Upregulation of Circular RNA circATRNL1 to Sensitize Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Irradiation.
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in regulating gene expression involved in tumor development. However, the role of circRNAs in modulating the radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its potential mechanisms have not been documented. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to investigate the circRNA expression profile in OSCC patients and discovered that the circATRNL1 expression was significantly downregulated and closely related to tumor progression. The circATRNL1 was structurally validated via Sanger sequencing, RNase R treatment, and specific convergent and divergent primer amplification. Importantly, the expression levels of circATRNL1 decreased after irradiation treatment, and upregulation of circATRNL1 enhanced the radiosensitivity of OSCC through suppressing proliferation and the colony survival fraction, inducing apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest. Moreover, we observed that circATRNL1 could directly bind to microRNA-23a-3p (miR-23a-3p) and relieve inhibition for the target gene PTEN. In addition, the tumor radiosensitivity-promoting effect of circATRNL1 overexpression was blocked by miR-23a-3p in OSCC. Further experiments also showed that PTEN can reverse the inhibitory effect of OSCC radiosensitivity triggered by miR-23a-3p. We concluded that circANTRL1 may function as the sponge of miR-23a-3p to promote PTEN expression and eventually contributes to OSCC radiosensitivity enhancement. This study indicates that circANTRL1 may be a novel therapeutic target to improve the efficiency of radiotherapy in OSCC.
Project description:Accumulating evidence has shown that long noncoding RNA GAS5 is a well-known tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of a variety of human cancers. However, the detailed role of GAS5 in osteosarcoma is still largely unclear. In this study, we found that GAS5 was downregulated in human osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines compared with matched adjacent tissues and normal osteoblast cells. Overexpression of GAS5 could significantly suppress the growth and invasion of osteosarcoma cells, while downregulation of GAS5 promoted cell proliferation and invasion. We confirmed that GAS5 could directly bind with miR-23a-3p by using luciferase reporter gene and RNA immunoprecipitation and pull-down assay. Downregulation of miR-23a-3p repressed cell proliferation and invasion. Overexpression of miR-23a-3p counterbalanced the inhibition effect of GAS5 on cell proliferation and invasion. Further studies indicated that overexpression of GAS5 inhibited cell proliferation and metastasis by regulating phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). PTEN was authenticated as a target of miR-23a-3p. Upregulation of GAS5 or silence of miR-23a-3p increased the level of PTEN, while downregulation of GAS5 or overexpression of miR-23a-3p suppressed the expression of PTEN. In addition, overexpression of GAS5 could neutralize the effect of downregulating PTEN on osteosarcoma cell functions. We proved that GAS5 regulated the viability and invasion of osteosarcoma cells through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, overexpression of GAS5 could inhibit tumor growth in a xenograft nude mouse model in vivo. In summary, GAS5 functions as a competing endogenous RNA, sponging miR-23a-3p, to promote PTEN expression and suppress cell growth and invasion in osteosarcoma by regulating the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of head and neck. Although radiotherapy is used for OSCC treatment, the occurrence of radioresistant cancer cells limits its efficiency. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs with lengths of 18-25 base pairs and known to be involved in carcinogenesis. We previously demonstrated that by targeting B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1), miR-494-3p functions as a putative tumor suppressor miRNA in OSCC. In this study, we further discovered that miR-494-3p could enhance the radiosensitivity of SAS OSCC cells and induce cellular senescence. The overexpression of miR-494-3p in SAS cells increased the population of senescence-associated ?-galactosidase positive cells, the expression of p16(INK4a) and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), as well as downregulated Bmi1. The knockdown of Bmi1 by lentiviral-mediated delivery of specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) also enhanced the radiosensitivity of SAS cells and the activation of the senescence pathway. Furthermore, the inverse correlation between Bmi1 and miR-494-3p expression was observed among OSCC tissues. Results suggest that miR-494-3p could increase the radiosensitivity of OSCC cells through the induction of cellular senescence caused by the downregulation of Bmi1.