Measuring fidelity to behavioural support delivery for smoking cessation and its association with outcomes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Behavioural support increases smoking cessation in clinical settings, but effect sizes differ among providers, due possibly to variations in delivery. This study evaluates a measure ('fidelity index') intended to capture fidelity to delivery of content- and interaction-based items of a behavioural support (BS) for smoking cessation and the association of fidelity with quit rates. METHODS:A fidelity index for scoring the adherence and quality domains of a specific BS intervention, '5As for quit', was developed by classifying the intervention components using the taxonomy of behaviour change techniques. The index was applied to code 154 BS sessions audiotaped among 18 chest clinics in Pakistan to assess their fidelity and explore reliability of coding. The association between intervention fidelity and successful quit achieved by the same providers in a previous study was explored using regression analysis. RESULTS:The index represented two domains: adherence to delivery of content-based activities of 5As (37 items) and quality of interaction-based activities (eight items). The intercoder reliability was good for content-based (average Krippendorff's ? = 0.80) and moderate for interaction-based (average Krippendorff's ? = 0.66) items. Approximately 70% (intraclass correlation coefficient: adherence scores = 0.72, quality scores = 0.71) of variation in BS delivery was contributed by providers, which increased to 97% (g-coefficient: adherence scores = 0.973, quality scores = 0.974) after accounting for other sources of variation. Higher quit rates were positively associated with average quality scores [risk ratio = 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.43-3.24], but negatively associated with average adherence scores (risk ratio = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.40-0.77) within services. CONCLUSIONS:The fidelity index is a reliable measure for quantifying intervention fidelity of delivering smoking cessation behavioural support. Recommended revisions of the fidelity index include incorporation of additional interaction-based items, such as the relational techniques used in motivational interviewing.
Project description:The 5As for smoking cessation is an evidence-based intervention to aid providers in counseling patients to quit smoking. While most providers "ask" patients about their tobacco use patterns and "advise" them to quit, fewer patients report being "assessed" for their interest in quitting, and even fewer report subsequent "assistance" in a quit attempt and having follow-up "arranged".This article describes the design of an implementation study testing a computer tablet intervention to improve provider adherence to the 5As for smoking cessation. Findings will contribute to the existing literature on technology acceptance for addressing addictive behaviors, and how digital tools may facilitate the broader implementation of evidence-based behavioral counseling practices without adversely affecting clinical flow or patient care.This project develops and tests a computer-facilitated 5As (CF-5As) model that administers the 5As intervention to patients with a computer tablet, then prompts providers to reinforce next steps. During the development phase, 5As' content will be programmed onto computer tablets, alpha and beta-testing of the service delivery model will be done, and pre-intervention interview and questionnaire data will be collected from patients, providers, and clinic staff about 5As fidelity and technology adoption. During the program evaluation phase, a randomized controlled trial comparing a group who receives the CF-5As intervention to one that does not will be conducted to assess 5As fidelity. Using the technology acceptance model, a mixed methods study of contextual and human factors influencing both 5As and technology adoption will also be conducted.Technology is increasingly being used in clinical settings. A technological tool that connects patients, providers, and clinic staff to facilitate the promotion of behavioral interventions such as smoking cessation may provide an innovative platform through which to efficiently and effectively implement evidence-based practices.
Project description:The primary care visit represents an important venue for intervening with a large population of smokers. However, physician adherence to the Smoking Cessation Clinical Guideline (5As) remains low. We evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-tailored intervention designed to increase smoking cessation counseling by primary care physicians.Physicians and their patients were randomized to either intervention or control conditions. In addition to brief smoking cessation training, intervention physicians and patients received a one-page report that characterized the patients' smoking habit and history and offered tailored recommendations. Physician performance of the 5As was assessed via patient exit interviews. Quit rates and smoking behaviors were assessed 6 months postintervention via patient phone interviews. Intervention effects were tested in a sample of 70 physicians and 518 of their patients. Results were analyzed via generalized and mixed linear modeling controlling for clustering.Intervention physicians exceeded controls on "Assess" (OR 5.06; 95% CI 3.22, 7.95), "Advise" (OR 2.79; 95% CI 1.70, 4.59), "Assist-set goals" (OR 4.31; 95% CI 2.59, 7.16), "Assist-provide written materials" (OR 5.14; 95% CI 2.60, 10.14), "Assist-provide referral" (OR 6.48; 95% CI 3.11, 13.49), "Assist-discuss medication" (OR 4.72;95% CI 2.90, 7.68), and "Arrange" (OR 8.14; 95% CI 3.98, 16.68), all p values being < 0.0001. Intervention patients were 1.77 (CI 0.94, 3.34,p = 0.078) times more likely than controls to be abstinent (12 versus 8%), a difference that approached, but did not reach statistical significance, and surpassed controls on number of days quit (18.4 versus 12.2, p < .05) but not on number of quit attempts.The use of a brief computer-tailored report improved physicians' implementation of the 5As and had a modest effect on patients' smoking behaviors 6 months postintervention.
