Identification of Candidate Chemosensory Receptors in the Antennae of the Variegated Cutworm, Peridroma saucia Hubner, Based on a Transcriptome Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Insect chemoreception, including olfaction and gustation, involves several families of genes, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), and gustatory receptors (GRs). The variegated cutworm Peridroma saucia Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a worldwide agricultural pest that causes serious damage to many crops. To identify such olfactory and gustatory receptors in P. saucia, we performed a systematic analysis of the antennal transcriptome of adult P. saucia through Illumina sequencing. A total of 103 candidate chemosensory receptor genes were identified, including 63 putative ORs, 10 GRs, 24 IRs, and 6 ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). Phylogenetic relationships of these genes with those from other species were predicted, and specific chemosensory receptor genes were analyzed, including ORco, pheromone receptors (PRs), sugar receptors, CO2 receptors, and IR co-receptors. RT-qPCR analyses of these annotated genes revealed that 6 PRs were predominantly expressed in male antennae; 3 ORs, 1 GR, 2 IRs, and 2 iGluRs had higher expression levels in male than in female antennae; and 14 ORs, 1 GR, and 3 IRs had higher expression levels in female than in male antennae. This research increases the understanding of olfactory and gustatory systems in the antennae of P. saucia and facilitates the discovery of novel strategies for controlling this pest.
Project description:Olfaction plays a crucial role in insect population survival and reproduction. Identification of the genes associated with the olfactory system, without the doubt will promote studying the insect chemical communication system. In this study, RNA-seq technology was used to sequence the antennae transcriptome of Athetis dissimilis, an emerging crop pest in China with limited genomic information, with the purpose of identifying the gene set involved in olfactory recognition. Analysis of the transcriptome of female and male antennae generated 13.74 Gb clean reads in total from which 98,001 unigenes were assembled, and 25,930 unigenes were annotated. Total of 60 olfactory receptors (ORs), 18 gustatory receptors (GRs), and 12 ionotropic receptors (IRs) were identified by Blast and sequence similarity analyzes. One obligated olfactory receptor co-receptor (Orco) and four conserved sex pheromone receptors (PRs) were annotated in 60 ORs. Among the putative GRs, five genes (AdisGR1, 6, 7, 8 and 94) clustered in the sugar receptor family, and two genes (AdisGR3 and 93) involved in CO2 detection were identified. Finally, AdisIR8a.1 and AdisIR8a.2 co-receptors were identified in the group of candidate IRs. Furthermore, expression levels of these chemosensory receptor genes in female and male antennae were analyzed by mapping the Illumina reads.
Project description:Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate neuronal communication at synapses throughout vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. We have characterized a family of iGluR-related genes in Drosophila, which we name ionotropic receptors (IRs). These receptors do not belong to the well-described kainate, AMPA, or NMDA classes of iGluRs, and they have divergent ligand-binding domains that lack their characteristic glutamate-interacting residues. IRs are expressed in a combinatorial fashion in sensory neurons that respond to many distinct odors but do not express either insect odorant receptors (ORs) or gustatory receptors (GRs). IR proteins accumulate in sensory dendrites and not at synapses. Misexpression of IRs in different olfactory neurons is sufficient to confer ectopic odor responsiveness. Together, these results lead us to propose that the IRs comprise a novel family of chemosensory receptors. Conservation of IR/iGluR-related proteins in bacteria, plants, and animals suggests that this receptor family represents an evolutionarily ancient mechanism for sensing both internal and external chemical cues.
Project description:Olfaction plays an indispensable role in mediating insect behavior, such as locating host plants, mating partners, and avoidance of toxins and predators. Olfactory-related proteins are required for olfactory perception of insects. However, very few olfactory-related genes have been reported in Plodia interpunctella up to now. In the present study, we sequenced the antennae transcriptome of P. interpunctella using the next-generation sequencing technology, and identified 117 candidate olfactory-related genes, including 29 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 15 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), three sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 47 odorant receptors (ORs), 14 ionotropic receptors (IRs) and nine gustatory receptors (GRs). Further analysis of qRT-PCR revealed that nine OBPs, three CSPs, two SNMPs, nine ORs and two GRs were specifically expressed in the male antennae, whereas eight OBPs, six CSPs, one SNMP, 16 ORs, two GRs and seven IRs significantly expressed in the female antennae. Taken together, our results provided useful information for further functional studies on insect genes related to recognition of pheromone and odorant, which might be meaningful targets for pest management.