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), accounting for two-thirds of head and neck cancer, is characterized by poor prognosis and a high rate of mortality. Exosomes have emerged as potential molecule-shuttle in intercellular communication, thereby regulating the physiological processes of recipient cells. To date, the effect of exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) on the progression of OSCC has not been fully investigated. In this study, we found that the protein, but not mRNA expression of Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) was decreased in OSCC. The results revealed that miR-130b-3p was an important negative regulator for PTEN expression. Additionally, overexpression and knockdown of miR-130b-3p enhanced and inhibited angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), respectively. Also, miR-130b-3p was transferred by exosomes to HUVECs and then promoted angiogenesis and inhibit the expression of PTEN. Furthermore, exosomal miR-130b-3p derived from OSCC cells promoted tumor growth and blood vessel formation in the xenograft mice model. Taken together, we demonstrated that exosome-mediated miR-130b-3p promoted progression and tubular formation in OSCC <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i>. These results would provide new insight into exploring biomarkers and effective therapeutic strategies for OSCC.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress promotes tumor cell escape from immunosurveillance. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We hypothesized that ER stress induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells to release exosomes, which attenuate antitumor immunity by modulating the expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) in macrophages. In this study, we demonstrated that expression of several ER stress markers (glucose-regulated protein 78, activating transcription factor 6, protein kinase R-like ER kinase, and inositol-requiring enzyme 1?) was up-regulated in HCC tissues and negatively correlated with the overall survival and clinicopathological scores in patients with HCC. Expression of ER stress-related proteins positively correlated with CD68+ macrophage recruitment and PD-L1 expression in HCC tissues. High-throughput sequencing analysis identified miR-23a-3p as one of the most abundant microRNAs in exosomes derived from tunicamycin (TM)-treated HCC cells (Exo-TMs). miR-23a-3p levels in HCC tissues negatively correlated with overall survival. Treatment with Exo-TMs up-regulated the expression of PD-L1 in macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that miR-23a-3p regulates PD-L1 expression through the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. This notion was confirmed by in vitro transfection and coculture experiments, which revealed that miR-23a-3p inhibited PTEN expression and subsequently elevated phosphorylated AKT and PD-L1 expression in macrophages. Finally, coculture of T cells with Exo-TM-stimulated macrophages decreased CD8+ T-cell ratio and interleukin-2 production but increased T-cell apoptosis in vitro. Conclusion: ER-stressed HCC cells release exosomes to up-regulate PD-L1 expression in macrophages, which subsequently inhibits T-cell function through an exosome miR-23a-PTEN-AKT pathway. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism how tumor cells escape from antitumor immunity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Among oral maxillofacial cancers, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has the highest incidence. However, the role of circRNAs in OSCC is still not clear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the circRNA expression profile in OSCC and explore further the potential role of circRNAs in the pathogenesis of OSCC.<h4>Methods</h4>CircRNA sequencing was performed in 6 pairs of samples of OSCC and normal oral mucosal tissues. Expression of selected circRNAs was validated by qRT-PCR. GO and KEGG analyses were performed and binding relationships between circRNAs and miRNAs were predicted. The hsa_circ_0001766/miR-877-3p/VEGFA axis was selected to further elucidate its role in OSCC.<h4>Results</h4>We showed that there were 122 differentially expressed (DE) circRNAs. Eight out of 10 selected circRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. GO and KEGG analyses indicated that the identified DE circRNAs might be involved in the progression of OSCC. Then, after identification by Sanger sequencing and RNase R assay, the upregulated hsa_circ_0001766 was selected to investigate its potential role in OSCC. Bioinformatics analysis showed that hsa_circ_0001766 might act as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) that sponged miR-877-3p to upregulate VEGFA expression. We selected OSCC cell lines SCC9 and SCC25. PCR results showed that the expression of hsa_circ_0001766 and VEGFA was upregulated in SCC9 and SCC25. Subsequently, using western blot, PCR, CCK8, and colony formation assays, we found that knocking down circRNA0001766 inhibited the expression of VEGFA and the proliferation of OSCC cells. Following this, miR-877-3p inhibitor reversed the inhibitory effect of si-hsa_circ_0001766 on expression of VEGFA and proliferation of OSCC cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In conclusion, our study revealed the possible role of circRNAs in the pathogenesis of OSCC, and identified the potential role of the hsa_circ_0001766/miR-877-3p/VEGFA axis in OSCC progression.
