Linkage disequilibrium mapping for grain Fe and Zn enhancing QTLs useful for nutrient dense rice breeding.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:High yielding rice varieties are usually low in grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content. These two micronutrients are involved in many enzymatic activities, lack of which cause many disorders in human body. Bio-fortification is a cheaper and easier way to improve the content of these nutrients in rice grain. RESULTS:A population panel was prepared representing all the phenotypic classes for grain Fe-Zn content from 485 germplasm lines. The panel was studied for genetic diversity, population structure and association mapping of grain Fe-Zn content in the milled rice. The population showed linkage disequilibrium showing deviation of Hardy-Weinberg's expectation for Fe-Zn content in rice. Population structure at K?=?3 categorized the panel population into distinct sub-populations corroborating with their grain Fe-Zn content. STRUCTURE analysis revealed a common primary ancestor for each sub-population. Novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs) namely qFe3.3 and qFe7.3 for grain Fe and qZn2.2, qZn8.3 and qZn12.3 for Zn content were detected using association mapping. Four QTLs, namely qFe3.3, qFe7.3, qFe8.1 and qFe12.2 for grain Fe content were detected to be co-localized with qZn3.1, qZn7, qZn8.3 and qZn12.3 QTLs controlling grain Zn content, respectively. Additionally, some Fe-Zn controlling QTLs were co-localized with the yield component QTLs, qTBGW, OsSPL14 and qPN. The QTLs qFe1.1, qFe3.1, qFe5.1, qFe7.1, qFe8.1, qZn6, qZn7 and gRMm9-1 for grain Fe-Zn content reported in earlier studies were validated in this study. CONCLUSION:Novel QTLs, qFe3.3 and qFe7.3 for grain Fe and qZn2.2, qZn8.3 and qZn12.3 for Zn content were detected for these two traits. Four Fe-Zn controlling QTLs and few yield component QTLs were detected to be co-localized. The QTLs, qFe1.1, qFe3.1, qFe5.1, qFe7.1, qFe8.1, qFe3.3, qFe7.3, qZn6, qZn7, qZn2.2, qZn8.3 and qZn12.3 will be useful for biofortification of the micronutrients. Simultaneous enhancement of Fe-Zn content may be possible with yield component traits in rice.
Project description:Rice provides energy and nutrition to more than half of the world's population. Breeding rice varieties with the increased levels of bioavailable micronutrients is one of the most sustainable approaches to tackle micronutrient malnutrition. So, high zinc and iron content in the grain are primary targets in rice biofortification breeding. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping using doubled haploid (DH) populations, PSBRc82 x Joryeongbyeo and PSBRc82 x IR69428, phenotyped for agronomic traits and micronutrients during two growing seasons and using genotypic information from analysis with the 6K SNP chip. A number of DH lines were identified as having high grain Zn and Fe content in polished rice. Importantly, we identified 20 QTLs for agronomic traits and 59 QTLs for a number of biofortification traits. Of the 79 QTLs, 12 were large-effect QTLs (>25% PVE), nine QTLs were consistent across seasons in either population, and one QTL was identified in both populations. Moreover, at least two QTLs were clustered in defined regions of chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9. Eight epistatic interactions were detected for Cu, Mg, Na, and Zn in population 1. Furthermore, we identified several candidate genes near QTLs for grain Zn (OsNRAMP, OsNAS, OsZIP, OsYSL, OsFER, and OsZIFL family) and grain yield (OsSPL14 and OsSPL16). These new QTLs and candidate genes help to further elucidate the genetic basis for grain micronutrient concentration, and may prove useful for marker assisted breeding for this important trait.
Project description:Pearl millet is a climate-resilient nutritious crop requiring low inputs and is capable of giving economic returns in marginal agro-ecologies. In this study, we report large-effect iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using diversity array technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers to generate a genetic linkage map using 317 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the (ICMS 8511-S1-17-2-1-1-B-P03 × AIMP 92901-S1-183-2-2-B-08) cross. The base map [seven linkage groups (LGs)] of 196 loci was 964.2 cM in length (Haldane). AIMP 92901-S1-183-2-2-B-08 is an Iniadi line with high grain Fe and Zn, tracing its origin to the Togolese Republic, West Africa. The content of grain Fe in the RIL population ranged between 20 and 131 ppm (parts per million), and that of Zn from 18 to 110 ppm. QTL analysis revealed a large number of QTLs for high grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content. A total of 19 QTLs for Fe and Zn were detected, of which 11 were for Fe and eight were for Zn. The portion of the observed phenotypic variance explained by different QTLs for grain Fe and Zn content varied from 9.0 to 31.9% (cumulative 74%) and from 9.4 to 30.4% (cumulative 65%), respectively. Three large-effect QTLs for both minerals were co-mapped in this population, one on LG1 and two on LG7. The favorable QTL alleles of both mineral micronutrients were contributed by the male parent (AIMP 92901-deriv-08). Three putative epistasis interactions were observed for Fe content, while a single digenic interaction was found for Zn content. The reported QTLs may be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs, in genomic selection (GS) breeding pipelines for seed and restorer parents, and in population improvement programs for pearl millet.
