Comparative Clinicopathologic Characteristics and Outcomes of Paediatric and Adult Xp11 Translocation Renal Cell Carcinomas: a Retrospective Multicentre Study in China.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to compare the clinicopathologic features and prognosis in patients with Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). In total, 8083 RCCs were screened at five centres from January 2007 to December 2018, including 8001 adults (?18 years) and 82 children (<18 years). Finally, 73 adults and 17 children were identified as Xp11 translocation RCCs, accounting for 1.1% (90 of 8083) of the RCCs. However, 4 children and 1 adult were excluded because of loss to follow-up when performing the survival analysis. The proportion of paediatric and adult Xp11 translocation RCCs was 20.7% (17 of 82) and 0.9% (73 of 8001) of RCCs, respectively, and the incidence in children and adults was significantly different (P?
Project description:We adopted ABVD chemotherapy with risk-adapted radiation therapy (RT) as first-line therapy for children, adolescents and young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) in British Columbia in 2004.Patients ? 25 years diagnosed from 2004 to 2013 with all stages of HL who received ABVD as initial therapy were included.Among 55 children (age?<?18 year) and 154 young adults (18-25 year), there were no significant differences among age groups for sex, histologic subtype, tumour bulk, B symptoms, prognostic risk groups or treatment received. The rates of complete response, partial response and progressive disease were 84%, 7% and 10% for children and 95%, 4% and 1% for young adults (P=0.01), respectively. Treatment failures in children all occurred within one year of completion, while 8/21 (38%) relapses in young adults occurred later (P=0.04). With a median follow-up of 66 months the 5-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 85?±?3% and 97?±?1%, respectively. For limited stage disease, PFS was 90?±?7% for children and 93?±?3% for young adults (P=0.65); OS was 100% for both. For advanced stage patients, PFS and OS were also similar for the children and young adults (77?±?7% versus 81?±?4%; P=0.38 and OS 90?±?6% versus 97?±?2%; P=0.17). The rate of consolidative RT was low (21%) and did not differ between age groups.ABVD is an effective treatment in children, adolescents and young adults with HL. Children were less likely to achieve complete response and demonstrated earlier relapses compared to young adults. RT may be omitted for the majority of patients while maintaining excellent 5-year OS.
Project description:Xp11 translocation cancers include Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. In Xp11 translocation cancers, oncogenic activation of TFE3 is driven by the fusion of TFE3 with a number of different gene partners; however, the impact of individual fusion variant on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyze 60 Xp11 translocation cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes to establish their TFE3 fusion gene partner. In 5 cases RNA sequencing was also used to further characterize the fusion transcripts. The 60 Xp11 translocation cancers included 47 Xp11 translocation RCC, 8 Xp11 translocation PEComas, and 5 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers. A fusion partner was identified in 53/60 (88%) cases, including 18 SFPQ (PSF), 16 PRCC, 12 ASPSCR1 (ASPL), 6 NONO, and 1 DVL2. We provide the first morphologic description of the NONO-TFE3 RCC, which frequently demonstrates subnuclear vacuoles leading to distinctive suprabasal nuclear palisading. Similar subnuclear vacuolization was also characteristic of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, creating overlapping features with clear cell papillary RCC. We also describe the first RCC with a DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion, in addition to an extrarenal pigmented PEComa with a NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. Furthermore, among neoplasms with the SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, DVL2-TFE3, and ASPL-TFE3 gene fusions, the RCCs are almost always PAX8 positive, cathepsin K negative by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mesenchymal counterparts (Xp11 translocation PEComas, melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and alveolar soft part sarcoma) are PAX8 negative, cathepsin K positive. These findings support the concept that despite an identical gene fusion, the RCCs are distinct from the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, perhaps due to the cellular context in which the translocation occurs. We corroborate prior data showing that the PRCC-TFE3 RCCs are the only known Xp11 translocation RCC molecular subtype that are consistently cathepsin K positive. In summary, our data expand further the clinicopathologic features of cancers with specific TFE3 gene fusions and should allow for more meaningful clinicopathologic associations to be drawn.
