Universal strategy for preimplantation genetic testing for cystic fibrosis based on next generation sequencing.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:We developed and applied a universal strategy for preimplantation genetic testing for all cystic fibrosis gene mutations (PGT-CF) based on next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODS:A molecular protocol was designed to diagnose all CF mutations at preimplantation stage. The detection of CF mutations was performed by direct gene sequencing and linkage strategy testing 38 specific SNPs located upstream and inside the gene for PGT-CF. Seventeen couples at risk of CF transmission decided to undergo PGT-CF. Trophectoderm cell biopsies were performed on day 5-6 blastocysts. PGT for aneuploidy (PGT-A) was performed from the same samples. Tested embryos were transferred on further natural cycles. RESULTS:PGT was performed on 109 embryos. Fifteen CF mutations were tested. PGT-CF and PGT-A were conclusive for respectively 92.7% and 95.3% of the samples. A mean of 24.1 SNPs was informative per couple. After a single embryo transfer on natural cycle, 81.3% of the transferred tested embryos were implanted. CONCLUSIONS:The present protocol based on the entire CFTR gene together with informative SNPs outside and inside the gene can be applied to diagnose all CF mutations at preimplantation stage.
Project description:Here, we evaluate the applicability of a new method that combines targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) with targeted haplotyping in identifying PKD2 gene mutations in human preimplantation embryos in vitro. To achieve this goal, a proband family with a heterozygous deletion of c.595_595?+?14delGGTAAGAGCGCGCGA in exon 1 of the PKD2 gene was studied. A total of 10 samples were analyzed, including 7 embryos. An array-based gene chip was designed to capture all of the exons of 21 disease-related genes, including PKD2. We performed Sanger sequencing combined with targeted haplotyping to evaluate the feasibility of this new method. A total of 7.09?G of data were obtained from 10 samples by NGS. In addition, 24,142 informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Haplotyping analysis of several informative SNPs of PKD2 that we selected revealed that embryos 3, 5, and 6 did not inherit the mutation haplotypes of the PKD2 gene, a finding that was 100% accurate and was consistent with Sanger sequencing. Our results demonstrate that targeted NGS combined with targeted haplotyping can be used to identify PKD2 gene mutations in human preimplantation embryos in vitro with high sensitivity, fidelity, throughput and speed.
Project description:PURPOSE:To compare multiple displacement amplification and OmniPlex whole genome amplification technique performance during array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH), Sanger sequencing, SNaPshot and fragment size analysis downstream applications in frame of multifactor embryo preimplantation genetic testing. METHODS:Preclinical workup included linked short tandem repeat (STR) marker selection and primer design for loci of interest. It was followed by a family haplotyping, after which an in vitro fertilization preimplantation genetic testing (IVF-PGT) cycle was carried out. A total of 62 embryos were retrieved from nine couples with a confirmed single gene disorder being transmitted in their family with various inheritance traits-autosomal dominant (genes-ACTA2, HTT, KRT14), autosomal recessive (genes-ALOX12B, TPP1, GLB1) and X-linked (genes-MTM1, DMD). Whole genome amplification (WGA) for the day 5 embryo trophectoderm single biopsies was carried out by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technology OmniPlex and was used for direct (Sanger sequencing, fragment size analysis, SNaPshot) and indirect mutation assessment (STR marker haplotyping), and embryo aneuploidy testing by array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH). RESULTS:Family haplotyping revealed informative/semi-informative microsatellite markers for all clinical cases for all types of inheritance. Indirect testing gave a persuasive conclusion for all embryos assessed, which was confirmed through direct testing. The overall allele dropout (ADO) rate was higher for PCR-based WGA, and MDA shows a better genomic recovery scale. Five euploid embryos were subjected to elective single embryo transfer (eSET), which resulted in four clinical pregnancies and birth of two healthy children, which proved free of disease causative variants running in the family postnataly. CONCLUSIONS:A developed multifactor PGT protocol can be adapted and applied to virtually any genetic condition and is capable of improving single gene disorder preimplantation genetic testing in a patient-tailored manner thus increasing pregnancy rates, saving costs and increasing patient reliability.
