Project description:Brain glycogen, localized in astrocytes, produces lactate as an energy source and/or a signal factor to serve neuronal functions involved in memory formation and exercise endurance. In rodents, 4 weeks of chronic moderate exercise-enhancing endurance and cognition increases brain glycogen in the hippocampus and cortex, which is an adaption of brain metabolism achieved through exercise. Although this brain adaptation is likely induced due to the accumulation of acute endurance exercise-induced brain glycogen supercompensation, its molecular mechanisms and biomarkers are unidentified. Since noradrenaline synthesized from blood-borne tyrosine activates not only glycogenolysis but also glycogenesis in astrocytes, we hypothesized that blood tyrosine is a mechanistic-based biomarker of acute exercise-induced brain glycogen supercompensation. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of endurance exercise, a microwave irradiation for accurate detection of glycogen in the brain (the cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus), and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to observe the comprehensive metabolic profile of the blood. Endurance exercise induced fatigue factors such as a decrease in blood glucose, an increase in blood lactate, and the depletion of muscle glycogen, but those parameters recovered to basal levels within 6 h after exercise. Brain glycogen decreased during endurance exercise and showed supercompensation within 6 h after exercise. Metabolomics detected 186 metabolites in the plasma, and 110 metabolites changed significantly during and following exhaustive exercise. Brain glycogen levels correlated negatively with plasma glycogenic amino acids (serine, proline, threonine, glutamate, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) (r < -0.9). This is the first study to produce a broad picture of plasma metabolite changes due to endurance exercise-induced brain glycogen supercompensation. Our findings suggest that plasma glycogenic amino acids are sensitive indicators of brain glycogen levels in endurance exercise. In particular, plasma tyrosine as a precursor of brain noradrenaline might be a valuable mechanistic-based biomarker to predict brain glycogen dynamics in endurance exercise.
Project description:Uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is highly selectively expressed in skeletal muscle and is known to lower mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and promote fatty acid oxidation; however, the global impact of UCP3 activity on skeletal muscle and whole-body metabolism have not been extensively studied. We utilized untargeted metabolomics to identify novel metabolites that distinguish mice overexpressing UCP3 in muscle, both at rest and after exercise regimens that challenged muscle metabolism, to potentially unmask subtle phenotypes. Male wild-type (WT) and muscle-specific UCP3-overexpressing transgenic (UCP3 Tg) C57BL/6J mice were compared with or without a 5 wk endurance training protocol at rest or after an acute exercise bout (EB). Skeletal muscle, liver, and plasma samples were analyzed by gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Discriminant metabolites were considered if within the top 99th percentile of variable importance measurements obtained from partial least-squares discriminant analysis models. A total of 80 metabolites accurately discriminated UCP3 Tg mice from WT when modeled within a specific exercise condition (i.e., untrained/rested, endurance trained/rested, untrained/EB, and endurance trained/EB). Results revealed that several amino acids and amino acid derivatives in skeletal muscle and plasma of UCP3 Tg mice (e.g., Asp, Glu, Lys, Tyr, Ser, Met) were significantly reduced after an EB; that metabolites associated with skeletal muscle glutathione/Met/Cys metabolism (2-hydroxybutanoic acid, oxoproline, Gly, and Glu) were altered in UCP3 Tg mice across all training and exercise conditions; and that muscle metabolite indices of dehydrogenase activity were increased in UCP3 Tg mice, suggestive of a shift in tissue NADH/NAD<sup>+</sup> ratio. The results indicate that mitochondrial UCP3 activity affects metabolism well beyond fatty acid oxidation, regulating biochemical pathways associated with amino acid metabolism and redox status. That select metabolites were altered in liver of UCP3 Tg mice highlights that changes in muscle UCP3 activity can also affect other organ systems, presumably through changes in systemic metabolite trafficking.-Aguer, C., Piccolo, B. D., Fiehn, O., Adams, S. H., Harper, M.-E. A novel amino acid and metabolomics signature in mice overexpressing muscle uncoupling protein 3.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that exercise alters the gut microbiome. We determined whether six-weeks endurance exercise, without changing diet, affected the gut metagenome and systemic metabolites of overweight women. Previously sedentary overweight women (n = 19) underwent a six-weeks endurance exercise intervention, but two were excluded due to antibiotic therapy. The gut microbiota composition and functions were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomics. Body composition was analyzed with DXA X-ray densitometer and serum metabolomics with NMR metabolomics. Total energy and energy-yielding nutrient intakes were analyzed from food records using Micro-Nutrica software. Serum clinical variables were determined with KONELAB instrument. Soluble Vascular Adhesion Protein 1 (VAP-1) was measured with ELISA and its' enzymatic activity as produced hydrogen peroxide. The exercise intervention was effective, as maximal power and maximum rate of oxygen consumption increased while android fat mass decreased. No changes in diet were observed. Metagenomic analysis revealed taxonomic shifts including an increase in Akkermansia and a decrease in Proteobacteria. These changes were independent of age, weight, fat % as well as energy and fiber intake. Training slightly increased Jaccard distance of genus level ?-diversity. Training did not alter the enriched metagenomic pathways, which, according to Bray Curtis dissimilarity analysis, may have been due to that only half of the subjects' microbiomes responded considerably to exercise. Nevertheless, tranining decreased the abundance of several genes including those related to fructose and amino acid metabolism. These metagenomic changes, however, were not translated into major systemic metabolic changes as only two metabolites, phospholipids and cholesterol in large VLDL particles, decreased after exercise. Training also decreased the amine oxidase activity of pro-inflammatory VAP-1, whereas no changes in CRP were detected. All clinical blood variables were within normal range, yet exercise slightly increased glucose and decreased LDL and HDL. In conclusion, exercise training modified the gut microbiome without greatly affecting systemic metabolites or body composition. Based on our data and existing literature, we propose that especially Akkermansia and Proteobacteria are exercise-responsive taxa. Our results warrant the need for further studies in larger cohorts to determine whether exercise types other than endurance exercise also modify the gut metagenome.
