patients with 11qter trisomy. Our observation also revealed dissimilar features in our patients compared with those of previously published trisomy 11qter cases. The pedigree also revealed phenotypic heterogeneity among siblings with identical genomic imbalance.
Project description:We report a 36-year-old Caucasian male identified with distal partial trisomy 15q and partial monosomy 16p from an unbalanced chromosome translocation detected by microarray and FISH analysis. He had a history of developmental delay and intellectual disability, chronic anemia, tall and slender stature, thoracic scoliosis and lumbar lordosis, and dysmorphic features. The distal partial trisomy 15q included the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor gene involved with growth, while genes in the distal partial monosomy 16p region are involved with alpha hemoglobin production, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, and acromegaly. The chromosome derivative found in our patient contains genes known to play a role in his phenotype.