Project description:We assessed whether smoking cessation improved among pregnant smokers who attended Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Supplemental Nutrition Program clinics trained to implement a brief smoking cessation counseling intervention, the 5As: ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange.In Ohio, staff in 38 WIC clinics were trained to deliver the 5As from 2006 through 2010. Using 2005-2011 Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System data, we performed conditional logistic regression, stratified on clinic, to estimate the relationship between women's exposure to the 5As and the odds of self-reported quitting during pregnancy. Reporting bias for quitting was assessed by examining whether differences in infants' birth weight by quit status differed by clinic training status.Of 71,526 pregnant smokers at WIC enrollment, 23% quit. Odds of quitting were higher among women who attended a clinic after versus before clinic staff was trained (adjusted odds ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.29). The adjusted mean infant birth weight was, on average, 96 g higher among women who reported quitting (P<0.0001), regardless of clinic training status.Training all Ohio WIC clinics to deliver the 5As may promote quitting among pregnant smokers, and thus is an important strategy to improve maternal and child health outcomes.
Project description:Smartphone technology is ideally suited to provide tailored smoking cessation support, yet it is unclear to what extent currently existing smartphone "apps" use tailoring, and if tailoring is related to app popularity and user-rated quality.We conducted a content analysis of Android smoking cessation apps (n = 225), downloaded between October 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014. We recorded app popularity (>10,000 downloads) and user-rated quality (number of stars) from Google Play, and coded the existence of tailoring features in the apps within the context of using the 5As ("ask," "advise," "assess," "assist," and "arrange follow-up"), as recommended by national clinical practice guidelines.Apps largely provided simplistic tools (eg, calculators, trackers), and used tailoring sparingly: on average, apps addressed 2.1 ± 0.9 of the 5As and used tailoring for 0.7 ± 0.9 of the 5As. Tailoring was positively related to app popularity and user-rated quality: apps that used two-way interactions (odds ratio [OR] = 5.56 [2.45-12.62]), proactive alerts (OR = 3.80 [1.54-9.38]), responsiveness to quit status (OR = 5.28 [2.18-12.79]), addressed more of the 5As (OR = 1.53 [1.10-2.14]), used tailoring for more As (OR = 1.67 [1.21-2.30]), and/or used more ways of tailoring 5As content (OR = 1.35 [1.13-1.62]) were more likely to be frequently downloaded. Higher star ratings were associated with a higher number of 5As addressed (b = 0.16 [0.03-0.30]), a higher number of 5As with any level of tailoring (b = 0.14 [0.01-0.27]), and a higher number of ways of tailoring 5As content (b = 0.08 [0.002-0.15]).Publically available smartphone smoking cessation apps are not particularly "smart": they commonly fall short of providing tailored feedback, despite users' preference for these features.