Project description:Micronutrient especially iron and zinc-enriched rice hold immense promise for sustainable and cost-effective solutions to overcome malnutrition. In this context, BC2F5 population derived from cross between RP-Bio226 and Sampada was used to localize genomic region(s)/QTL(s) for grain Fe (iron) and Zn (zinc) content together with yield and yield-related traits. Genotyping of mapping population with 108 SSR markers resulted in a genetic map of 2317.5 cM with an average marker distance of 21.5 cM. Mean grain mineral content in the mapping population across the two seasons ranged from 10.5-17.5 ppm for Fe and 11.3-22.1 ppm for Zn. Based on the multi-season phenotypic data together with genotypic data, a total of two major QTLs for Fe (PVE upto 17.1%) and three for Zn (PVE upto 34.2%) were identified. Comparative analysis across the two seasons has revealed four consistent QTLs for Fe (qFe1.1, qFe1.2, qFe6.1 and qFe6.2) and two QTL for Zn content (qZn1.1 and qZn6.2). Additionally, based on the previous and current studies three meta-QTLs for grain Fe and two for grain Zn have been identified. In-silico analysis of the identified QTL regions revealed the presence of potential candidate gene(s) such as, OsPOT, OsZIP4, OsFDR3, OsIAA5 etc., that were previously reported to influence grain Fe and Zn content. The identified QTLs could be utilized in developing high yielding, Fe and Zn denser varieties by marker assisted selection (MAS).
Project description:The development of micronutrient dense rice varieties with good agronomic traits is one of the sustainable and cost-effective approaches for reducing malnutrition. Identification of QTLs for high grain Fe and Zn, yield and yield components helps in precise and faster development of high Fe and Zn rice. We carried out a three-season evaluation using IR05F102 x IR69428 derived doubled-haploid population at IRRI. Inclusive composite interval mapping was carried out using SNP markers and Best Linear Unbiased Estimates of the phenotypic traits. A total of 23 QTLs were identified for eight agronomic traits and grain Fe and Zn concentration that explained 7.2 to 22.0% PV. A QTL by environment interaction analysis confirmed the stability of nine QTLs, including two QTLs for Zn on chromosomes 5 and 12. One epistatic interaction for plant height was significant with 28.4% PVE. Moreover, five QTLs were identified for Fe and Zn that harbor several candidate genes, e.g. OsZIP6 on QTL qZn5.1. A number of QTLs were associated with a combination of greater yield and increased grain Zn levels. These results are useful for development of new rice varieties with good agronomic traits and high grain Zn using MAS, and identification of genetic resources with the novel QTLs for grain Zn.
Project description:Iron (Fe) toxicity is a major abiotic stress which severely reduces rice yield in many countries of the world. Genetic variation for this stress tolerance exists in rice germplasms. Mapping of gene(s)/QTL controlling the stress tolerance and transfer of the traits into high yielding rice varieties are essential for improvement against the stress. A panel population of 119 genotypes from 352 germplasm lines was constituted for detecting the candidate gene(s)/QTL through association mapping. STRUCTURE, GenAlEx and Darwin softwares were used to classify the population. The marker-trait association was detected by considering both the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Mixed Linear Model (MLM) analyses. Wide genetic variation was observed among the genotypes present in the panel population for the stress tolerance. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in the population for iron toxicity tolerance. The population was categorized into three genetic structure groups. Marker-trait association study considering both the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and Mixed Linear Model (MLM) showed significant association of leaf browning index (LBI) with markers RM471, RM3, RM590 and RM243. Three novel QTL controlling Fe-toxicity tolerance were detected and designated as qFeTox4.3, qFeTox6.1 and qFeTox10.1. A QTL reported earlier in the marker interval of C955-C885 on chromosome 1 is validated using this panel population. The present study showed that QTL controlling Fe-toxicity tolerance to be co-localized with the QTL for Fe-biofortification of rice grain indicating involvement of common pathway for Fe toxicity tolerance and Fe content in rice grain. Fe-toxicity tolerance QTL qFeTox6.1 was co-localized with grain Fe-biofortification QTLs qFe6.1 and qFe6.2 on chromosome 6, whereas qFeTox10.1 was co-localized with qFe10.1 on chromosome 10. The Fe-toxicity tolerance QTL detected from this mapping study will be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs.
