M2 macrophages predict worse long-term outcomes in human acute tubular necrosis.
ABSTRACT: Although macrophages are important players in the injury/repair processes in animal models of acute kidney injury (AKI), their roles in human AKI remains uncertain owing to a paucity of human biopsy studies. We investigated the role of macrophages in 72 cases of biopsy-proven acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and six cases of healthy kidney. Macrophages were identified by CD68 and CD163 immunohistochemistry and analyzed for their effect on renal outcomes. CD163+ M2 macrophages outnumbered CD68+ cells in the healthy kidneys, suggesting that CD163+ macrophages are resident macrophages. The infiltration of both subtypes of macrophages increased significantly in ATN. The density of the CD68+ macrophages was significantly higher in advanced-stage AKI, whereas CD163+ M2 macrophages was not. Eighty percent of patients exhibited renal functional recovery during follow-up. Older age and a higher density of CD163+ macrophages predicted non-recovery, whereas the AKI stage, tubular injury score, and density of CD68+ cells did not. The density of CD163+ M2 macrophages was an independent predictor of low eGFR at 3 months in advanced-stage AKI. This is the first human study demonstrating the possible role of macrophages in the injury and repair phases of AKI.
Project description:In several malignant tumors including lymphoma, macrophages that infiltrate tumor tissues are called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). We discovered that TAMs, especially the CD163? alternatively activated phenotype (M2), were closely involved with progression of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). We used CD68 (a pan-macrophage marker) and CD163 (an M2 marker) to immunostain 58 ATLL samples. Statistical analyses showed that a high number of CD68? TAMs and an increased percentage of CD163? cells among the TAMs were associated with a worse clinical prognosis; multivariate analysis indicated that the percentage of CD163? cells was an independent prognostic factor. We also carried out in vitro coculture experiments with ATLL cell lines (ATN-1 and TL-Mor) and monocyte-derived macrophages and found that direct coculture with M2 macrophages significantly increased BrdU incorporation into ATLL cell lines. A cytokine array analysis showed that macrophage-derived soluble factors including C5a, tumor necrosis factor-?, growth-related oncogene-?, CCL1/I-309, and interleukin-6 stimulated ATLL cell lines. CD163 expression in macrophages was strongly induced by direct contact with ATN-1 cells, and downregulation of CD163 in macrophages significantly suppressed growth of cocultured ATN-1 cells. These results suggest that interaction between M2 macrophages and lymphoma cells may be an appropriate target in treatment of patients with ATLL.
Project description:Macrophages play an important role in rhabdomyolysis-acute kidney injury (AKI), although the molecular mechanisms involved in macrophage differentiation are poorly understood. We analyzed the expression and regulation of CD163, a membrane receptor mainly expressed by anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, in rhabdomyolysis-AKI and developed targeted probes for its specific detection in vivo by MRI. Intramuscular injection of glycerol in mice promoted an early inflammatory response, with elevated proportion of M1 macrophages, and partial differentiation towards a M2 phenotype in later stages, where increased CD163 expression was observed. Immunohistological studies confirmed the presence of CD163-macrophages in human rhabdomyolysis-AKI. In cultured macrophages, myoglobin upregulated CD163 expression via HO-1/IL-10 axis. Moreover, we developed gold-coated iron oxide nanoparticles vectorized with an anti-CD163 antibody that specifically targeted CD163 in kidneys from glycerol-injected mice, as determined by MRI studies, and confirmed by electron microscopy and immunological analysis. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that CD163 is present in both human and experimental rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI, suggesting an important role of this molecule in this pathological condition. Therefore, the use of probes targeting CD163-macrophages by MRI may provide important information about the cellular composition of renal lesion in rhabdomyolysis.
