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The rationale behind targeting the ICOS-ICOS ligand costimulatory pathway in cancer immunotherapy.

ABSTRACT: Inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS, cluster of differentiation (CD278)) is an activating costimulatory immune checkpoint expressed on activated T cells. Its ligand, ICOSL is expressed on antigen-presenting cells and somatic cells, including tumour cells in the tumour microenvironment. ICOS and ICOSL expression is linked to the release of soluble factors (cytokines), induced by activation of the immune response. ICOS and ICOSL binding generates various activities among the diversity of T cell subpopulations, including T cell activation and effector functions and when sustained also suppressive activities mediated by regulatory T cells. This dual role in both antitumour and protumour activities makes targeting the ICOS/ICOSL pathway attractive for enhancement of antitumour immune responses. This review summarises the biological background and rationale for targeting ICOS/ICOSL in cancer together with an overview of the principal ongoing clinical trials that are testing it in combination with anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and anti-programmed cell death-1 or anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 based immune checkpoint blockade.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC7003380 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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