Project description:Micronutrient malnutrition due to Fe and Zn, affects around two billion people globally particularly in the developing countries. More than 90% of the Asian population is dependent on rice-based diets, which is low in these micronutrients. In the present study, a set of 192 Indian rice germplasm accessions, grown at two locations, were evaluated for Fe and Zn in brown rice (BR) and milled rice (MR). A significant variation was observed in the rice germplasm for these micronutrients. The grain Fe concentration was in the range of 6.2–23.1 ppm in BR and 0.8–12.3 ppm in MR, while grain Zn concentration was found to be in the range of 11.0–47.0 ppm and 8.2–40.8 ppm in the BR and MR, respectively. Grain Fe exhibited maximum loss upon milling with a mean retention of 24.9% in MR, while Zn showed a greater mean retention of 74.2% in MR. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was carried out implementing the FarmCPU model to control the population structure and kinship, and resulted in the identification of 29 marker-trait associations (MTAs) with significant associations for traits viz. FeBR (6 MTAs), FeMR (7 MTAs), ZnBR (11 MTAs), and ZnMR (5 MTAs), which could explain the phenotypic variance from 2.1 to as high as 53.3%. The MTAs governing the correlated traits showed co-localization, signifying the possibility of their simultaneous improvement. The robust MTAs identified in the study could be valuable resource for enhancing Fe and Zn concentration in the rice grain and addressing the problem of Fe and Zn malnutrition among rice consumers.
Project description:Mineral elements play an extremely important role in human health, and are worthy of study in rice grain. Wild rice is an important gene pool for rice improvement including grain yield, disease, and pest resistance as well as mineral elements. In this study, we identified 33 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Fe, Zn, Se, Cd, Hg, and As contents in wild rice Oryza longistaminata. Of which, 29 QTLs were the first report, and 12 QTLs were overlapped to form five clusters as qSe1/qCd1 on chromosome 1, qCd4.2/qHg4 on chromosome 4, qFe5.2/qZn5.2 on chromosome 5, qFe9/qHg9.2/qAs9.2 on chromosome 9, and qCd10/qHg10 on chromosome 10. Importantly, qSe1/qCd1, can significantly improve the Se content while reduce the Cd content, and qFe5.2/qZn5.2 can significantly improve both the Fe and Zn contents, they were delimited to an interval about 53.8 Kb and 26.2 Kb, respectively. These QTLs detected from Oryza longistaminata not only establish the basis for subsequent gene cloning to decipher the genetic mechanism of mineral element accumulation, but also provide new genetic resource for rice quality improvement.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Rice is the primary source of food for billions of people in developing countries, yet the commonly consumed polished grain contains insufficient levels of the key micronutrients iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and Vitamin A to meet daily dietary requirements. Experts estimate that a rice-based diet should contain 14.5 µg g(-1) Fe in endosperm, the main constituent of polished grain, but breeding programs have failed to achieve even half of that value. Transgenic efforts to increase the Fe concentration of rice endosperm include expression of ferritin genes, nicotianamine synthase genes (NAS) or ferritin in conjunction with NAS genes, with results ranging from two-fold increases via single-gene approaches to six-fold increases via multi-gene approaches, yet no approach has reported 14.5 µg g(-1) Fe in endosperm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three populations of rice were generated to constitutively overexpress OsNAS1, OsNAS2 or OsNAS3, respectively. Nicotianamine, Fe and Zn concentrations were significantly increased in unpolished grain of all three of the overexpression populations, relative to controls, with the highest concentrations in the OsNAS2 and OsNAS3 overexpression populations. Selected lines from each population had at least 10 µg g(-1) Fe in polished grain and two OsNAS2 overexpression lines had 14 and 19 µg g(-1) Fe in polished grain, representing up to four-fold increases in Fe concentration. Two-fold increases of Zn concentration were also observed in the OsNAS2 population. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that OsNAS2 overexpression leads to significant enrichment of Fe and Zn in phosphorus-free regions of rice endosperm. CONCLUSIONS: The OsNAS genes, particularly OsNAS2, show enormous potential for Fe and Zn biofortification of rice endosperm. The results demonstrate that rice cultivars overexpressing single rice OsNAS genes could provide a sustainable and genetically simple solution to Fe and Zn deficiency disorders affecting billions of people throughout the world.
