Targeted regions sequencing identified four novel PNPLA1 mutations in two Chinese families with autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare genetically heterogeneous cutaneous disease predominantly characterized by erythroderma, generalized abnormal scaling of the whole body and a collodion membrane at birth. Numerous causative genes have been demonstrated to be responsible for ARCI including PNPLA1 which can cause ARCI type 10. The objectives of this study are to describe clinical features of three ARCI patients from two Chinese unrelated families and to identify the underlying causative mutations. METHODS:Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral venous blood obtained from the two Chinese ARCI families in Shandong province. Subsequently, targeted regions sequencing (TRS) followed by Sanger sequencing was conducted to identify and validate the likely pathogenic mutations of the ARCI families. RESULTS:Genetic analyses revealed four novel PNPLA1 variants that are predicted to be probably to lead to ARCI in three patients of two families. Patient 1 in one family was in compound heterozygous status for c.604delC/p.Arg202Glyfs*27 and c.820dupC/p.Arg274Profs*15, whereas c.738_742delinsCCCACAGATCCTGC/ p.Gly247_Tyr248delinsProGlnIleLeuHis, and c.816dupC/p.Arg274Profs*15 were found in patient 2 and 3 of the other family. In addition, these variants cosegregate in the two pedigrees and are all within highly conserved regions of the PNPLA1 protein, which indicate that the four mutations are likely pathogenic. CONCLUSION:Our findings not only broaden the mutational spectrum of PNPLA1, but also contribute to establishing genotype-phenotype correlations for different forms of ARCI.
Project description:There are at least 38 mutant genes known to be associated with the ichthyosis phenotypes, and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a specific subgroup caused by mutations in 13 different genes. Mutations in some of these genes, such as CERS3 with only two previous reports, are rare. In this study, we identified mutations in candidate genes in consanguineous families with ARCI with a next generation sequencing (NGS) array that incorporates 38 ichthyosis associated genes. We applied this sequencing array to DNA from 140 ichthyosis families with high prevalence of consanguinity. Among these patients we identified six distinct, previously unreported mutations in CERS3 in six Iranian families. These mutations in each family co-segregated with the ichthyosis phenotype. The patients demonstrated collodion membrane at birth, acrogeria, generalized scaling, and hyperlinearity of the palms and soles. The presence of a significant percentage of CERS3 mutations in our cohort depicts a marked difference between the etiology of ichthyoses in genetically poorly characterized regions and well-characterized western populations. Also, it shows that rare alleles are more prevalent in the gene pool of consanguineous populations and emphasizes the importance of these population studies for better understanding of ichthyosis pathogenesis.
Project description:Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare hereditary disorder of cornification. Mutations in the transglutaminase-1 (TGM1) gene, which encodes for the epidermal enzyme transglutaminase-1 (TGase-1), are one of the causes of ARCI.The TGM1 mutation spectrum was characterised and genotype-phenotype correlations investigated in 104 patients with ARCI ascertained through the National Registry for Ichthyosis and Related Disorders in the USA. Methods: Germline mutations in TGM1 were identified in 55% (57/104) of patients with ARCI. Arginine residues in TGase-1 were mutated in 39% (22/57) of patients overall and 54% (20/37) of those with missense mutations. In total, 55% (12/22) of missense mutations were within CpG dinucleotides and 92% (11/12) of these mutations were C-->T or G-->A transitions. The genotype-phenotype investigation found that ARCI with TGM1 mutations was significantly associated with presence of collodion membrane at birth (p = 0.006), ectropion (p = 0.001), plate-like scales (p = 0.005) and alopecia (p = 0.001). Patients who had at least one mutation predicted to truncate TGase-1 were more likely to have more severe hypohidrosis (p = 0.001) and overheating (p = 0.0007) at onset of symptoms than were those with exclusively TGM1 missense mutations. A logistic model was developed, which predicted that individuals with collodion membrane, alopecia and/or eye problems are about four times more likely to have TGM1 mutations than patients without these findings.This is the largest investigation of patients with ARCI to date. It expands the TGM1 mutation spectrum and confirms that despite genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in ARCI, TGM1 is the main causative gene for this disorder. The high frequency of mutated arginine codons in TGM1 may be due to the deamination of CpG dinucleotides.
