Factors associated with self-medication in users of drugstores and pharmacies in Peru: an analysis of the National Survey on User Satisfaction of Health Services, ENSUSALUD 2015.
ABSTRACT: Background: Irresponsible self-medication is a problem for health systems in developing countries. We aimed to estimate the frequency of self-medication and associated factors in users of drugstores and pharmacies in Peru. Methods: We performed a secondary data analysis of the 2015 National Survey on User Satisfaction of Health Services (ENSUSALUD), a two-stage probabilistic sample of all regions of Peru. Non self-medication (NSM), responsible self-medication (RSM) and irresponsible self-medication (ISM) were defined as the outcome categories. Demographic, social, cultural and health system variables were included as covariates. We calculated relative prevalence ratios (RPR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) using crude and adjusted multinomial logistic regression models for complex samples with NSM as the referent category. Results: 2582 participants were included. The average age was 41.4 years and the frequencies of NSM, RSM and ISM were 25.2%, 23.8% and 51.0%; respectively. The factors associated with RSM were male gender (RPR: 1.35; 95%CI: 1.06-1.72), being between 40 and 59 years old (RPR: 0.53; 95%IC: 0.39-0.72), being 60 or older (RPR: 0.39; 95%IC: 0.25-0.59), not having health insurance (RPR: 1.89; 95%CI: 1.31-2.71) and living in the Highlands region (RPR: 2.27; 95%CI: 1.23-4.21). The factors associated with ISM were male gender (RPR: 1.41; 95%CI: 1.16-1.72), being between 40 and 59 years old (RPR: 0.68; 95%IC: 0.53-0.88), being 60 or older (RPR: 0.65; 95%IC: 0.48-0.88) and not having health insurance (RPR: 2.03; 95%CI: 1.46-2.83). Conclusion: Around half of the population practiced ISM, which was associated with demographic and health system factors. These outcomes are the preliminary evidence that could contribute to the development of health policies in Peru.
Project description:Studies have addressed cost-effectiveness of syphilis testing of pregnant women in high-prevalence settings. This study compares costs of rapid syphilis testing (RST) with laboratory-based rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests in low-prevalence settings in Peru. The RST was introduced in a tertiary-level maternity hospital and in the Ventanilla Network of primary health centers, where syphilis prevalence is approximately 1%. The costs per woman tested and treated with RST at the hospital were $2.70 and $369 respectively compared with $3.60 and $740 for RPR. For the Ventanilla Network the costs per woman tested and treated with RST were $3.19 and $295 respectively compared with $5.55 and $1454 for RPR. The cost per DALY averted using RST was $46 vs. $109 for RPR. RST showed lower costs compared to the WHO standard costs per DALY ($64). Findings suggest syphilis screening with RST is cost-effective in low-prevalence settings.
Project description:We provide the first continuous Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) climate record for the higher Himalayas (Kedarnath, India) by analyzing a 14C-dated peat sequence covering the last ~8000 years, with ~50 years temporal resolution. The ISM variability inferred using various proxies reveal striking similarity with the Greenland ice core (GISP2) temperature record and rapid denitrification changes recorded in the sediments off Peru. The Kedarnath record provides compelling evidence for a reorganization of the global climate system taking place at ~5.5 ka BP possibly after sea level stabilization and the advent of inter-annual climate variability governed by the modern ENSO phenomenon. The ISM record also captures warm-wet and cold-dry conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age, respectively.
Project description:Background: Low availability of medicines in health services, self-medication, inadequate use of medicines, and inadequate dispensing practices in pharmacies are frequent problems in Peru. We aimed to evaluate how frequent the purchase of medications without medical prescription is in Peru, and which factors are associated with this practice. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2016 ENSUSALUD national survey data. Purchase of one or more medicines that require a prescription was measured as a dichotomous variable. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using Poisson regressions model with robust variance to assess the association of purchasing of medicines that require prescriptions with sociodemographic factors. Results: There were 3858 participants in the dataset. The prevalence of purchasing medications without prescriptions was 47.2%. History of having previously consumed the same medication (31.6%), and the delay in receiving an appointment at health facilities (26.9%) were the main reasons to buy medications without a prescription. Regarding the recommendation of the medication purchased, the advice of the pharmacy, and remembering a previous old prescription, were the most frequent reasons (38.3%, and 25.9%, respectively). On the multivariable analysis, users that buy medications without prescription were more likely to be of aged 25-44; reside in the Jungle and Highlands regions; and self-consumption of the purchase. Individuals with Seguro Integral de Salud (Comprehensive Health Insurance) were less likely to buy medications without prescription. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of prescription requiring medication being bought without one from pharmacies in Peru. It is necessary to include the evaluation of consumer patterns to develop strategies with the aim to regulate the consumption of prescription drugs in the Peruvian population.