Project description:Tumor associated macrophages are major inflammatory cells that play an important role in the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the prognostic significance of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) in MSI-high gastric cancers using immunohistochemistry. CD68 and CD163 were used as markers for total infiltrating macrophages and M2-polarized macrophages, respectively. The density of CD68+ or CD163+ TAMs in four different areas (epithelial and stromal compartments of both the tumor center and invasive front) were analyzed in 143 cases of MSI-high advanced gastric cancers using a computerized image analysis system. Gastric cancers were scored as "0" or "1" in each area when the density of CD68+ and CD163+ TAMs was below or above the median value. Low density of CD68+ or CD163+ macrophages in four combined areas was closely associated with more frequent low-grade histology and the intestinal type tumor of the Lauren classification. In survival analysis, the low density of CD163+ TAMs was significantly associated with poor disease-free survival. In multivariate survival analysis, CD163+ TAMs in four combined areas, stromal and epithelial compartments of both tumor center and invasive front were independent prognostic indicator in MSI-high gastric cancers. In addition, the density of CD163+ TAMs correlated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Our results indicate that the high density of CD163+ TAMs is an independent prognostic marker heralding prolonged disease-free survival and that the prognostic implication of CD163+ TAMs might be determined by the proportional balance of TAMs and TILs in MSI-high gastric cancers.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical condition that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Inflammation is reported to play a key role in AKI. Although the M2 macrophages exhibit antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, their therapeutic potential has not been evaluated for AKI. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of peritoneal M2 macrophage transplantation on AKI in mice. The macrophages were isolated from peritoneal dialysates of mice. The macrophages were induced to undergo M2 polarization using interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13. AKI was induced in mice by restoring the blood supply after bilateral renal artery occlusion for 30 minutes. The macrophages were injected into the renal cortex of mice. The changes in renal function, inflammation and tubular proliferation were measured. The M2 macrophages were co-cultured with the mouse primary proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) under hypoxia/reoxygenation conditions in vitro. The PTEC apoptosis and proliferation were analysed. The peritoneal M2 macrophages effectively alleviated the renal injury and inflammatory response in mice with ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and promoted the PTEC proliferation in vivo and in vitro. These results indicated that the peritoneal M2 macrophages ameliorated AKI by decreasing inflammatory response and promoting PTEC proliferation. Hence, the peritoneal M2 macrophage transplantation can serve as a potential cell therapy for renal diseases.
Project description:The types of cells most significantly linked to individual subtypes of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) remain unclear. Few studies have examined CD163+ macrophages in IIPs.We retrospectively aimed to immunohistochemically characterize the CD163+ macrophages in IIPs.Paraffin-embedded lung tissue samples were obtained from 47 patients with IIPs, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), and cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), and 12 normal controls were immunohistochemically analyzed, using primary antibodies against CD68 and CD163 as indicators of pan and M2 macrophages, respectively.CD68+ macrophage density was significantly increased in the 3 subtypes of IIPs relative to that in the control group, although no difference was detected within the different IIPs. CD163+ macrophage density was significantly increased in NSIP and COP samples relative to that in IPF samples. The density ratio of CD163+ macrophages to CD68+ macrophages was significantly decreased in IPF/UIP samples relative to that in the others, while the densities in NSIP and COP were significantly higher than those in control cases.CD163+ macrophages show distinct profiles among IIPs, and the standardized numerical density is decreased in IPF cases that have poor prognoses.
Project description:Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th) 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a suitable tool for the characterisation of macrophage polarisation in situ. Furthermore, CD163 cannot be considered a reliable M2 marker when used on its own.
Project description:Acute pancreatitis remains a disease of uncertain pathogenesis and no established specific therapy. Previously, we found a predominant increase and active proliferation of macrophages in the inflamed tissues of a rat duct-ligation pancreatitis model. To analyze the origin and possible role of these macrophages, we investigated their in situ cellular kinetics in a rat model of duct-ligation pancreatitis using a recently established method of multicolor immunostaining for macrophage markers and for proliferating cells with ethynyl deoxyuridine. To detect monocyte-derived macrophages, green fluorescent protein-transgenic (GFP(+)) leukocytes were transferred to monocyte-depleted recipients. In the inflamed pancreas, infiltrating macrophages were mainly two phenotypes, CD68(+)CD163(-) round cells and CD68(+)CD163(+) large polygonal cells, both of which showed active proliferation. In the interlobular area, the proportions of CD68(+)CD163(low) and CD68(+)CD163(high) cells increased over time. Most expressed the M2-macrophage markers CD206 and arginase 1. In contrast, in the interacinar area, CD68(+) cells did not upregulate CD163 and CD206, but ~30 % of them expressed the M1 marker nitric oxide synthase 2 on day 4. GFP(+)-recruited cells were primarily CD68(+)CD163(-) monocytes on day 1 and showed phenotypic changes similar to those of the monocyte non-depleted groups. In conclusion, infiltrating macrophages mostly formed two distinct subpopulations in different areas: monocyte-derived macrophages with the M2 phenotype in the interlobular area or non-M2 phenotype in the interacinar area. Involvement of resident macrophages might be minor in this model. These results are the first demonstration of an upregulated M2 phenotype in rat inflammatory monocytes, which may promote tissue repair.