Project description:Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) can be divided into 3 types including lamellar ichthyosis (OMIM 242304), nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (OMIM 242100) and harlequin ichthyosis (OMIM 242500). The last type is uncommon since newborns with harlequin ichthyosis usually die shortly after birth. Several genes have been linked to ARCI, but these represent only 60% of the known genetic causes of this condition.After having performed a linkage analysis, we analyzed the DNA of 2 consanguineous Pakistani families with ARCI for NIPAL4 mutations and performed in situ hybridization (ISH) for NIPAL4 mRNA in the epidermis.The haplotype analysis revealed a linkage to chromosome 5, and we identified a recurrent missense mutation, p.A176D, in affected individuals from both families. We also determined by ISH that NIPAL4 mRNA is highly expressed in the granular cell layer of the epidermis, consistent with the ARCI phenotype.Our results expand the spectrum of the clinical manifestations of the NIPAL4 gene and further extend our understanding of its molecular function.
Project description:Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare heterogeneous keratinization disorder of the skin. It is clinically divided into 2 subtypes, lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and congenital ichthyosiformis erythroderma (CIE). We investigated forty-three ARCI Egyptian individuals in 16 severe LI, and 10 CIE families. We identified 5 alleles in two Egyptian families as having intron-5/exon-6 splice acceptor mutation recognized by the MspI restriction endonuclease. This promoted to a frequency of 9.6% for this mutation (5 splice-mutation alleles/52 alleles tested). We extended our previous dataset to update the detection of R142H mutation in 4 CIE Egyptian families and one LI phenotype (frequency of 28.8%; 15/52), whereas we still had no R141H among our Egyptian population. There was no correlation between phenotype and genotype in our study. Surprisingly, the mutant alleles detected in intron-5 acceptor splice-site were associated with the other extreme of CIE phenotypes rather than the severe LI form. We clearly demonstrated that the ARCI Egyptian families in Upper Egypt was ethnically pure and had a tendency not to be a hybrid with other populations in Lower Egypt, Delta zone and Cairo city.
Project description:Ichthyoses are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of genodermatoses associated with abnormal scaling of the skin over the whole body. Mutations in nine genes are known to cause non-syndromic forms of autosomal-recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). However, not all genetic causes for ARCI have been discovered to date. Using whole-exome sequencing (WES) and multigene panel screening, we identified 6 ARCI-affected individuals from three unrelated families with mutations in Sulfotransferase family 2B member 1 (SULT2B1), showing their causative association with ARCI. Cytosolic sulfotransferases form a large family of enzymes that are involved in the synthesis and metabolism of several steroids in humans. We identified four distinct mutations including missense, nonsense, and splice site mutations. We demonstrated the loss of SULT2B1 expression at RNA and protein levels in keratinocytes from individuals with ARCI by functional analyses. Furthermore, we succeeded in reconstructing the morphologic skin alterations in a 3D organotypic tissue culture model with SULT2B1-deficient keratinocytes and fibroblasts. By thin layer chromatography (TLC) of extracts from these organotypic cultures, we could show the absence of cholesterol sulfate, the metabolite of SULT2B1, and an increased level of cholesterol, indicating a disturbed cholesterol metabolism of the skin upon loss-of-function mutation in SULT2B1. In conclusion, our study reveals an essential role for SULT2B1 in the proper development of healthy human skin. Mutation in SULT2B1 leads to an ARCI phenotype via increased proliferation of human keratinocytes, thickening of epithelial layers, and altered epidermal cholesterol metabolism.
Project description:Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare genetic disorder of the skin characterized by abnormal desquamation over the whole body. In this study we report four patients from three consanguineous Tunisian families with skin, eye, heart, and skeletal anomalies, who harbor a homozygous contiguous gene deletion syndrome on chromosome 15q26.3. Genome-wide SNP-genotyping revealed a homozygous region in all affected individuals, including the same microdeletion that partially affects two coding genes (ADAMTS17, CERS3) and abolishes a sequence for a long non-coding RNA (FLJ42289). Whereas mutations in ADAMTS17 have recently been identified in autosomal recessive Weill-Marchesani-like syndrome in humans and dogs presenting with ophthalmologic, cardiac, and skeletal abnormalities, no disease associations have been described for CERS3 (ceramide synthase 3) and FLJ42289 so far. However, analysis of additional patients with non-syndromic ARCI revealed a splice site mutation in CERS3 indicating that a defect in ceramide synthesis is causative for the present skin phenotype of our patients. Functional analysis of patient skin and in vitro differentiated keratinocytes demonstrated that mutations in CERS3 lead to a disturbed sphingolipid profile with reduced levels of epidermis-specific very long-chain ceramides that interferes with epidermal differentiation. Taken together, these data present a novel pathway involved in ARCI development and, moreover, provide the first evidence that CERS3 plays an essential role in human sphingolipid metabolism for the maintenance of epidermal lipid homeostasis.