Project description:Endurance racing places high demands on energy metabolism pathways. Metabolomics can be used to investigate biochemical responses to endurance exercise in humans, laboratory animals, and horses. Although endurance horses have previously been assessed in the field (i.e., during races) using broad-window Nuclear Magnetic Resonance metabolomics, these studies included several different race locations, race distances, age classes, and race statuses (finisher or elimination). The present NMR metabolomics study focused on 40 endurance horses racing in three race categories over 90, 120, or 160 km. The three races took place in the same location. Given that energy metabolism is closely related to exercise intensity and duration (and therefore distance covered), the study's objective was to determine whether the metabolic pathways recruited during the race varied as a function of the total ride distance. For each horse, a plasma sample was collected the day before the race, and another was collected at the end of the race. Sixteen, 15, and 9 horses raced over 90, 120, and 160 km, respectively. Proton NMR spectra (500 MHz) were acquired for these 80 plasma samples. After processing, the spectra were divided into bins representing the NMR variables and then classified using orthogonal projection on latent structure models supervised by the sampling time (pre- or post-race) or the distance covered. The models revealed that the post-race metabolomic profiles are associated to the total ride distance groups. By combining biochemical assay results and NMR data in multiblock models, we further showed that enzymatic activities and metabolites are significantly associated to the race category. In the highest race category (160 km), there appears to be a metabolic switch from carbohydrate consumption to lipid consumption in order to maintain glycaemia. Furthermore, signs of protein breakdown were more apparent in the longest race category. The metabolic shift seen in the different racing categories could be related to a mixture of three important factors that are the ride distance, the training status and the inherited endurance capacity of the various horses competing.
Project description:A few animal studies have shown that wheel running could reverse an unhealthy status by shifting the gut microbial composition, but no investigations have studied the effect of endurance running, such as marathon running, on human gut microbial communities. Since many findings have shown that marathon running immediately causes metabolic changes in blood, urine, muscles and lymph that potentially impact the gut microbiota (GM) within several hours. Here, we investigated whether the GM immediately responds to the enteric changes in amateur half-marathon runners. Alterations in the metabolic profile and microbiota were investigated in fecal samples based on an untargeted metabolomics methodology and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. A total of 40 fecal metabolites were found significantly changed after finishing a half-marathon race. The most significantly different metabolites were organic acids (the major increased metabolites) and nucleic acid components (the major decreased metabolites). The enteric changes induced by running did not affect the ?-diversity of the GM, but the abundances of certain microbiota members were shown to be significantly different before and after running. The family Coriobacteriaceae was identified as a potential biomarker that links exercise with health improvement. Functional prediction showed a significantly activated "Cell motility" function of GM within participants after running. Correlation analysis indicated that the observed differential GM in our study might have been the shared outcome of running and diet. This study provided knowledge regarding the health impacts of marathon running from the perspective of GM for the first time. Our data indicated that long-distance endurance running can immediately cause striking metabolic changes in the gut environment. Gut microbes can rapidly respond to the altered fecal metabolites by adjusting certain bacterial taxa. These findings highlighted the health-promoting benefits of exercise from the perspective of GM.
Project description:PURPOSE:Metabolomics is a discovery tool for novel associations of metabolites with disease. Here, we interrogated the metabolome of human breast tumors to describe metabolites whose accumulation affects tumor biology. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We applied large-scale metabolomics followed by absolute quantification and machine learning-based feature selection using LASSO to identify metabolites that show a robust association with tumor biology and disease outcome. Key observations were validated with the analysis of an independent dataset and cell culture experiments. RESULTS:LASSO-based feature selection revealed an association of tumor glycochenodeoxycholate levels with improved breast cancer survival, which was confirmed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Absolute quantification of four bile acids, including glycochenodeoxycholate and microbiome-derived deoxycholate, corroborated the accumulation of bile acids in breast tumors. Levels of glycochenodeoxycholate and other bile acids showed an inverse association with the proliferation score in tumors and the expression of cell-cycle and G2-M checkpoint genes, which was corroborated with cell culture experiments. Moreover, tumor levels of these bile acids markedly correlated with metabolites in the steroid metabolism pathway and increased expression of key genes in this pathway, suggesting that bile acids may interfere with hormonal pathways in the breast. Finally, a proteome analysis identified the complement and coagulation cascade as being upregulated in glycochenodeoxycholate-high tumors. CONCLUSIONS:We describe the unexpected accumulation of liver- and microbiome-derived bile acids in breast tumors. Tumors with increased bile acids show decreased proliferation, thus fall into a good prognosis category, and exhibit significant changes in steroid metabolism.