Project description:Post-operative ileus (POI) is a common complication of abdominal surgery. DA-9701, an extract of Pharbitis Semen and Corydalis Tuber, is a new prokinetic agent that also alleviates visceral pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether DA-9701 can ameliorate POI in rats.A total of 32 rats were divided into 4 groups: no surgery/no medication (NSNM), no surgery/medication (NSM), surgery/no medication (SNM), and surgery/medication (SM). Gastrointestinal transit (GIT), which is assessed by migration of charcoal, and cumulative stool weight were measured at 24 hours after surgery.GIT was significantly more delayed in the SNM group than in the other groups (SNM vs NSNM, P < 0.001; SNM vs NSM, P < 0.001; SNM vs SM, P = 0.005). Cumulative stool weight in that group was also lower than in the no surgery groups (SNM vs NSNM, P = 0.007; SNM vs NSM, P = 0.033), and there was no significant difference between the SM group and the no surgery groups (SM vs NSM, P = 0.703; SM vs NSNM, P = 0.347).DA-9701 can ameliorate POI by reducing delayed GIT and improving defecation in a rat model of POI.
Project description:Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) or resting pulse rate (RPR) is associated with increased risk of hypertension development. However, information is limited to adults. The purpose of this study is to analyze this association among Chinese children in a prospective design.A total of 4861 children who participated in the Blood Pressure Surveillance Program (2011-2017) were selected in this research. To investigate the association between RPR and hypertension development, children were divided into 4 groups according to the quartiles of RPR at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression model.Over a mean follow-up of 3.0 ± 0.1 years, there were 384 cases of incident hypertension. Compared to boys and girls in the 1st quartile, those in the 4th quartile were 1.73 (95% CI 1.13, 2.65), 2.22 (95% CI 1.43, 3.45) times more likely to have hypertension, respectively. Every 10 bpm increase in RPR was associated with a 26% greater risk of hypertension development in boys (OR: 1.26; 95% CI 1.10, 1.44), while this risk was 1.28 (95% CI 1.13, 1.44) in girls. Baseline blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) did not have significant interactions with RPR on risk of hypertension development.This study confirms the relationship between elevated RPR and increased risk of hypertension development in children, independent of confounders including baseline BP and BMI. An elevated RPR could be considered as a risk factor for the assessment of hypertension, no matter from a clinical setting or a public health perspective.
Project description:Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is frequently used to test women for maternal syphilis. Rapid syphilis immunochromatographic strip tests detecting only Treponema pallidum antibodies (single RSTs) or both treponemal and non-treponemal antibodies (dual RSTs) are now available. This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of algorithms using these tests to screen pregnant women.Observed costs of maternal syphilis screening and treatment using clinic-based RPR and single RSTs in 20 clinics across Peru, Tanzania, and Zambia were used to model the cost-effectiveness of algorithms using combinations of RPR, single, and dual RSTs, and no and mass treatment. Sensitivity analyses determined drivers of key results.Although this analysis found screening using RPR to be relatively cheap, most (>70%) true cases went untreated. Algorithms using single RSTs were the most cost-effective in all observed settings, followed by dual RSTs, which became the most cost-effective if dual RST costs were halved. Single test algorithms dominated most sequential testing algorithms, although sequential algorithms reduced overtreatment. Mass treatment was relatively cheap and effective in the absence of screening supplies, though treated many uninfected women.This analysis highlights the advantages of introducing RSTs in three diverse settings. The results should be applicable to other similar settings.