Project description:Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with Xp11 translocation (Xp11 RCC) constitute a distinctive molecular subtype characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the Xp11.2 locus, resulting in gene fusions between the TFE3 transcription factor with a second gene (usually ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, or SFPQ). RCCs with Xp11 translocations comprise up to 1% to 4% of adult cases, frequently displaying papillary architecture with epithelioid clear cells. To better understand the biology of this molecularly distinct tumor subtype, we analyze the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of Xp11 RCC compared with normal renal parenchyma using microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We further compare Xp11 RCC with other RCC histologic subtypes using publically available data sets, identifying common and distinctive miRNA signatures along with the associated signaling pathways and biological processes. Overall, Xp11 RCC more closely resembles clear cell rather than papillary RCC. Furthermore, among the most differentially expressed miRNAs specific for Xp11 RCC, we identify miR-148a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-185-5p, miR-196b-5p, and miR-642a-5p to be up-regulated, whereas miR-133b and miR-658 were down-regulated. Finally, Xp11 RCC is most strongly associated with miRNA expression profiles modulating DNA damage responses, cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and the Hedgehog signaling pathway. In summary, we describe here for the first time the miRNA expression profiles of a molecularly distinct type of renal cancer associated with Xp11.2 translocations involving the TFE3 gene. Our results might help understanding the molecular underpinning of Xp11 RCC, assisting in developing targeted treatments for this disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The relationship between progression-free survival and time to progression (PFS/TTP) and overall survival (OS) has been demonstrated in a variety of solid tumours but not in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify controlled trials of cytokine or targeted therapies for mRCC reporting information on treatment effects on PFS/TTP and OS for one or more comparison. The associations between treatment effects on PFS/TTP and OS were analysed using linear regression. RESULTS: Thirty-one studies representing 10943 patients, 75 treatment groups, and 41 comparisons were identified. The correlation coefficient between the negative log of the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS/TTP (-ln HR(PFS/TTP)) vs the negative log of the HR for OS (-ln HR(OS)) was 0.80 (P<0.0001). In linear regression, the coefficient on -ln HR(PFS/TTP) vs -ln HR(OS) was 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.470.81; R(2)=0.63), suggesting each 10% relative risk reduction (RRR) for PFS/TTP was associated with a 6% RRR for OS. A 1-month gain in median PFS/TTP was associated with a 1.17-month gain in median OS (95% CI: 0.59,1.76; R(2)=0.28). CONCLUSION: In trials of treatments for mRCC, treatment effects on PFS/TTP are strongly associated with treatment effects on OS.
Project description:Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) with Xp11 translocation (Xp11 RCC) constitute a distinctive molecular subtype characterized by chromosomal translocations involving the Xp11.2 locus, resulting in gene fusions between the TFE3 transcription factor with a second gene (usually ASPSCR1, PRCC, NONO, or SFPQ). RCCs with Xp11 translocations comprise up to 1-4% of adult cases, frequently displaying papillary architecture with epithelioid clear cells. Overall design: We analyze the miRNA expression profiles of Xp11 RCC compared to matched normal renal parenchyma using microarray. We further compare Xp11 RCC with other RCC histologic subtypes using publically available datasets, identifying common and distinctive microRNA signatures along with the associated signaling pathways and biological processes. Overall, Xp11 RCC more closely resemble clear cell rather than papillary RCC. Furthermore, among the most differentially expressed miRNAs specific for Xp11 RCC, we identify miR-148a-3p, miR-221-3p, miR-185-5p, miR-196b-5p, and miR-642a-5p to be up-regulated, while miR-133b and miR-658 were down-regulated. Finally, Xp11 RCC is most strongly associated with microRNA expression profiles modulating DNA damage responses, cell cycle progression and apoptosis, and the Hedgehog signaling pathway
