Streptomyces sp. VN1, a producer of diverse metabolites including non-natural furan-type anticancer compound.
ABSTRACT: Streptomyces sp. VN1 was isolated from the coastal region of Phu Yen Province (central Viet Nam). Morphological, physiological, and whole genome phylogenetic analyses suggested that strain Streptomyces sp. VN1 belonged to genus Streptomyces. Whole genome sequencing analysis showed its genome was 8,341,703 base pairs in length with GC content of 72.5%. Diverse metabolites, including cinnamamide, spirotetronate antibiotic lobophorin A, diketopiperazines cyclo-L-proline-L-tyrosine, and a unique furan-type compound were isolated from Streptomyces sp. VN1. Structures of these compounds were studied by HR-Q-TOF ESI/MS/MS and 2D NMR analyses. Bioassay-guided purification yielded a furan-type compound which exhibited in vitro anticancer activity against AGS, HCT116, A375M, U87MG, and A549 cell lines with IC50 values of 40.5, 123.7, 84.67, 50, and 58.64?µM, respectively. In silico genome analysis of the isolated Streptomyces sp. VN1 contained 34 gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of known and/or novel secondary metabolites, including different types of terpene, T1PKS, T2PKS, T3PKS, NRPS, and hybrid PKS-NRPS. Genome mining with HR-Q-TOF ESI/MS/MS analysis of the crude extract confirmed the biosynthesis of lobophorin analogs. This study indicates that Streptomyces sp. VN1 is a promising strain for biosynthesis of novel natural products.
Project description:The present article describes the isolation of a new natural product of the lobophorin family, designated as lobophorin K (1), from cultures of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M-207, previously isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa collected at 1800 m depth during an expedition to the submarine Avilés Canyon. Its structure was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, mainly ESI-TOF MS and 1D and 2D NMR. This new natural product displayed cytotoxic activity against two human tumor cell lines, such as pancreatic carcinoma (MiaPaca-2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7). Lobophorin K also displayed moderate and selective antibiotic activity against pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus.
Project description:Marine-sourced actinomycete genus Streptomyces continues to be an important source of new natural products. Here we report the complete genome sequence of deep-sea-derived Streptomyces olivaceus SCSIO T05, harboring 37 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). A cryptic BGC for type I polyketides was activated by metabolic engineering methods, enabling the discovery of a known compound, lobophorin CR4 (1). Genome mining yielded a putative lobophorin BGC (lbp) that missed the functional FAD-dependent oxidoreductase to generate the d-kijanose, leading to the production of lobophorin CR4 without the attachment of d-kijanose to C17-OH. Using the gene-disruption method, we confirmed that the lbp BGC accounts for lobophorin biosynthesis. We conclude that metabolic engineering and genome mining provide an effective approach to activate cryptic BGCs.
Project description:Actinomycetes are a heterogeneous group of gram positive filamentous bacteria that have been found to produce a wide range of valuable bioactive secondary metabolites, particularly antibiotics. Moreover, actinomycetes isolated from unexplored environments show an unprecedented potential to generate novel active compounds. Hence, in order to search for novel antibiotics, we isolated and characterized actinomycetes strains from plant samples collected from a mangrove in Macau. Within the class of actinobacteria, fourteen actinomycetes isolates have been isolated and identified belonging to the genus of Streptomyces, Micromonospora, Mycobacterium, Brevibacterium, Curtobacterium and Kineococcus based on their 16S rRNA sequences. Further whole genome sequencing analysis of one of the isolated Streptomyces sp., which presented 99.13% sequence similarity with Streptomyces parvulus strain 2297, showed that it consisted of 118 scaffolds, 8,348,559 base pairs and had a 72.28% G?+?C content. In addition, genome-mining revealed that the isolated Streptomyces sp. contains 109 gene clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of known and/or novel secondary metabolites, including different types of terpene, T1pks, T2pks, T3pks, Nrps, indole, siderophore, bacteriocin, thiopeptide, phosphonate, lanthipeptide, ectoine, butyrolactone, T3pks-Nrps, and T1pks-Nrps. Meanwhile, the small molecules present in ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of this strain were analyzed by LC-MS. Predicted secondary metabolites of melanin and desferrioxamine B were identified and both of them were firstly found to be produced by the Streptomyces parvulus strain. Our study highlights that combining genome mining is an efficient method to detect potentially promising natural products from mangrove-derived actinomycetes.