Project description:Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common cancer with high recurrence, metastasis rates and poor prognosis. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) take part in regulating OSCC. Herein, we examined the role of circ_0008068 in OSCC. The circ_0008068, Katanin p60 ATPase-containing subunit A-like 1 (KATNAL1) mRNA, microRNA-153-3p (miR-153-3p) and acylgycerol kinase (AGK) contents were indicated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo assays were conducted to scrutinize the effects of circ_0008068 on OSCC. Additionally, the contact between miR-153-3p and circ_0008068 or AGK was assessed by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay. Thereafter, we found that the appearance of circ_0008068 and AGK was increased, and miR-153-3p content was diminished in OSCC. Circ_0008068 lack subdued cell proliferation, migration, invasion, tube formation and glycolysis metabolism, but stimulated cell apoptosis in OSCC. In addition, circ_0008068 bound to miR-153-3p to modulate the expression of its target AGK. Besides, miR-153-3p was validated to act as a tumor suppressor in OSCC tumorigenesis by suppressing AGK. Additionally, circ_0008068 knockdown also attenuated tumor growth in nude mice. In all, circ_0008068 expedited the growth of OSCC by miR-153-3p/AGK axis.<b>Abbreviations:</b> OSCC: Oral squamous cell carcinoma; AGK: Acylgycerol kinase; CircRNA: Circular RNA; KATNAL1: Katanin p60 ATPase-containing subunit A-like 1; qRT-PCR: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; miRNAs/miRs: MicroRNAs; RIP: RNA immunoprecipitation; 3'UTR3': -untranslated region; HK2: Hexokinase 2; LDHA Lactate dehydrogenase A; IHC: Immunohistochemistry; CCK8: Cell counting kit-8; GAPDH: Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Circular RNAs (circRNAs) could participate in cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (DDP) resistance of human cancers. However, circRNAs role in DDP resistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression remains largely undeveloped. Here, we attempted to explore the role of circ-SCMH1 (ID hsa_circ_0011946) in acquired DDP resistance.<h4>Methods</h4>Expression of circ-SCMH1, microRNA (miR)-338-3p and Lin-28 homolog B (LIN28B) was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting, and their interactions were confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down assay. DDP resistance was assessed by MTT assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, transwell assays, western blotting, and xenograft experiment. Transmission electron microscopic analysis, nanoparticle tracking analysis and western blotting confirmed the characterizations of extracellular vesicles (EVs).<h4>Results</h4>Circ-SCMH1 was upregulated in DDP-resistant OSCC tissues and cells (SCC-15/DDP and CAL-27/DDP). Circ-SCMH1 knockdown suppressed the half-maximal inhibitory concentration of DDP, colony formation, and migration/invasion in SCC-15/DDP and CAL-27/DDP cells, but promoted apoptosis rate and apoptotic proteins (Bax and cleaved-caspase-3) expression. However, silencing miR-338-3p abrogated above effects, and overexpressing miR-338-3p mimicked that. Similarly, miR-338-3p overexpression role could be counteracted by restoring LIN28B. Moreover, interfering circ-SCMH1 retarded tumor growth of SCC-15/DDP cells in vivo with DDP treatment or not. Mechanistically, circ-SCMH1 directly sponged miR-338-3p in regulating LIN28B, a target gene for miR-338-3p. Notably, circ-SCMH1 was an EVs cargo, and DDP-resistant OSCC cells-derived EVs could provoke circ-SCMH1 upregulation in parental cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Circ-SCMH1 contributes to chemoresistance of DDP-resistant OSCC cells partially via EVs secretion and circ-SCMH1/miR-338-3p/LIN28B axis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An increasing number of studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of tumor progression. Therefore, we explored the expression characteristics, function, and related mechanism of the newly identified circNALCN in glioma.<h4>Methods</h4>RNA sequencing was used to analyze the expression profiles of circRNAs in brain tissue from five glioma cases and four normal controls. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was implemented to examine the levels of circNALCN, miR-493-3p, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Cell counting kit 8 assays were performed to analyze cell proliferation, and cell migration was assessed by the wound healing test and Transwell assay. Dual-luciferase reporter, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and RNA pulldown assays were performed to confirm the role of circNALCN as an miR-493-3p sponge, weakening the inhibitory effect of miR-493-3p on target PTEN expression.<h4>Results</h4>The downregulated expression of circNALCN was observed in both glioma tissues and cell lines. CircNALCN expression was negatively correlated with World Health Organization grade and overall survival in patients with glioma. Functionally, the overexpression of circNALCN significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of glioma cells, whereas miR-493-3p mimics counteracted these effects. The mechanistic analysis demonstrated that circNALCN acted as a competing endogenous RNA for miR-493-3p to relieve the repressive effects of miR-493-3p on its target, PTEN, suppressing glioma tumorigenesis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CircNALCN inhibits the progression of glioma through the miR-493-3p/PTEN axis, providing a developable biomarker and therapeutic target for glioma patients.
