Cardio-Respiratory Fitness and Autonomic Function in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.
ABSTRACT: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have an augmented risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although a link between depression and autonomic dysfunction as well as reduced cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is well documented, the underlying cause is a matter of debate. Therefore, we studied the interplay between autonomic function, body composition and severity of the disease to disentangle possible physiological factors influencing the assumed lack of CRF in MDD patients. We investigated seventeen patients suffering from MDD and seventeen control subjects matched with respect to age, sex, body-mass-index, and smoking habits. A resting baseline assessment and a cardiopulmonary exercise test including a prolonged recovery period were performed to study autonomic function (i.e., heart rate responses and heart rate variability) during rest, exercise and recovery as well as CRF. Most investigated autonomic indices were significantly different at rest, during exercise as well as during recovery indicating altered autonomic modulation. Nevertheless, none of our participants was classified as chronotropically incompetent. As expected, a reduced CRF (i.e., peak oxygen uptake and peak power output, p < 0.01) was observed in patients compared to controls. In addition, a correlation of baseline heart rate and of heart rate during recovery with the ventilatory threshold 1 (p < 0.05) was found in patients only, indicating a relation to the lack of CRF. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation of the severity of the disease with the weekly sitting time (p < 0.01) as well as a negative correlation with the activity time in the intensity domain walking (p < 0.001) and with the total score of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (p < 0.01) for patients. This study shows that patients with MDD have altered autonomic function not only during resting conditions but also during exercise as well as recovery from exercise. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate how the described autonomic alterations can be influenced by increasing CRF due to appropriate exercise training programs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The current method to evaluate major depressive disorder (MDD) relies on subjective clinical interviews and self-questionnaires. OBJECTIVE:Autonomic imbalance in MDD patients is characterized using entropy measures of heart rate variability (HRV). A machine learning approach for screening depression based on the entropy is demonstrated. METHODS:The participants experience five experimental phases: baseline (BASE), stress task (MAT), stress task recovery (REC1), relaxation task (RLX), and relaxation task recovery (REC2). The four entropy indices, approximate entropy, sample entropy, fuzzy entropy, and Shannon entropy, are extracted for each phase, and a total of 20 features are used. A support vector machine classifier and recursive feature elimination are employed for classification. RESULTS:The entropy features are lower in the MDD group; however, the disease does not have a significant effect. Experimental tasks significantly affect the features. The entropy did not recover during REC1. The differences in the entropy features between the two groups increased after MAT and showed the largest gap in REC2. We achieved 70% accuracy, 64% sensitivity, and 76% specificity with three optimal features during RLX and REC2. CONCLUSION:Monitoring of HRV complexity changes when a subject experiences autonomic arousal and recovery can potentially facilitate objective depression recognition.
Project description:Despite the successful adaptation to high altitude, some differences do occur due to long term exposure to the hypoxic environment. The effect of long term high altitude exposure on cardiac autonomic adjustment during basal and post-exercise recovery is less known. Thus we aimed to study the differences in basal cardiac autonomic adjustment and its response to exercise in highlanders and to compare it with lowlanders.The study was conducted on 29 healthy highlander males who were born and brought up at altitude of 3000 m and above from the sea level, their cardiac autonomic adjustment was compared with age, sex, physical activity and ethnicity-matched 29 healthy lowlanders using Heart Rate Variability (HRV) during rest and recovery from sub-maximal exercise (3 m step test). Intergroup comparison between the highlanders and lowlanders and intragroup comparison between the rest and the postexercise recovery conditions were done.Resting heart rate and HRV during rest was comparable between the groups. However, heart rate recovery after 3 min step test was faster in highlanders (p?<?0.05) along with significantly higher LF power and total power during the recovery phase. Intragroup comparison of highlanders showed higher SDNN (p?<?0.05) and lower LF/HF ratio (p?<?0.05) during recovery phase compared to rest which was not significantly different in two phases in lowlanders. Further highlander showed complete recovery of RMSSD, NN50, pNN50 and HF power back to resting level within five minutes, whereas, these parameters failed to return back to resting level in lowlanders within the same time frame.Highlanders completely recovered back to their resting state within five minutes from cessation of step test with parasympathetic reactivation; however, recovery in lowlanders was delayed.
Project description:Blood pressure (BP) is a cardiovascular parameter applied to detect cardiovascular risk. Recently, the pre-hypertension state has received greater consideration for prevention strategies. We evaluated autonomic and cardiorespiratory recovery following aerobic exercise in normotensive individuals with different systolic BP (SBP) values. We investigated 30 healthy men aged 18 to 30 years divided into groups according to systolic BP (SBP): G1 (n?=?16), resting SBP <110?mmHg and G2 (n?=?14), resting SBP between 120-110?mmHg. The groups endured 15?minutes seated at rest, followed by a submaximal aerobic exercise on a treadmill and then remaining seated for 60?minutes also at rest, during recovery from the exercise. Cardiorespiratory parameters and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) (rMSSD, SD1, HF [ms2]) were evaluated before and during recovery from exercise. G2 displayed slower return of SBP, rMSSD and SD1 HRV indices during recovery from exercise compared to G1. In conclusion, normotensive subjects with higher resting SBP (110 to 120?mmHg) offered delayed autonomic recovery following moderate exercise. We suggest that this group may be less physiologically optimized leading to cardiac risks.