Project description:Streptomyces sp. TP-A0867 (=NBRC 109436) produces structurally complex polyketides designated alchivemycins A and B. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain together with features of the organism and assembly, annotation, and analysis of the genome sequence. The 9.9 Mb genome of Streptomyces sp. TP-A0867 encodes 8,385 putative ORFs, of which 7,232 were assigned with COG categories. We successfully identified a hybrid polyketide synthase (PKS)/ nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster that could be responsible for alchivemycin biosynthesis, and propose the biosynthetic pathway. The alchivemycin biosynthetic gene cluster is also present in Streptomyces rapamycinicus NRRL 5491T, Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NBRC 16556, and Streptomyces ascomycinicus NBRC 13981T, which are taxonomically highly close to strain TP-A0867. This study shows a representative example that distribution of secondary metabolite genes is correlated with evolution within the genus Streptomyces.
Project description:Streptomyces sp. MWW064 (=NBRC 110611) produces an antitumor cyclic depsipeptide rakicidin D. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain together with features of the organism and generation, annotation and analysis of the genome sequence. The 7.9 Mb genome of Streptomyces sp. MWW064 encoded 7,135 putative ORFs, of which 6,044 were assigned with COG categories. The genome harbored at least three type I polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters, seven nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene clusters, and four hybrid PKS/NRPS gene clusters, from which a hybrid PKS/NRPS gene cluster responsible for rakicidin synthesis was successfully identified. We propose the biosynthetic pathway based on bioinformatic analysis, and experimentally proved that the pentadienoyl unit in rakicidins is derived from serine and malonate.
Project description:Marine sponge Hymeniacidon sp. was collected from coastal waters of the East China Sea to isolate symbiotic microorganisms. The resulting sponge-associated actinomycete, Streptomyces carnosus strain AZS17, was cultivated in a 20 L volume of medium for production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification by varied chromatographic methods yielded two new compounds of kijanimicin derivatives, AS7-2 and AS9-12. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy and comparison with literatures. Results showed these two compounds were structurally similar to the previously reported compounds lobophorin A and B, yet differed in specific bond forms, stereochemistry and optical activities. The two novel compounds were named lobophorin C and D. In vitro cytotoxicity investigation by MTT assay indicated their selective activities. Lobophorin C displayed potent cytotoxic activity against the human liver cancer cell line 7402, while lobophorin D showed significant inhibitory effect on human breast cancer cells MDA-MB 435.
Project description:Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) that are synthesized by modular megaenzymes known as nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are a rich source for drug discovery. By targeting an unusual NRPS architecture, we discovered an unusual biosynthetic gene cluster (<i>bsm</i>) from <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. 120454 and identified that it was responsible for the biosynthesis of a series of novel linear peptides, bosamycins. The <i>bsm</i> gene cluster contains a unique monomodular NRPS, BsmF, that contains a cytochrome P450 domain at the N-terminal. BsmF (P450 + A + T) can selectively activate tyrosine with its adenylation (A) domain, load it onto the thiolation (T) domain, and then hydroxylate tyrosine to form 5-OH tyrosine with the P450 domain. We demonstrated a NRPS assembly line for the formation of bosamycins by genetic and biochemical analysis and heterologous expression. Our work reveals a genome mining strategy targeting a unique NRPS domain for the discovery of novel NRPs.