Project description:Clinical practice guidelines recommend that clinicians implement the 5As (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) for smoking cessation at every clinical encounter. We sought to examine the prevalence of patient- and clinician-reported 5As in two primary care and one HIV care clinics in San Francisco, California between August 2013 and March 2014 (n = 462 patients and n = 61 clinicians). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify factors associated with receipt of the 5As, adjusting for patient demographics, patient insurance, clinic site, patient tobacco use, and patient comorbidities. The patient-reported prevalence of 5As receipt was as follows: Ask, 49.9%; Advise, 47.2%; Assess, 40.6%; any Assist, 44.9%; and Arrange, 22.4%. In multivariable analysis, receipt of Advise, Assess, and Assist were associated with older patient age. Whereas patients with HIV had a lower odds of reporting being advised (AOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8) or assessed for readiness to quit (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.9), patients with pulmonary diseases had higher odds of reporting being assisted (AOR 1.6, 95% 1.0-2.6) than patients without these diagnoses. Although the majority of clinicians reported asking (91.8%), advising (91.8%), and assessing (93.4%) tobacco use 'most of the time' or 'always' during a clinical encounter, fewer reported assisting (65.7%) or arranging (19.7%) follow-up. Only half of patients reported being screened for tobacco use and fewer reported receipt of the other 5As, with significant disparities in receipt of the 5As among patients with HIV. Our findings confirm the need for interventions to increase clinician-delivered cessation treatment in primary and HIV care.
Project description:The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) found a reduction in lung cancer mortality among participants screened with low-dose computed tomography vs chest radiography. In February 2015, Medicare announced its decision to cover annual lung screening for patients with a significant smoking history. These guidelines promote smoking cessation treatment as an adjunct to screening, but the frequency and effectiveness of clinician-delivered smoking cessation interventions delivered after lung screening are unknown.To determine the association between the reported clinician-delivered 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist [talk about quitting or recommend stop-smoking medications or recommend counseling], and arrange follow-up) after lung screening and smoking behavior changes.A matched case-control study (cases were quitters and controls were continued smokers) of 3336 NLST participants who were smokers at enrollment examined participants' rates and patterns of 5A delivery after a lung screen and reported smoking cessation behaviors.Prevalence of the clinician-delivered 5As and associated smoking cessation after lung screening.Delivery of the 5As 1 year after screening were as follows: ask, 77.2%; advise, 75.6%; assess, 63.4%; assist, 56.4%; and arrange follow-up, 10.4%. Receipt of ask, advise, and assess was not significantly associated with quitting in multivariate models that adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, medical history, screening results, nicotine dependence, and motivation to quit. Assist was associated with a 40% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI,?1.21-1.63), and arrange was associated with a 46% increase in the odds of quitting (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% CI,?1.19-1.79).Assist and arrange follow-up delivered by primary care providers to smokers who were participating in the NLST were associated with increased quitting; less intensive interventions (ask, advise, and assess) were not. However, rates of assist and arrange follow-up were relatively low. Our findings confirm the need for and benefit of clinicians taking more active intervention steps in helping patients who undergo screening to quit smoking.
Project description:Background: Smoke-free hospital policies are becoming increasingly common to promote good health and quit attempts among patients who smoke. This study aims to assess: staff perceived enforcement and compliance with smoke-free policy; the current provision of smoking cessation care; and the characteristics of staff most likely to report provision of care to patients. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey of medical, nursing, and allied staff from two Australian public hospitals was conducted. Staff report of: patient and staff compliance with smoke-free policy; perceived policy enforcement; the provision of the 5As for smoking cessation (Ask, Assess, Advise, Assist, and Arrange follow-up); and the provision of stop-smoking medication are described. Logistic regressions were used to determine respondent characteristics related to the provision of the 5As and stop-smoking medication use during hospital admission. Results: A total of 805 respondents participated. Self-reported enforcement of smoke-free policy was low (60.9%), together with compliance for both patients (12.9%) and staff (23.6%). The provision of smoking cessation care was variable, with the delivery of the 5As ranging from 74.7% (ask) to 18.1% (arrange follow-up). Medical staff (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, CI = 1.13, 3.85, p = 0.018) and full time employees (OR = 2.03, CI = 1.06, 3.89, p = 0.033) were more likely to provide smoking cessation care always/most of the time. Stop-smoking medication provision decreased with increasing age of staff (OR = 0.98, CI = 0.96, 0.99, p = 0.008). Conclusions: Smoke-free policy enforcement and compliance and the provision of smoking cessation care remains low in hospitals. Efforts to improve smoking cessation delivery by clinical staff are warranted.