Project description:Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) are essential micronutrients required for proper development in both humans and plants. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains are the staple food for nearly half of the world's population, but a poor source of metals such as Fe and Zn. Populations that rely on milled cereals are especially prone to Fe and Zn deficiencies, the most prevalent nutritional deficiencies in humans. Biofortification is a cost-effective solution for improvement of the nutritional quality of crops. However, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying grain accumulation of mineral nutrients is required before this approach can achieve its full potential. Characterization of gene function is more time-consuming in crops than in model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Aiming to more quickly characterize rice genes related to metal homeostasis, we applied the concept of high throughput elemental profiling (ionomics) to Arabidopsis lines heterologously expressing rice cDNAs driven by the 35S promoter, named FOX (Full Length Over-eXpressor) lines. We screened lines expressing candidate genes that could be used in the development of biofortified grain. Among the most promising candidates, we identified two lines ovexpressing the metal cation transporter OsZIP7. OsZIP7 expression in Arabidopsis resulted in a 25% increase in shoot Zn concentrations compared to non-transformed plants. We further characterized OsZIP7 and showed that it is localized to the plasma membrane and is able to complement Zn transport defective (but not Fe defective) yeast mutants. Interestingly, we showed that OsZIP7 does not transport Cd, which is commonly transported by ZIP proteins. Importantly, OsZIP7-expressing lines have increased Zn concentrations in their seeds. Our results indicate that OsZIP7 is a good candidate for developing Zn biofortified rice. Moreover, we showed the use of heterologous expression of genes from crops in A. thaliana as a fast method for characterization of crop genes related to the ionome and potentially useful in biofortification strategies.
Project description:Biofortification of rice (<i>Oryza sativa</i> L.) with micronutrients is widely recognized as a sustainable strategy to alleviate human iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies in developing countries where rice is the staple food. Constitutive overexpression of the rice nicotianamine synthase (<i>OsNAS</i>) genes has been successfully implemented to increase Fe and Zn concentrations in unpolished and polished rice grain. Intensive research is now needed to couple this high-micronutrient trait with high grain yields. We investigated associations of increased grain Fe and Zn concentrations with agro-morphological traits of backcross twice second filial (BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub>) transgenic progeny carrying <i>OsNAS1</i> or <i>OsNAS2</i> overexpression constructs under <i>indica/japonica</i> and <i>japonica/japonica</i> genetic backgrounds. Thirteen agro-morphological traits were evaluated in BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> transgenic progeny grown under hydroponic conditions. Concentrations of eight mineral nutrients (Fe, Zn, copper, manganese, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus) in roots, stems/sheaths, non-flag leaves, flag leaves, panicles, and grain were also determined. A distance-based linear model (DistLM) was utilized to extract plant tissue nutrient predictors accounting for the largest variation in agro-morphological traits differing between transgenic and non-transgenic progeny. Overall, the BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> transgenic progeny contained up to 148% higher Fe and 336% higher Zn concentrations in unpolished grain compared to non-transgenic progeny. However, unpolished grain concentrations surpassing 23 ?g Fe g<sup>-1</sup> and 40 ?g Zn g<sup>-1</sup> in BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub><i>indica/japonica</i> progeny, and 36 ?g Fe g<sup>-1</sup> and 56 ?g Zn g<sup>1</sup> in BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub><i>japonica/japonica</i> progeny, were associated with significant reductions in grain yield. DistLM analyses identified grain-Zn and panicle-magnesium as the primary nutrient predictors associated with grain yield reductions in the <i>indica/japonica</i> and <i>japonica/japonica</i> background, respectively. We subsequently produced polished grain from high-yield BC<sub>2</sub>F<sub>2</sub> transgenic progeny carrying either the <i>OsNAS1</i> or <i>OsNAS2</i> overexpression constructs. The <i>OsNAS2</i> overexpressing progeny had higher percentages of Fe and Zn in polished rice grain compared to the <i>OsNAS1</i> overexpressing progeny. Results from this study demonstrate that genetic background has a major effect on the development of Fe and Zn biofortified rice. Moreover, our study shows that high-yielding rice lines with Fe and Zn biofortified polished grain can be developed by <i>OsNAS2</i> overexpression and monitoring for Zn overaccumulation in the grain.