Project description:Mucosal melanoma (MM) is the second most common melanoma subtype in Asian populations. Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been extensively investigated in various cancers, including cutaneous melanoma. However, the roles of miRNAs in MM are unclear. In this study, we carried out miRNA profiling in MM, and we investigated the clinical and biological roles of miR-23a-3p in MM. <b>Methods</b>: miRNA expression in MM was profiled by miRNA microarray analysis. The expression of miR-23a-3p was quantitated by qRT-PCR in a cohort of 117 patients with MM, and its prognostic significance was evaluated. The biological effect of miR-23a-3p was demonstrated by both <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> studies through ectopic expression of miR-23a-3p. The target gene of miR-23a-3p and molecular pathway influenced by it was characterized using <i>in silico</i> target prediction tools, dual luciferase reporter assays, knockdown, and rescue experiments. <b>Results</b>: Microarray and qRT-PCR results showed that the miR-23a-3p level was substantially lower in MM, and low miR-23a-3p expression was significantly associated with poor outcomes. Ectopic expression of miR-23a-3p suppressed MM cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity, indicating that miR-23a-3p has a tumor-suppressive role in MM. Mechanistic investigations identified adenylate cyclase 1 (ADCY1) as a direct target of miR-23a-3p in MM, and knockdown of ADCY1 recapitulated all the phenotypic characteristics of miR-23a-3p overexpression. Targeting of ADCY1 by miR-23a-3p resulted in the suppression of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. <b>Conclusions</b>: Our data highlight the molecular etiology and clinical significance of miR-23a-3p in MM and reveal its major target and biological function. miR-23a-3p may represent a new prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target in MM.
Project description:<h4>Aims/introduction</h4>Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) possess crucial functions in governing metabolisms associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-23a-3p in pyroptosis caused by nucleotide-binding oligomerization-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammatory body activation, thereby reducing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>miR-23a-3p and NIMA-related kinase 7 (NEK7) expression in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and rat models was examined. Dual-luciferase reporter gene experiments were used to verify the targeting relationship between miR-23a-3p and NEK7. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were transfected with miR-23a-3p mimic, miR-23a-3p inhibitor or short hairpin NEK7 and were treated with a specific activator of NLRP3 inflammatory body (lipopolysaccharide + adenosine-5'-triphosphate) to evaluate expression of NEK7, miR-23a-3p, gasdermin D p30, pro-caspase-1 and caspase-1 in cells, and interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? in supernatant. Type 2 diabetes mellitus rat models were used to observe the influences of miR-23a-3p, NEK7 and NLRP3 inflammatory body on pyroptosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus in vivo.<h4>Results</h4>NEK7 was overexpressed, whereas miR-23a-3p was underexpressed in patients and rat models with type 2 diabetes mellitus. NEK7 was a target gene of miR-23a-3p. After the addition of lipopolysaccharide + adenosine-5'-triphosphate in bone marrow-derived macrophages, the expression of miR-23a-3p subsequently declined. Furthermore, the addition of lipopolysaccharide + adenosine-5'-triphosphate elevated NEK7, NLRP3, pro-caspase-1, cle-caspase-1 and gasdermin D p30 expressions in bone marrow-derived macrophages, and enhanced levels of interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? in the supernatant, accompanied with conspicuous cell pyroptosis, which was reversed after miR-23a-3p overexpression and NEK7 silencing. miR-23a-3p overexpression alleviated liver and kidney damage in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats, and reduced NLRP3-induced pyroptosis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Targeting NEK7 by miR-23a-3p could reduce NLRP3-induced pyroptosis, and assuage liver and kidney injuries in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.