Project description:Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a rare, heterogenous keratinization disorder of the skin, classically divided into two clinical subtypes, lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiformis erythroderma (CIE). Recently, strong evidence for the involvement of the transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1) in LI has evolved. We have studied ARCI in the isolated Finnish population, in which recessive disorders are often caused by single mutations enriched by a founder effect. Surprisingly, five different mutations of TGM1 (Arg141His, Arg142Cys, Gly217Ser, Val378Leu, and Arg395Leu) were found in Finnish ARCI patients. In addition to affected LI patients, we also identified TGM1 mutations in CIE patients. Moreover, haplotype analysis of the chromosomes carrying the most common mutation, a C-->T transition changing Arg142 to Cys, revealed that the same mutation has been introduced twice in the Finnish population. In addition to this Arg142Cys mutation, three other mutations, in Arg141 and Arg142, have been described elsewhere, in other populations. These findings suggest that this region of TGM1 is more susceptible to mutation. The corresponding amino acid sequence is conserved in other transglutaminases, but, for example, coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) mutations do not cluster in this region. Protein modeling of the Arg142Cys mutation suggested disruption or destabilization of the protein. In transfection studies, the closely related transglutaminase FXIII protein with the corresponding mutation was shown to be susceptible to degradation in COS cells, further supporting evidence of the destabilizing effect of the Arg142Cys mutation in TGM1.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of skin disorders. Several mutant genes have been identified in ARCI, but the association between genotype and phenotype is poorly understood. METHODS: To investigate genotype-phenotype correlations in ARCI, we selected 27 patients from 18 families with specific ultrastructural features of the epidermis. The characteristic findings using electron microscopy (EM) were abnormal lamellar bodies and elongated membranes in the stratum granulosum, classified as ARCI EM type III. DNA samples from a subset of affected individuals were screened for homozygous genomic regions, and a candidate gene region was identified on chromosome 5q33. The region coincides with the ichthyin gene, previously reported as mutated in ARCI. RESULTS: Mutation screening of ichthyin revealed missense or splice-site mutations in affected members from 16 of 18 (89%) families with characteristics of ARCI EM type III. In a control group of 18 patients with ARCI without EM findings consistent with type III, we identified one patient homozygous for a missense mutation in ichthyin. DISCUSSION: Our findings indicate a strong association between ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer of epidermis and ichthyin mutations. The results also suggest that EM provides a tool for specific diagnosis in a genetically homogenous subgroup of patients with ARCI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous skin disease, associated with defects in the skin permeability barrier. Several but not all genes with underlying mutations have been identified, but a clear correlation between genetic causes and clinical picture has not been described to date. METHODS:Our study included 19 families from Saudi Arabia, Yemen, and Pakistan. All patients were born to consanguineous parents and diagnosed with ARCI. Mutations were analyzed by homozygosity mapping and direct sequencing. RESULTS:We have detected mutations in all families in five different genes: TGM1, ABCA12, CYP4F22, NIPAL4, and ALOXE3. Five likely pathogenic variants were unknown so far, a splice site and a missense variant in TGM1, a splice site variant in NIPAL4, and missense variants in ABCA12 and CYP4F22. We attributed TGM1 and ABCA12 mutations to the most severe forms of lamellar and erythematous ichthyoses, respectively, regardless of treatment. Other mutations highlighted the presence of a phenotypic spectrum in ARCI. CONCLUSION:Our results contribute to expanding the mutational spectrum of ARCI and revealed new insights into genotype/phenotype correlations. The findings are instrumental for a faster and more precise diagnosis, a better understanding of the pathophysiology, and the definition of targets for more specific therapies for ARCI.
Project description:Ichthyoses are clinically characterized by scaling or hyperkeratosis of the skin or both. It can be an isolated condition limited to the skin or appear secondarily with involvement of other cutaneous or systemic abnormalities.The present study investigated clinical and molecular characterization of three consanguineous families (A, B, C) segregating two different forms of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). Linkage in three consanguineous families (A, B, C) segregating two different forms of ARCI was searched by typing microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism marker analysis. Sequencing of the two genes TGM1 and ALOXE3 was performed by the dideoxy chain termination method.Genome-wide linkage analysis established linkage in family A to TGM1 gene on chromosome 14q11 and in families B and C to ALOXE3 gene on chromosome 17p13. Subsequently, sequencing of these genes using samples from affected family members led to the identification of three novel mutations: a missense variant p.Trp455Arg in TGM1 (family A); a nonsense variant p.Arg140* in ALOXE3 (family B); and a complex rearrangement in ALOXE3 (family C).The present study further extends the spectrum of mutations in the two genes involved in causing ARCI. Characterizing the clinical spectrum resulting from mutations in the TGM1 and ALOXE3 genes will improve diagnosis and may direct clinical care of the family members.