Project description:Effectiveness of evidence-based behaviour change interventions is likely to be undermined by failure to deliver interventions as planned. Behavioural support for smoking cessation can be a highly cost-effective, life-saving intervention. However, in practice, outcomes are highly variable. Part of this may be due to variability in fidelity of intervention implementation. To date, there have been no published studies on this. The present study aimed to: evaluate a method for assessing fidelity of behavioural support; assess fidelity of delivery in two English Stop-Smoking Services; and compare the extent of fidelity according to session types, duration, individual practitioners, and component behaviour change techniques (BCTs).Treatment manuals and transcripts of 34 audio-recorded behavioural support sessions were obtained from two Stop-Smoking Services and coded into component BCTs using a taxonomy of 43 BCTs. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using percentage agreement. Fidelity was assessed by examining the proportion of BCTs specified in the manuals that were delivered in individual sessions. This was assessed by session type (i.e., pre-quit, quit, post-quit), duration, individual practitioner, and BCT.Inter-coder reliability was high (87.1%). On average, 66% of manual-specified BCTs were delivered per session (SD 15.3, range: 35% to 90%). In Service 1, average fidelity was highest for post-quit sessions (69%) and lowest for pre-quit (58%). In Service 2, fidelity was highest for quit-day (81%) and lowest for post-quit sessions (56%). Session duration was not significantly correlated with fidelity. Individual practitioner fidelity ranged from 55% to 78%. Individual manual-specified BCTs were delivered on average 63% of the time (SD 28.5, range: 0 to 100%).The extent to which smoking cessation behavioural support is delivered as specified in treatment manuals can be reliably assessed using transcripts of audiotaped sessions. This allows the investigation of the implementation of evidence-based practice in relation to smoking cessation, a first step in designing interventions to improve it. There are grounds for believing that fidelity in the English Stop-Smoking Services may be low and that routine monitoring is warranted.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Primary care is the most important point of healthcare contact for smokers. Brief physician advice to quit, based on the 5As/AAR model, offers some efficacy but is inconsistently administered and has limited population impact. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) sampling, defined as provision of a brief NRT starter kit, when added to the 5As/AAR, is well-suited to primary care because it is simple, brief, and can be provided to all smokers. This article describes the design and methods of an ongoing comparative effectiveness trial testing standard care vs. standard care?+?NRT sampling within primary care. METHODS:Smokers were recruited directly from primary care practices between July 2014 and December 2017 within an established network of South Carolina clinics. Interventions were delivered randomly by clinic personnel, and phone-based follow-ups were centrally coordinated by research staff to track outcomes through six months post-intervention. Primary study aims are to examine the impact of NRT sampling on smoking, inclusive of cessation, quit attempts, and uptake of evidence-based treatment. RESULTS:Twenty-two clinics were recruited. Across clinics, patient census ranged from 985 to 10,957 and number of providers ranged from 1 to 63. Average patient age across clinics was 52.9?years and smoking prevalence across ranged from 10.6% to 28.5%. CONCLUSION:Improving the effectiveness and reach of brief interventions within primary care could have a considerable impact on population quit rates. We consider the advantages and disadvantages of key methodological decisions relevant to the design of future primary care-based cessation trials.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Although brief smoking cessation interventions that follow the 5As algorithm (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) can trigger smokers to quit, routine delivery remains low in Europe. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation practices of healthcare professionals interested in tobacco cessation, and their opinions and attitudes. METHODS:A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was adopted. Healthcare professionals (n=133) who attended one of ten training sessions on brief interventions for smoking cessation, held every month between September 2018 and June 2019 in Malta, were recruited. Univariate logistic regression and non-parametric tests were carried out to identify associations by participants' characteristics. Potential confounders were ruled out following multivariate analyses. RESULTS:Most participants were female nurses who had never smoked. While most professionals reportedly asked (76.3%), advised (83.5%) and assessed (70.5%) patients for cessation, fewer provided assistance (40.9%) and arranged followup (24.2%). Compared to other participants, doctors were more likely to have counselled patients over the previous week. Most professionals were favourably disposed towards counselling patients to quit, however, they claimed they had insufficient time to do so. Although most found it difficult to get clients to quit, former smokers were more likely to disagree when compared to those who never smoked (OR=6.86; 95% CI: 2.17-21.71; p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS:While more initiatives to train healthcare professionals in providing smoking cessation interventions are recommended, lack of sufficient time, being an organisational barrier, requires healthcare management exploration and action. Given that former smokers were more confident in helping patients quit, engaging them in training activities would be of added value.