Project description:The GE81112 tetrapeptides (1-3) represent a structurally unique class of antibiotics, acting as specific inhibitors of prokaryotic protein synthesis. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of the GE81112 biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. L-49973 and the development of a genetic manipulation system for Streptomyces sp. L-49973. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the tetrapeptide antibiotic GE81112 (getA-N) was identified within a 61.7-kb region comprising 29 open reading frames (open reading frames), 14 of which were assigned to the biosynthetic gene cluster. Sequence analysis revealed the GE81112 cluster to consist of six nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes encoding incomplete di-domain NRPS modules and a single free standing NRPS domain as well as genes encoding other biosynthetic and modifying proteins. The involvement of the cloned gene cluster in GE81112 biosynthesis was confirmed by inactivating the NRPS gene getE resulting in a GE81112 production abolished mutant. In addition, we characterized the NRPS A-domains from the pathway by expression in Escherichia coli and in vitro enzymatic assays. The previously unknown stereochemistry of most chiral centers in GE81112 was established from a combined chemical and biosynthetic approach. Taken together, these findings have allowed us to propose a rational model for GE81112 biosynthesis. The results further open the door to developing new derivatives of these promising antibiotic compounds by genetic engineering.
Project description:Actinobacteria, a group of gram-positive bacteria, can produce plenty of valuable bioactive secondary metabolites, especially antibiotics. Hence, in order to search for new actinobacteria, actinobacterial isolates were obtained from rhizosphere soil collected from the Futian mangrove ecosystem in Shenzhen, China. According to 16S rRNA sequences, 14 actinobacterial strains of the genus Streptomyces, Rhodococcus, Microbacterium, Micromonospora, Actinoplanes and Mycobacterium were isolated and identified. Among these, strain Mycobacterium sp.13 was described as a potential new species belonging to the genus Mycobacterium within the class of actinobacteria according to the genomic analysis. The genome-based 16S rRNA sequences had 98.48% sequence similarity with Mycobacterium moriokaense DSM 44221T. Meanwhile, the genome sequences of Mycobacterium sp.13 showed an average nucleotide identity (ANI) with the Mycobacterium mageritense DSM 44476, Mycobacterium smegmatis MKD8 and Mycobacterium goodii strain X7B of only 74.79%, 76.12% and 76.42%, respectively. Furthermore, genome-mining results showed that Mycobacterium sp.13 contained 105 gene clusters encoding to the secondary metabolite biosynthesis, where many kinds of terpene, bacteriocin, T1pks, Nrps, saccharide, fatty acid, butyrolactone, ectoine and resorcinol were included. Finally, through LC-MS and HR-MS, analyzing the small molecules from ethyl acetate extract of this strain, asukamycin C and apramycin were for the first time found present to be in Mycobacterium moriokaense strain. Our study provides evidence in support of the potential new Mycobacterium sp.13 isolated from the mangrove environment as a possible novel source of natural products.
Project description:Dithiolopyrrolones are microbial natural products containing a disulfide or thiosulfonate bridge embedded in a unique bicyclic structure. By interfering with zinc ion homeostasis in living cells, they show strong antibacterial activity against a variety of bacterial pathogens, as well as potent cytotoxicity against human cancer cells. In the current study, two new dithiolopyrrolones, pyrroloformamide C (<b>3</b>) and pyrroloformamide D (<b>4</b>), were isolated from <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. CB02980, together with the known pyrroloformamides <b>1</b> and <b>2</b>. The biosynthetic gene cluster for pyrroloformamides was identified from <i>Streptomyces</i> sp. CB02980, which shared high sequence similarity with those of dithiolopyrrolones, including holomycin and thiolutin. Gene replacement of <i>pyfE</i>, which encodes a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), abolished the production of <b>1</b>-<b>4</b>. Overexpression of <i>pyfN</i>, a type II thioesterase gene, increased the production of <b>1</b> and <b>2</b>. Genome neighborhood network analysis of the characterized and orphan gene clusters of dithiolopyrrolones revealed a unified mechanism for their biosynthesis, involving an iterative-acting NRPS and a set of conserved tailoring enzymes for the bicyclic core formation.