Project description:In families at risk from monogenic diseases affected offspring, it is fundamental the development of a suitable Double Factor Preimplantation Genetic Testing (DF-PGT) method for both single-gene analysis and chromosome complement screening. Aneuploidy is not only a major issue in advanced-maternal-age patients and balanced translocation carriers, but also the aneuploidy rate is extremely high in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), even in young donors. To adequate NGS technology to the DF-PGT strategy four different whole genome amplification systems (Sureplex, MALBAC, and two multiple displacement amplification systems-MDA) were tested using TruSight One panel on cell lines and blastocyst trophectoderm biopsies-TE. Embryo cytogenetic status was analyzed by Nexus software. Sureplex and MALBAC DNA products were considered not suitable for PGT diagnosis due to inconsistent and poor results on Trusight one (TSO) panel. Results obtained with both MDA based methods (GEH-MDA and RG-MDA) were appropriate for direct mutation detection by TSO NGS platform. Nevertheless, RG-MDA amplification products showed better coverage and lower ADO rates than GEH-MDA. The present work also demonstrates that the same TSO sequencing data is suitable not only for the direct mutation detection, but also for the indirect mutation detection by linkage analysis of informative SNPs. The present work also demonstrates that Nexus software is competent for the detection of CNV by using with TSO sequencing data from RG-MDA products, allowing for the whole cytogenetic characterization of the embryos. In conclusion, successfully development of an innovative and promising DF-PGT strategy using TSO-NGS technology in TE biopsies, performed in-house in a single laboratory experience, has been done in the present work. Additional studies should be performed before it could be used as a diagnostic alternative in order to validate this approach for the detection of chromosomal aneuploidies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic defects (PGT-M) has been available in clinical practice. This study aimed to validate the applicability of targeted capture sequencing in developing personalized PGT-M assay. METHODS:One couple at risk of transmitting Usher Syndrome to their offspring was recruited to this study. Customized capture probe targeted at USH2A gene and 350 kb flanking region were designed for PGT-M. Eleven blastocysts were biopsied and amplified by using multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and capture sequencing. A hidden Markov model (HMM) assisted haplotype analysis was performed to deduce embryo's genotype by using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in each sample. The embryo without paternal rare variant was implanted and validated by conventional prenatal or postnatal diagnostic means. RESULTS:Four embryos were diagnosed as free of father's rare variant, two were transferred and one achieved a successful pregnancy. The fetal genotype was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of fetal genomic DNA obtained by amniocentesis. The PGT-M and prenatal diagnosis results were further confirmed by the molecular diagnosis of the baby's genomic DNA sample. The auditory test showed that the hearing was normal. CONCLUSIONS:Targeted capture sequencing is an effective and convenient strategy to develop customized PGT-M assay.
Project description:Background:Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant late-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine trinucleotide repeat expansion in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) is a diagnostic procedure available for these individuals, because they carry a high risk of transmitting this genetic condition to their offspring. Methods:Information about 15 HD couples referred for PGT and 21 cycles performed from 2009 to 2018 was collected retrospectively. PGT provide direct testing of embryos obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, using polymerase chain reaction multiplex as the genetic testing protocol. Results:PGT for HD was performed in 15 couples, with no history of previous attempts, in a total of 21 cycles. The mean number of biopsied embryos per cycle was 4.9. The amplification efficiency in blastomeres was 87.4%. From the 90 amplified embryos, 32 were normal and suitable for transfer. The mean number of transferred embryos per couple was 1.2.Overall, 3 positive human chorionic gonadotropin tests were obtained in 3 couples, resulting in 2 clinical pregnancies. The 2 ongoing clinical pregnancies had normal evolution, and culminated in 2 deliveries, resulting in the birth of 2 healthy children. Conclusions:PGT for HD is considered an effective and safe reproductive option for couples who are at risk of transmitting HD, when proper genetic and reproductive counseling is warranted.
Project description:Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is now widely used to select embryos free of chromosomal copy number variations (CNV) from chromosome balanced translocation carriers. However, it remains a difficulty to distinguish in embryos between balanced and structurally normal chromosomes efficiently.For this purpose, genome wide preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) analysis was utilized based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. SNPs that are heterozygous in the carrier and, homozygous in the carrier's partner and carrier's family member are defined as informative SNPs. The haplotypes including the breakpoint regions, the whole chromosomes involved in the translocation and the corresponding homologous chromosomes are established with these informative SNPs in the couple, reference and embryos. In order to perform this analysis, a reference either a translocation carrier's family member or one unbalanced embryo is required. The positions of translocation breakpoints are identified by molecular karyotypes of unbalanced embryos. The recombination of breakpoint regions in embryos could be identified.Eleven translocation families were enrolled. 68 blastocysts were analyzed, in which 42 were unbalanced or aneuploid and the other 26 were balanced or normal chromosomes. Thirteen embryos were transferred back to patients. Prenatal cytogenetic analysis of amniotic fluid cells was performed. The results predicted by PGH and karyotypes were totally consistent.With the successful clinical application, we demonstrate that PGH was a simple, efficient, and popularized method to distinguish between balanced and structurally normal chromosome embryos.