Project description:We examined whether nonadherence to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or immunosuppressive medications (ISMs) was associated with higher subsequent acute care utilization among Medicaid beneficiaries with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).We utilized US Medicaid data from 2000-2006 to identify adults ages 18-64 years with SLE who were new users of HCQ or ISMs. We defined the index date as receipt of HCQ or ISMs without use in the prior 6 months. We measured adherence using the medication possession ratio (MPR), the proportion of days covered by total days' supply dispensed, for the 1-year post-index date. Our outcomes were all-cause and SLE-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations in the subsequent year. We used multivariable Poisson regression models to examine the association between nonadherence (MPR <80%) and acute care utilization, adjusting for sociodemographics and comorbidities.We identified 9,600 HCQ new users and 3,829 ISM new users with SLE. The mean?±?SD MPR for HCQ was 47.8%?± 30.3% and for ISMs was 42.7%?±?30.7%. Seventy-nine percent of HCQ users and 83% of ISM users were nonadherent (MPR <80%). In multivariable models, among HCQ users, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of ED visits was 1.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.43-1.69) and the IRR of hospitalizations was 1.37 (95% CI 1.25-1.50), comparing nonadherers to adherers. For ISM users, the IRR of ED visits was 1.64 (95% CI 1.42-1.89) and of hospitalizations was 1.67 (95% CI 1.41-1.96) for nonadherers versus adherers.In this cohort, nonadherence to HCQ and ISMs was common and was associated with significantly higher subsequent acute care utilization.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We compared the automated non-treponemal reagin (rapid plasma reagin (RPR)) test with the conventional RPR card test for usefulness in clinical applications. SETTING:A comparative study of laboratory methods using clinical specimens in a single institute. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 112 serum samples including 59 Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)-positive and 53 TPPA-negative specimens were evaluated. OUTCOME MEASURES:HiSens Auto RPR LTIA (HBI, Anyang, Korea) was compared with Macro-Vue RPR Card Tests (Becton Dickinson BD Microbiology Systems, Sparks, Maryland, USA). Treponemal-specific tests were performed by Serodia TPPA assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan). The percentage agreement, ? value and overall sensitivity and specificity of the two RPR tests were compared. Seroconversion rates after treatment were also compared for each RPR test. RESULTS:The percentage agreement between the two RPR tests was 78.6% (? 0.565; 95% CI 0.422 to 0.709). Sensitivity and specificity of the automated RPR test relative to the TPPA test was 52.5% (95% CI 39.1% to 65.7%) and 94.3% (95% CI 84.3% to 98.8%), respectively, while the same values for the conventional RPR card test were 86.4% (95% CI 75% to 93.9%) and 94.3% (95% CI 84.3% to 98.8%), respectively. The conventional RPR card test showed overall higher positivity than the automated RPR test, whereas the automated RPR test showed higher seroconversion (43.5%, 10/23) than the conventional RPR card test (4.3%, 1/23) in treated patients. CONCLUSIONS:The automated RPR test showed overall lower sensitivity than the conventional RPR test based on the treponemal test, but higher seroconversion after treatment. The automated RPR test could be used to monitor treatment response, especially in the reverse screening algorithm in syphilis testing.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To assess the utility of a long-term physical activity (PA) intervention for reducing resting pulse rate (RPR) in older persons. DESIGN:Community. SETTING:Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study. PARTICIPANTS:Individuals aged 70 to 89 (N = 1,635, 67.2% women) were randomized to a moderate-intensity PA intervention (n = 818) or a health education-based successful aging (SA) intervention (n = 817). MEASUREMENTS:RPR was recorded at baseline and 6, 18, and 30 months. Longitudinal changes in RPR of intervention groups were compared using a mixed-effects analysis of covariance model for repeated-measure outcomes, generating least squares means with standard errors (SEs) or 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:Mean duration of the study was 2.6 years (median 2.7 years, interquartile range 2.3-3.1 years). The average effect of the PA intervention on RPR over the course of the study period was statistically significant but clinically small (average intervention difference = 0.84 beats/min; 95% CI = 0.17-1.51; Paverage = .01), with the most pronounced effect observed at 18 months (PA, 66.5 beats/min (SE 0.32 beats/min); SA, 67.8 beats/min (SE 0.32 beats/min); difference = 1.37 beats/min, 95% CI = 0.48-2.26 beats/min). The relationship became somewhat weaker and was not statistically significant at 30 months. There were no significant differences between several prespecified subgroups. CONCLUSION:A long-term moderate-intensity PA program was associated with a small and clinically insignificant slowing of RPR in older persons. Whether PA can deliver a beneficial reduction in RPR requires further examination in older adults.
Project description:AIMS:RPR 102681, a cholecystokinin-B antagonist, increased dopamine (DA) release and reduced cocaine self-administration in animals. This pilot study sought to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of co-administration of RPR 102681 and cocaine, and to confirm the DA release mechanism of RPR 102681. METHODS:Sixteen cocaine-dependent participants were randomized to either placebo or RPR102681 at 3 ascending doses; cocaine was co-administered at steady state of RPR 102681. [11 C]raclopride positron emission tomography scans were conducted at baseline and at each RPR102681 dose. RESULTS:RPR 102681 was well tolerated, and safe to co-administer with cocaine. RPR 102681 did not alter the PK of either cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine and showed no intrinsic abuse liability. There was a trend toward reduction of cocaine craving scores. In contrast to animal studies, RPR 102681 significantly increased the binding potential of [11 C]raclopride in the ventral striatum (t test, P < .001) and caudate nucleus (t test, P < .0001) in a small subset of patients, suggesting that it may reduce intrasynaptic striatal DA. CONCLUSION:Overall, this pilot study suggests that RPR 102681 would be unlikely candidate, as an agonist medication for the treatment for cocaine addiction but worth investigating further for possible role in reducing craving.