Project description:This study aimed to assess the utility of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay in diagnosis of Xp11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (Xp11.2 RCC) and to compare the clinicopathological features between adult Xp11.2 RCC and non-Xp11.2 RCC. 76 pathologically suspected Xp11.2 RCCs were recruited from our institution. Both TFE3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and TFE3 FISH assay were performed for the entire cohort. The progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. FISH analysis confirmed 30 Xp11.2 RCCs, including 28 cases with positive TFE3 immunostaining and 2 cases with negative immunostaining. The false-positive and false-negative rates were 6.7% (2/30) and 4.3% (2/46), respectively, for TFE3 IHC compared with FISH assay. Xp11.2 RCC was significantly associated with higher pathological stage and Fuhrman nuclear grade compared with non-Xp11.2 RCC (P < 0.05). The median PFS and OS for TFE3 FISH-positive group were 13.0 months (95% CI, 8.4-17.6 months) and 50.0 months (95% CI, 27.6-72.4 months), respectively, while the median PFS and OS had not been reached for TFE3 FISH-negative group. In conclusion, TFE3 break-apart FISH assay is a highly useful and standard diagnostic method for Xp11.2 RCC. Adult Xp11.2 RCC is clinically aggressive and often presents at advanced stage with poor prognosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the survival impact of imaging vs surgical nodal assessment in patients with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA prior to definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS:PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were used to search for publications in English and Chinese over a 50-year period. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols was used to conduct this review. Inclusion criteria were studies that compared survival outcomes in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2009 stage IB2-IVA cervical cancer patients with pre-therapy pelvic and/or aortic lymphadenectomy (LND) or imaging. One or more of the following modalities were used for nodal assessment: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, or positron emission tomography-CT. The National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool was utilized to assess study quality. RESULTS:The initial search identified 65 studies, and five met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 1,112 patients. Seven hundred and fifty-four underwent pelvic and/or aortic LND and 358 had imaging. When compared to LND, imaging had a sensitivity and specificity of 88.9% and 22.2% for pelvic lymph node (LN), and 33%-62.5% and 92%-95.5% for para-aortic LN. There were no differences in progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR]=1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.73-1.74; I²=75%; p<0.01) and overall survival (OS) (HR=1.06; 95% CI=0.66-1.69; I²=75%; p<0.01) between surgical and imaging nodal assessment. CONCLUSIONS:Imaging and surgical nodal assessment has comparable PFS and OS in patients with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42020155486.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Abdominal/pelvic lymph node (LN) oligometastasis, a pattern of treatment failure, is observed occasionally, and radiotherapy may work as salvage therapy. The optimal prescription dose, however, is yet to be determined. This study assessed the efficacy of high-dose radiotherapy. METHODS:The medical records of 113 patients at 4 institutes were retrospectively analysed who had 1 to 5 abdominal/pelvic LN oligometastases and were treated with definitive radiotherapy between 2008 and 2018. The exclusion criteria included non-epithelial tumours, uncontrolled primary lesions, palliative intent, and re-irradiation. The prescription dose was evaluated by using the equivalent dose in 2?Gy fractions (EQD2). Patients receiving EQD2???60?Gy were placed into the high-dose group, and the remaining others the low-dose group. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate overall survival (OS), local control (LC), and progression-free survival (PFS). Univariate log-rank and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analyses were performed to explore predictive factors. Adverse events were compared between the high-dose and low-dose groups. RESULTS:The primary tumour sites included the colorectum (n?=?28), uterine cervix (n?=?27), endometrium (n?=?15), and ovaries (n?