Project description:Exercise can increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) expression in skeletal muscle. PPAR? regulates muscle metabolism and reprograms muscle fibre types to enhance running endurance. This study utilized metabolomic profiling to examine the effects of GW501516, a PPAR? agonist, on running endurance in mice. While training alone increased the exhaustive running performance, GW501516 treatment enhanced running endurance and the proportion of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-positive muscle fibres in both trained and untrained mice. Furthermore, increased levels of intermediate metabolites and key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation pathways were observed following training and/or treatment. Training alone increased serum inositol, glucogenic amino acids, and branch chain amino acids. However, GW501516 increased serum galactose and ?-hydroxybutyrate, independent of training. Additionally, GW501516 alone raised serum unsaturated fatty acid levels, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, but levels increased even more when combined with training. These findings suggest that mechanisms behind enhanced running capacity are not identical for GW501516 and training. Training increases energy availability by promoting catabolism of proteins, and gluconeogenesis, whereas GW501516 enhances specific consumption of fatty acids and reducing glucose utilization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Obesity and exercise are associated with disturbances of mineral metabolism, which can lead to physical inefficiency. Our study aimed to compare the influence of endurance and endurance-strength training on mineral status in women with abdominal obesity. METHODS:Thirty-eight abdominally obese women were randomized into groups A and B and underwent 3 months long training: group A-endurance training and group B-endurance-strength training. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were carried out and the Graded Exercise Test was performed. Blood, urine, and hair samples were collected for mineral content analysis. RESULTS:Endurance training decreased serum Fe and Zn concentrations as well as hair Zn and Cu content, and increased urine Zn concentration. Endurance-strength training increased serum Mg and Cu concentrations, decreased serum Fe and Zn concentrations, decreased hair Ca and Mg content, and increased urine Ca and Zn concentrations. After training, serum and urine Fe concentration was higher in group A, while urine Ca concentration was higher in group B. A number of correlations was found. CONCLUSIONS:Both endurance and endurance-strength training have a significant effect on mineral metabolism in obese women; the favorable effects of endurance-strength exercise predominate in iron, magnesium, zinc, and copper balance.
Project description:Understanding the metabolic processes in energy metabolism, particularly during fasted exercise, is a growing area of research. Previous work has focused on measuring metabolites pre and post exercise. This can provide information about the final state of energy metabolism in the participants, but it does not show how these processes vary during the exercise and any subsequent post-exercise period. To address this, the work described here took fasted participants and subjected them to an exercise and rest protocol under laboratory settings, which allowed for breath and blood sampling both pre, during and post exercise. Analysis of the data produced from both the physiological measurements and the untargeted metabolomics measurements showed clear switching between glycolytic and ketolytic metabolism, with the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data showing the separate stages of ketolytic metabolism, notably the transport, release and breakdown of long chain fatty acids. Several signals, putatively identified as short peptides, were observed to change in a pattern similar to that of the ketolytic metabolites. This work highlights the power of untargeted metabolomic methods as an investigative tool for exercise science, both to follow known processes in a more complete way and discover possible novel biomarkers.
Project description:Evolutionary considerations suggest that the body has been optimized to perform at a high level in the fasted state when fatty acids and their ketone metabolites are a major fuel source for muscle cells. Because fasting is the most potent physiological stimulus for ketosis, we designed a study to determine the impact of intermittent fasting during endurance training on performance, and to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Male mice were randomly assigned to either ad libitum feeding or alternate-day fasting (AF) groups, and half of the mice in each diet group were trained daily on a treadmill for 1 month (45 minutes of running with increasing speed or incline each week). A run to exhaustion endurance test performed at the end of the training period revealed superior performance in the mice maintained on AF during training compared to mice fed ad libitum during training. VO2max was increased similarly by treadmill training in mice on AF or ad libitum diets, whereas respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was reduced in AF mice on fasting days and during running. Analyses of gene expression in liver and soleus tissues, and metabolomics analysis of blood suggest that the metabolic switch invoked by AF and potentiated by exercise strongly modulate molecular pathways involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism and cellular plasticity. Our findings demonstrate intermittent fasting engages metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that result in increased metabolic efficiency and endurance capacity. Overall design: Six month-old male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: a sedentary control group fed ad libitum (CTRL); a sedentary group on alternate-day fasting (AF); a group with daily treadmill running exercise fed ad libitum (EX); and a group that ran every day on a treadmill while on AF (EXAF) during a 4-week study period.