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are alternatively activated macrophages that enhance tumor progression by promoting tumor cell invasion, migration and angiogenesis. TAMs have an anti-inflammatory function resembling M2 macrophages. CD163 is regarded as a highly specific monocyte/macrophage marker for M2 macrophages. In this study we evaluated the specificity of using the M2 macrophage marker CD163 as a TAM marker and compared its prognostic value with the more frequently used pan-macrophage marker CD68. We also analyzed the prognostic value of the localization of CD163(+) and CD68(+) myeloid cells in human breast cancer. METHODS: The extent of infiltrating CD163(+) or CD68(+) myeloid cells in tumor nest versus tumor stroma was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays with tumors from 144 breast cancer cases. Spearman's Rho and χ(2) tests were used to examine the correlations between CD163(+) or CD68(+) myeloid cells and clinicopathological parameters. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modeling were used to assess the impact of CD163(+) and CD68(+) myeloid cells in tumor stroma and tumor nest, respectively, on recurrence free survival, breast cancer specific and overall survival. RESULTS: We found that infiltration of CD163(+) and CD68(+) macrophages into tumor stroma, but not into tumor nest, were of clinical relevance. CD163(+) macrophages in tumor stroma positively correlated with higher grade, larger tumor size, Ki67 positivity, estrogen receptor negativity, progesterone receptor negativity, triple-negative/basal-like breast cancer and inversely correlated with luminal A breast cancer. Some CD163(+) areas lacked CD68 expression, suggesting that CD163 could be used as a general anti-inflammatory myeloid marker with prognostic impact. CD68(+) macrophages in tumor stroma positively correlated to tumor size and inversely correlated to luminal A breast cancer. More importantly, CD68 in tumor stroma was an independent prognostic factor for reduced breast cancer specific survival. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of analyzing the localization rather than merely the presence of TAMs as a prognostic marker for breast cancer patients.
Project description:Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) is a mitochondrial antioxidant that regulates apoptosis in various cancers. However, whether tubular PRX3 predicts recovery of renal function following acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 54 hospitalized patients who had AKI with biopsy-proven acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The study endpoint was renal function recovery within 6 months. Of the 54 enrolled patients, 25 (46.3%) had pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and 33 (61%) recovered renal function. Tubular PRX3 expression was higher in patients with ATN than in those without renal function recovery. The level of tubular but not glomerular PRX3 expression predicted renal function recovery from AKI (AUROC?=?0.76). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high PRX3 expression was independently associated with a higher probability of renal function recovery (adjusted hazard ratio?=?8.99; 95% CI 1.13-71.52, P?=?0.04). Furthermore, the discriminative ability of the clinical model for AKI recovery was improved by adding tubular PRX3. High tubular PRX3 expression was associated with a higher probability of renal function recovery from ATN. Therefore, tubular PRX3 in combination with conventional predictors can further improve recovery prediction and may help with risk stratification in AKI patients with pre-existing CKD.
Project description:Macrophages have been implicated in the pathogenesis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and have been suggested to have a negative impact on outcome. Most studies addressing the role of macrophages in cHL have relied on identification of macrophages by generic macrophage antigens, e.g., CD68. We have therefore conducted an in situ analysis of macrophage polarization in a series of 100 pediatric cHL (pcHL) cases using double staining immunohistochemistry, combining CD68 or CD163 with pSTAT1 (M1-like) or CMAF (M2-like). M1- or M2-polarised microenvironment was defined by an excess of one population over the other (>1.5). Expression of STAT1 and LYZ genes was also evaluated by RT-qPCR. Patients <14 years and EBV+ cases displayed higher numbers of CD68+pSTAT1+ cells than older children and EBV- cases, respectively (P=0.01 and P=0.02). A cytotoxic tumor microenvironment, defined by a CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio >1.5 was associated with higher numbers of CD68+pSTAT1+ (P=0.025) and CD163+pSTAT1+ macrophages (P<0.0005). Levels of STAT1 and LYZ expression were associated with the numbers of CD68+pSTAT1+ macrophages. EBV+ cHL cases disclosed a predominant M1 polarized microenvironment similar to Th1 mediated inflammatory disorders, while EBV- cHL showed a predominant M2 polarized microenvironment closer to Th2 mediated inflammatory diseases. Better overall-survival (OS) was observed in cases with higher numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+ macrophages (P=0.02) while larger numbers of CD163+CMAF+ macrophages were associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.02). Predominant M1-like polarization as disclosed by CD163+pSTAT1+/CD163+CMAF+ ratio > 1.5 was associated with better OS (P= 0.037). In conclusion, macrophage polarization in pcHL correlates with prevalent local T cell response and may be influenced by the EBV-status of neoplastic cells. Besides, M1-like and M2-like macrophages displayed differential effects on outcome in pcHL.