Project description:Insect olfaction and vision play important roles in survival and reproduction. Diurnal butterflies mainly rely on visual cues whereas nocturnal moths rely on olfactory signals to locate external resources. Histia rhodope Cramer (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) is an important pest of the landscape tree Bischofia polycarpa in China and other Southeast Asian regions. As a diurnal moth, H. rhodope represents a suitable model for studying the evolutionary shift from olfactory to visual communication. However, only a few chemosensory soluble proteins have been characterized and information on H. rhodope chemoreceptor genes is currently lacking. In this study, we identified 45 odorant receptors (ORs), nine ionotropic receptors (IRs), eight gustatory receptors (GRs) and two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) from our previously acquired H. rhodope antennal transcriptomic data. The number of chemoreceptors of H. rhodope was less compared with that found in many nocturnal moths. Some specific chemoreceptors such as OR co-receptor (ORco), ionotropic receptors co-receptor, CO2 receptors, sugar receptors and bitter receptors were predicted by phylogenetic analysis. Notably, two candidate pheromone receptors (PRs) were identified within a novel PR lineage. qRT-PCR results showed that almost all tested genes (22/24) were predominantly expressed in antennae, indicating that they may be important in olfactory function. Among these antennae-enriched genes, six ORs, five IRs and two GRs displayed female-biased expression, while two ORs displayed male-biased expression. Additionally, HrhoIR75q.2 and HrhoGR67 were more highly expressed in heads and legs. This study enriches the olfactory gene inventory of H. rhodope and provides the foundation for further research of the chemoreception mechanism in diurnal moths.
Project description:Perception of environmental and habitat cues is of significance for insect survival and reproduction. Odor detection in insects is mediated by a number of proteins in antennae such as odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant degrading enzymes. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the adult male and female antennal transcriptomes of a destructive agricultural pest, the diamondback moth Plutella xyllostella. In these transcriptomes, we identified transcripts belonging to 6 chemoreception gene families related to ordor detection, including 54 ORs, 16 IRs, 7 gustatory receptors (GRs), 15 CSPs, 24 OBPs and 2 SNMPs. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis of expression patterns indicated that some of these ORs and IRs have clear sex-biased and tissue-specific expression patterns. Our results lay the foundation for future characterization of the functions of these P. xyllostella chemosensory receptors at the molecular level and development of novel semiochemicals for integrated control of this agricultural pest.
Project description:The citrus long-horned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) is a destructive native pest in China. Chemosensory receptors including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. In the current study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of A. chinensis by next-generation sequencing. We assembled 44,938 unigenes from 64,787,784 clean reads and annotated their putative gene functions based on gene ontology (GO) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG). Overall, 74 putative receptor genes from chemosensory receptor gene families, including 53 ORs, 17 GRs, and 4 IRs were identified. Expression patterns of these receptors on the antennae, maxillary and labial palps, and remaining body segments of both male and female A. chinensis were performed using quantitative real time-PCR (RT-qPCR). The results revealed that 23 ORs, 6 GRs, and 1 IR showed male-biased expression profiles, suggesting that they may play a significant role in sensing female-produced sex pheromones; whereas 8 ORs, 5 GRs, and 1 IR showed female-biased expression profiles, indicating that these receptors may be involved in some female-specific behaviors such as oviposition site seeking. These results lay a solid foundation for deeply understanding CLB olfactory processing mechanisms. Moreover, by comparing our results with those from chemosensory receptor studies in other cerambycid species, several highly probable pheromone receptor candidates were highlighted, which may facilitate the identification of additional pheromone and/or host attractants in CLB.