=?10). The rate of 2-year OS was 63.1%, that of LC 59.7%, and that of PFS 19.4%. On multivariate analyses, OS were significantly associated with solitary oligometastasis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.48, p?=?0.02), LC with high-dose radiotherapy (HR: 0.93, p?<?0.001), and PFS with long disease-free interval (HR: 0.59, p?=?0.01). Whereas high-dose radiotherapy did not significantly improve 2-year OS in the entire cohort (74.8% in the high-dose vs. 52.7% in the low-dose; p?=?0.08), it did in the subgroup of solitary oligometastasis (88.8% in the high-dose vs. 56.3% in the low-dose; p?=?0.009). As for Late grade???3 adverse event, ileus was observed in 7 patients (6%) and gastrointestinal bleeding in 4 (4%). No significant association between the irradiation dose and adverse event incidence was found. CONCLUSIONS:As salvage therapy, high-dose radiotherapy was recommendable for oligometastasis in the abdominal/pelvic LNs. For solitary oligometastasis, LC and OS were significantly better in the high-dose group.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several systemic inflammatory response (SIR) markers, including platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and albumin-to-globulin ratio (AGR), have emerged as prognostic markers in various cancers. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of SIR markers on the survival outcomes of unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC) patients. METHODS:Patients with histologically confirmed, unresectable IHC treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy in a single tertiary hospital from 2012 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined using unadjusted Kaplan-Meier and adjusted Cox-proportional-hazards analysis. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the performance of the SIR markers in predicting OS. RESULTS:A total of 137 patients received a median of six cycles (interquartile range [IQR], 3-11) of GP chemotherapy with a median observation time of 9.9?months (range, 1.8-54.7?months). The median PFS and OS of all patients were 7.8?months and 9.9?months, respectively. Among the SIR markers, high PLR (>?148) and high NLR (>?5) were associated with a short PFS (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.828, P =?0.006; HR 1.738, P =?0.030, respectively) and short OS (HR 2.332, P <?0.001; HR 2.273, P <?0.001, respectively). Low LMR (<?3.5) and low AGR (<?1.2) were associated with a short OS (HR 2.423, P <?0.001; HR 1.768, P =?0.002, respectively). In multivariable cox-regression analysis, high PLR (HR 1.766, P =?0.009) and distant lymph node (LN) metastasis (HR 2.085, P =?0.001) were associated with a short PFS. High PLR (HR 1.856, P =?0.002) was an independent predictor of a short OS, along with distant LN metastasis (HR 1.929; P <?0.001), low LMR (HR 1.691; P =?0.041), and low level of serum albumin (<?3.5?g/dL) (HR 1.632; P =?0.043). Time-dependent ROC analysis revealed that the area under the curve of PLR for predicting overall survival was greater than that of NLR, LMR, and AGR at most time points. CONCLUSIONS:High PLR was an independent prognostic factor of a short PFS and OS in patients with unresectable IHC receiving GP chemotherapy.
Project description:This study evaluated the prognostic value of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using (18) F-fluoroazomycin arabinoside (FAZA) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared with (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Thirty-eight patients with advanced NSCLC (stage III, 23 patients; stage IV, 15 patients) underwent FAZA and FDG PET/CT before treatment. The PET parameters (tumor-to-muscle ratio [T/M] at 1 and 2 h for FAZA, maximum standardized uptake value for FDG) in the primary lesion and lymph node (LN) metastasis and clinical parameters were compared concerning their effects on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In our univariate analysis of all patients, clinical stage and FAZA T/M in LNs at 1 and 2 h were predictive of PFS (P = 0.021, 0.028, and 0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis also indicated that clinical stage and FAZA T/M in LNs at 1 and 2 h were independent predictors of PFS. Subgroup analysis of chemoradiotherapy-treated stage III patients revealed that only FAZA T/M in LNs at 2 h was predictive of PFS (P = 0.025). The FDG PET/CT parameters were not predictive of PFS. No parameter was a significant predictor of OS. In patients with advanced NSCLC, FAZA uptake in LNs, but not in primary lesions, was predictive of treatment outcome. These results suggest the importance of characterization of LN metastases in advanced NSCLC patients.