Molecular mechanism for the recognition of sequence-divergent CIF peptides by the plant receptor kinases GSO1/SGN3 and GSO2.
ABSTRACT: Plants use leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) to sense sequence diverse peptide hormones at the cell surface. A 3.0-Å crystal structure of the LRR-RK GSO1/SGN3 regulating Casparian strip formation in the endodermis reveals a large spiral-shaped ectodomain. The domain provides a binding platform for 21 amino acid CIF peptide ligands, which are tyrosine sulfated by the tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase TPST/SGN2. GSO1/SGN3 harbors a binding pocket for sulfotyrosine and makes extended backbone interactions with CIF2. Quantitative biochemical comparisons reveal that GSO1/SGN3-CIF2 represents one of the strongest receptor-ligand pairs known in plants. Multiple missense mutations are required to block CIF2 binding in vitro and GSO1/SGN3 function in vivo. Using structure-guided sequence analysis we uncover previously uncharacterized CIF peptides conserved among higher plants. Quantitative binding assays with known and novel CIFs suggest that the homologous LRR-RKs GSO1/SGN3 and GSO2 have evolved unique peptide binding properties to control different developmental processes. A quantitative biochemical interaction screen, a CIF peptide antagonist and genetic analyses together implicate SERK proteins as essential coreceptor kinases required for GSO1/SGN3 and GSO2 receptor activation. Our work provides a mechanistic framework for the recognition of sequence-divergent peptide hormones in plants.
Project description:Receptor kinases with extracellular leucine-rich repeat domains (LRR-RKs) form the largest group of membrane signaling proteins in plants. LRR-RKs can sense small molecule, peptide, or protein ligands and may be activated by ligand-induced interaction with a shape complementary SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (SERK) coreceptor kinase. We have previously shown that SERKs can also form constitutive, ligand-independent complexes with the LRR ectodomains of BAK1-INTERACTING RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3 (BIR3) receptor pseudokinases, negative regulators of LRR-RK signaling. Here, we report that receptor chimera in which the extracellular LRR domain of BIR3 is fused to the cytoplasmic kinase domains of the SERK-dependent LRR-RKs BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1, HAESA and ERECTA form tight complexes with endogenous SERK coreceptors in the absence of ligand stimulus. Expression of these chimeras under the control of the endogenous promoter of the respective LRR-RK leads to strong gain-of-function brassinosteroid, floral abscission, and stomatal patterning phenotypes, respectively. Importantly, a BIR3-GASSHO1 (GSO1)/SCHENGEN3 (SGN3) chimera can partially complement <i>sgn3</i> Casparian strip formation phenotypes, suggesting that SERK proteins also mediate GSO1/SGN3 receptor activation. Collectively, our protein engineering approach may be used to elucidate the physiological functions of orphan LRR-RKs and to identify their receptor activation mechanism in single transgenic lines.
Project description:Here we show that the CASPARIAN STRIP INTEGRITY FACTOR 2 peptide induces SCHENGEN3 (SGN3) receptor-kinase dependent transcriptional changes both in short-term (30 min) and long-term (480 min) transcriptional changes in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. We deposit RNA-seq data of wildtype, sgn3, and cif1,2 with or without the CIF2 peptide treatment. Wildtype and cif1,2 presented large transcriptional changes, while the sgn3 receptor mutant showed almost no difference after the treatment. Overall design: Examination of transcriptional changes in wildtype, sgn3 and cif1/2 mutants after the CIF2 peptide treatment.
Project description:In recent years, secreted peptides have been recognized as essential mediators of intercellular communication which governs plant growth, development, environmental interactions, and other mediated biological responses, such as stem cell homeostasis, cell proliferation, wound healing, hormone sensation, immune defense, and symbiosis, among others. Many of the known secreted peptide ligand receptors belong to the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) family of membrane integral receptors, which contain more than 200 members within Arabidopsis making it the largest family of plant receptor kinases (RKs). Genetic and biochemical studies have provided valuable data regarding peptide ligands and LRR-RKs, however, visualization of ligand/LRR-RK complex structures at the atomic level is vital to understand the functions of LRR-RKs and their mediated biological processes. The structures of many plant LRR-RK receptors in complex with corresponding ligands have been solved by X-ray crystallography, revealing new mechanisms of ligand-induced receptor kinase activation. In this review, we briefly elaborate the peptide ligands, and aim to detail the structures and mechanisms of LRR-RK activation as induced by secreted peptide ligands within plants.
Project description:Plant-unique membrane receptor kinases with leucine-rich repeat ectodomains (LRR-RKs) can sense small molecule, peptide, and protein ligands. Many LRR-RKs require SERK-family coreceptor kinases for high-affinity ligand binding and receptor activation. How one coreceptor can contribute to the specific binding of distinct ligands and activation of different LRR-RKs is poorly understood. Here we quantitatively analyze the contribution of SERK3 to ligand binding and activation of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the peptide hormone receptor HAESA. We show that while the isolated receptors sense their respective ligands with drastically different binding affinities, the SERK3 ectodomain binds the ligand-associated receptors with very similar binding kinetics. We identify residues in the SERK3 N-terminal capping domain, which allow for selective steroid and peptide hormone recognition. In contrast, residues in the SERK3 LRR core form a second, constitutive receptor-coreceptor interface. Genetic analyses of protein chimera between BRI1 and SERK3 define that signaling-competent complexes are formed by receptor-coreceptor heteromerization in planta. A functional BRI1-HAESA chimera suggests that the receptor activation mechanism is conserved among different LRR-RKs, and that their signaling specificity is encoded in the kinase domain of the receptor. Our work pinpoints the relative contributions of receptor, ligand, and coreceptor to the formation and activation of SERK-dependent LRR-RK signaling complexes regulating plant growth and development.