Project description:Huntington disease (HD) is a lethal neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of a CAG repeat within the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Disease prevention can be facilitated by preimplantation genetic testing for this monogenic disorder (PGT-M). We developed a strategy for HD PGT-M, involving whole genome amplification (WGA) followed by combined triplet-primed PCR (TP-PCR) for HTT CAG repeat expansion detection and multi-microsatellite marker genotyping for disease haplotype phasing. The strategy was validated and tested pre-clinically in a simulated PGT-M case before clinical application in five cycles of a PGT-M case. The assay reliably and correctly diagnosed all embryos, even where allele dropout (ADO) occurred at the HTT CAG repeat locus or at one or more linked markers. Ten of the 27 embryos analyzed were diagnosed as unaffected. Four embryo transfers were performed, two of which involved fresh cycle double embryo transfers and two were frozen-thawed single embryo transfers. Pregnancies were achieved from each of the frozen-thawed single embryo transfers and confirmed to be unaffected by amniocentesis, culminating in live births at term. This strategy enhances diagnostic confidence for PGT-M of HD and can also be employed in situations where disease haplotype phase cannot be established prior to the start of PGT-M.
Project description:As a byproduct of increasing infertility cases, the use of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) has increased. As such, the need to gain information regarding the implantation potential of specific MAR preimplantation embryos prior to transfer has become increasingly critical. One potential source of this information is contained in the blastocoel fluid from day 5/6 embryos. This fluid contains cell-free DNA, proteins, RNA, metabolites, exosomes, etc., and analysis of these contents provides clinicians with an opportunity to gain more data regarding potential of each embryo. While application of preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) may be limited to women of advanced maternal age or with recurrent pregnancy loss, the fluid taken at the time of embryo biopsy can be analyzed for any frozen embryo as well as PGT-A embryos. In both cases, blastocoel fluid analysis provides information regarding a preimplantation embryo's potential for implantation. Moreover, as remnants of apoptosis, embryonic cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and mRNA may lead clinicians to better understand and predict the extent of self-correction occurring within the preimplantation embryo. While analysis of blastocoel components are not yet viable replacements for PGT-A, their study may still reveal critical clinical information about the implantation potential for any given embryo.
Project description:The detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and mosaicism degree in preimplantation embryos may be essential for achieving pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine the robustness of diagnosing homogenous and mosaic aneuploidies using a validated algorithm and the minimal resolution for de novo and inherited deletions and duplications (Del/Dup). Two workflows were developed and validated: (a,b) preimplantation genetic testing for uniform whole and segmental aneuploidies, plus mixtures of euploid/aneuploid genomic DNA to develop an algorithm for detecting mosaicism; and (c) preimplantation genetic testing for structural rearrangements for detecting Del/Dup ? 6 Mb. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed with automatic library preparation and multiplexing up to 24-96 samples. Specificity and sensitivity for PGT-A were both 100% for whole chromosomes and segmentals. The thresholds stablished for mosaicism were: euploid embryos (<30% aneuploidy), low mosaic (from 30% to <50%), high mosaic (50-70%) or aneuploid (>70%). In the PGT-SR protocol, changes were made to increase the detection level to ?6 Mb. This is the first study reporting an accurate assessment of semiautomated-NGS protocols using Reproseq on pools of cells. Both protocols allow for the analysis of homogeneous and segmental aneuploidies, different degrees of mosaicism, and small Del/Dup with high sensitivity and specificity.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The purpose of this study is to summarize the clinical outcomes of apparently balanced chromosome rearrangement (ABCR) carriers in preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) cycles by next-generation sequencing following microdissecting junction region (MicroSeq) to distinguish non-carrier embryos from balanced carriers.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective study of 762 ABCR carrier couples who requested PGT for structural rearrangements combined with MicroSeq at the Reproductive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya was conducted between October 2014 and October 2019.<h4>Results</h4>Trophectoderm biopsy was performed in 4122 blastocysts derived from 917 PGT-SR cycles and 3781 blastocysts were detected. Among the 3781 blastocysts diagnosed, 1433 (37.9%, 1433/3781) were balanced, of which 739 blastocysts were carriers (51.57%, 739/1433) and 694 blastocysts were normal (48.43%, 694/1433). Approximately 26.39% of cycles had both carrier and normal embryo transfer, and the average number of biopsied blastocysts was 6.7. In the cumulative 223 biopsied cycles with normal embryo transfer, all couples chose to transfer the normal embryos. In the 225 cycles with only carrier embryos, the couples chose to transfer the carrier embryos in 169/225 (75.11%) cycles. A total of 732 frozen embryo transfer cycles were performed, resulting in 502 clinical pregnancies. Cumulatively, 326 babies were born; all of these babies were healthy and free of any developmental issues.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study provides the first evaluation of the clinical outcomes of a large sample with ABCR carrier couples undergoing the MicroSeq-PGT technique and reveals its powerful ability to distinguish between carrier and non-carrier balanced embryos.