Project description:Olfactory transduction is a process by which olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) transform odor information into neuronal electrical signals. This process begins with the binding of odor molecules to receptor proteins on olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) dendrites. The major molecular components involved in olfaction include odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs), ionotropic receptors (IRs), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs). More importantly, as potential molecular targets, chemosensory proteins are used to identify novel attractants or repellants for environmental-friendly pest management. In this study we analyzed the transcriptome of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta striolata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), a serious pest of Brassicaceae crops, to better understand the molecular mechanisms of olfactory recognition in this pest. The analysis of transcriptomes from the antennae and terminal abdomens of specimens of both sexes identified transcripts from several key molecular components of chemoreception including 73 ORs, 36 GRs, 49 IRs, 2 SNMPs, 32 OBPs, 8 CSPs, and four candidate odorant degrading enzymes (ODEs): 143 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), 68 esterases (ESTs), 27 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and 8 UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Bioinformatic analyses indicated that a large number of chemosensory genes were up-regulated in the antennae. This was consistent with a potential role in olfaction. To validate the differential abundance analyses, the expression of 19 genes encoding various ORs, CSPs, and OBPs was assessed via qRT-PCR between non-chemosensory tissue and antennae. Consistent with the bioinformatic analyses, transcripts for all of the genes in the qRT-PCR subset were elevated in antennae. These findings provide the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in the striped flea beetle.
Project description:Olfaction and gustation play critical roles in the life history of insects, mediating vital behaviors such as food, mate and host seeking. Chemosensory receptor proteins, including odorant receptors (ORs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs) function to interface the insect with its chemical environment. Codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is a worldwide pest of apple, pear and walnut, and behavior-modifying semiochemicals are used for environmentally safe control. We produced an Illumina-based transcriptome from antennae of males and females as well as neonate head tissue, affording a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the codling moth chemosensory receptor repertoire. We identified 58 ORs, 20 GRs and 21 IRs, and provide a revised nomenclature that is consistent with homologous sequences in related species. Importantly, we have identified several OR transcripts displaying sex-biased expression in adults, as well as larval-enriched transcripts. Our analyses have expanded annotations of the chemosensory receptor gene families, and provide first-time transcript abundance estimates for codling moth. The results presented here provide a strong foundation for future work on codling moth behavioral physiology and ecology at the molecular level, and may lead to the development of more precise biorational control strategies.
Project description:Periplaneta americana is a notorious urban pest prevalent in human habitats; very little is known about its chemosensory mechanism. Employing the advanced next-generation sequencing technique, in the present study, we conducted transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the antennae of the adult males and females as well as their mouthparts using an Illumina platform. This resulted in the discovery of a huge number of the members of all major known chemosensory receptor families in P. americana, including 96 odorant receptors (ORs), 53 ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 33 gustatory receptors (GRs). Tissue expression profiles showed most of them mainly expressed in antennae and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the expansion in the clade distinguishing them from other functionally well-known Lepidoptera species. A high percentage of chemosensory receptor genes (ORs in particular) showing female antenna bias in mRNA expression was observed. Our results provide a basis for further investigations on how P. americana coordinates its chemosensory receptor genes in chemical communication with environments, and for development of novel pest management approaches.
Project description:Accurate detection and recognition of chemical signals play extremely important roles for insects in their survival and reproduction. Chemosensory receptors, including odorant receptors (ORs), ionotropic receptors (IRs) and gustatory receptors (GRs), are involved in detection of volatile signals. In the present study, we aimed to identify candidate chemosensory receptors, and RNA-seq technology was employed to sequence the antennal transcriptome of Protaetia brevitarsis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), a native agricultural and horticultural pest in East-Asia. According to the sequence similarity analysis, we identified 72 PbreORs, 11 PbreGRs and eight PbreIRs. Among PbreORs, PbreOR2, PbreOR33 and PbreOR53 were preliminarily classified into pheromone receptors. Further qRT-PCR analysis indicated that 11 PbreORs were specifically expressed in the antennae of male P. brevitarsis, whereas 23 PbreORs were specifically expressed in the female antennae. Our results laid a solid foundation for further functional elucidations of insect chemoreceptors, which could be used as the potential targets of pest management.