Project description:In plants leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) located at the plasma membrane play a pivotal role in the perception of extracellular signals. For two of these LRR-RKs, the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the flagellin receptor FLS2, interaction with the LRR receptor-like kinase BAK1 (BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1) was shown to be required for signal transduction. Here we report that FLS2.BAK1 heteromerization occurs almost instantaneously after perception of the ligand, the flagellin-derived peptide flg22. Flg22 can induce formation of a stable FLS2.BAK1 complex in microsomal membrane preparations in vitro, and the kinase inhibitor K-252a does not prevent complex formation. A kinase dead version of BAK1 associates with FLS2 in a flg22-dependent manner but does not restore responsiveness to flg22 in cells of bak1 plants, demonstrating that kinase activity of BAK1 is essential for FLS2 signaling. Furthermore, using in vivo phospholabeling, we are able to detect de novo phosphorylation of both FLS2 and BAK1 within 15 s of stimulation with flg22. Similarly, brassinolide induces BAK1 phosphorylation within seconds. Other triggers of plant defense, such as bacterial EF-Tu and the endogenous AtPep1 likewise induce rapid formation of heterocomplexes consisting of de novo phosphorylated BAK1 and proteins representing the ligand-specific binding receptors EF-Tu receptor and Pep1 receptor 1, respectively. Thus, we propose that several LRR-RKs form tight complexes with BAK1 almost instantaneously after ligand binding and that the subsequent phosphorylation events are key initial steps in signal transduction.
Project description:In plants, leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RKs) perceive ligands, including peptides and small molecules, to regulate various physiological processes. TDIF, a member of the CLE peptide family, specifically interacts with the LRR-RK TDR to inhibit meristem differentiation into tracheary elements, and promotes cell proliferation. Here we report the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of TDR in complex with the TDIF peptide. The extracellular domain of TDR adopts a superhelical structure comprising 22 LRRs, and specifically recognizes TDIF by its inner concave surface. Together with our biochemical and sequence analyses, our structure reveals a conserved TDIF-recognition mechanism of TDR among plant species. Furthermore, a structural comparison of TDR with other plant LRR-RKs suggested the activation mechanism of TDR by TDIF. The structure of this CLE peptide receptor provides insights into the recognition mechanism of the CLE family peptides.
Project description:Peptide-mediated cell-to-cell signaling has crucial roles in coordination and definition of cellular functions in plants. Peptide-receptor matching is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying peptide-mediated signaling. Here we report the structure-guided identification of root meristem growth factor (RGF) receptors important for plant development. An assay based on a signature ligand recognition motif (Arg-x-Arg) conserved in a subfamily of leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) identified the functionally uncharacterized LRR-RK At4g26540 as a receptor of RGF1 (RGFR1). We further solved the crystal structure of RGF1 in complex with the LRR domain of RGFR1 at a resolution of 2.6 Å, which reveals that the Arg-x-Gly-Gly (RxGG) motif is responsible for specific recognition of the sulfate group of RGF1 by RGFR1. Based on the RxGG motif, we identified additional four RGFRs. Participation of the five RGFRs in RGF-induced signaling is supported by biochemical and genetic data. We also offer evidence showing that SERKs function as co-receptors for RGFs. Taken together, our study identifies RGF receptors and co-receptors that can link RGF signals with their downstream components and provides a proof of principle for structure-based matching of LRR-RKs with their peptide ligands.
Project description:au14-04_inaseed - inaseedarray - Analyse a signalling pathway necessary for embryonic cuticle reinforcement during seed development in Arabidopsis - Transcriptome comparison of ale1 and gso1/gso2 mutants compared to Col-0 seeds at two developmental stages (globular and heart) 12 dye-swap - gene knock out
Project description:Receptor kinases (RK) constitute the largest protein kinase family in plants. In particular, members of the leucine-rich repeat-receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) are involved in the perception of various signals at the plasma membrane. Experimental evidence over the past years revealed a conserved activation mechanism through ligand-inducible heterodimer formation: a ligand is recognized by a receptor kinase with a large extracellular domain (ECD). This ligand binding receptor directly interacts with a so-called co-receptor with a small ECD for ligand fixation and kinase activation. A large proportion of LRR-RKs is functionally still uncharacterized and the dynamic complexity of the plasma membrane makes it difficult to precisely define receptor kinase heterodimer pairs and their functions. In this review, we give an overview of the current knowledge of LRR receptor and co-receptor functions. We use ECD lengths to classify the LRR receptor kinase family and describe different interaction properties of ligand-binding receptors and their respective co-receptor from a network perspective.
Project description:Plants must adapt to their environment and require mechanisms for sensing their surroundings and responding appropriately. An expanded family of more than 200 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) transduces fluctuating and often contradictory signals from the environment into changes in nuclear gene expression. Two LRR-RKs, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a steroid receptor, and FLAGELLIN SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2), an innate immune receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, act cooperatively to partition necessary growth-defense trade-offs. BRI1 and FLS2 share common signaling components and slightly different activation mechanisms. BRI1 and FLS2 are paradigms for understanding the signaling mechanisms of LRR-containing receptors in plants.