Project description:Ventricular arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome (BS) typically occur at rest and especially during sleep, suggesting that changes in the autonomic modulation may play an important role in arrhythmogenesis. The autonomic response to exercise and subsequent recovery was evaluated on 105 patients diagnosed with BS (twenty-four were symptomatic), by means of a time-frequency heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, so as to propose a novel predictive model capable of distinguishing symptomatic and asymptomatic BS populations. During incremental exercise, symptomatic patients showed higher HFnu values, probably related to an increased parasympathetic modulation, with respect to asymptomatic subjects. In addition, those extracted HRV features best distinguishing between populations were selected using a two-step feature selection approach, so as to build a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier. The final features subset included one third of the total amount of extracted autonomic markers, mostly acquired during incremental exercise and active recovery, thus evidencing the relevance of these test segments in BS patients classification. The derived predictive model showed an improved performance with respect to previous works in the field (AUC = 0.92 ± 0.01; Se = 0.91 ± 0.06; Sp = 0.90 ± 0.05). Therefore, based on these findings, some of the analyzed HRV markers and the proposed model could be useful for risk stratification in Brugada syndrome.
Project description:Imbalances of the autonomic nervous (ANS), the cardiovascular system, and ionics might contribute to the manifestation of The Brugada Syndrome (BrS). Thus, this study has aimed to investigate the cardio-respiratory fitness and the responses of the ANS both at rest and during a sub-maximal exercise stress test, in BrS patients and in gender-matched and age-matched healthy sedentary controls.Eleven BrS patients and 23 healthy controls were recruited in Khon Kaen, Thailand. They performed an exercise test on a cycle ergometer, and during the exercise, expired gas samples and electrocardiograms were collected. Blood glucose and electrolyte concentrations were analyzed before and after exercise. Then the heart rate variability (HRV) and the heart rate recovery (HRR) were analyzed from the electrocardiograms.The BrS patients showed a higher parasympathetic activation during exercise recovery than baseline. They had a smaller level of sympathetic activation during the period of exercise recovery than the controls did. They also showed a significantly lower peak HR, HRR, and peak oxygen consumption than the controls (p<0.05). All subjects had a significantly lower percentage of peak oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio during low-intensity (p<0.01) and moderate-intensity (p<0.05) exercise than during high-intensity exercise. The BrS patients had mild hyperkalemia which is reduced according to the exercise.Thai BrS patients had a more rapid rate of restoration of the parasympathetic and smaller level of sympathetic activation after exercise. They had mild hyperkalemia which is reduced according to the exercise. Furthermore, they exhibited impaired cardio-respiratory fitness.
Project description:Objectives. Cardiac autonomic imbalance accompanies the progression of chronic heart failure (CHF). It is unclear whether exercise training could modulate autonomic control in CHF. This study aimed to review systematically the effects of exercise training on heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with CHF. Methods. Literatures were systematically searched in electronic databases and relevant references. Only published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on exercise training for CHF were eligible for inclusion. Outcome measurements included HRR and HRV parameters. Results. Eight RCTs were eligible for inclusion and provided data on 280 participants (186 men). The participants were 52-70 years of age with New York Heart Association functional class II-III of CHF. Each study examined either aerobic or resistance exercise. Two trials addressed outcome of HRR and six HRV among these studies. Two RCTs showed that moderate aerobic exercise could improve HRR at 2 minutes after exercise training in CHF. Five of six RCTs demonstrated positive effects of exercise training on HRV which revealed the increments in high frequency (HF) and decrements in LF (low frequency)/HF ratio after training. Conclusion. Participation in an exercise training program has positive effects on cardiac autonomic balance in patients with CHF.
Project description:Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the healthiness of autonomic nervous system, which is associated with exercise capacity. We therefore investigated whether HRV could predict the exercise capacity in the adults with cardiac syndrome X (CSX). A total of 238 subjects (57±12 years, 67.8% men), who were diagnosed as CSX by the positive exercise stress test and nearly normal coronary angiogram were enrolled. Power spectrum from the 24-hour recording of heart rate was analyzed in frequency domain using total power (TP) and spectral components of the very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) ranges. Among the study population, 129 subjects with impaired exercise capacity during the treadmill test had significantly lower HRV indices than those with preserved exercise capacity (?90% of the age predicted maximal heart rate). After accounting for age, sex, and baseline SBP and heart rate, VLF (odds ratio per 1SD and 95% CI: 2.02, 1.19-3.42), LF (1.67, 1.10-2.55), and TP (1.82, 1.17-2.83) remained significantly associated with preserved exercise capacity. In addition, increased HRV indices were also associated with increased exercise duration, rate-pressure product, and heart rate recovery, independent of age, body mass index, and baseline SBP and heart rate. In subgroup analysis, HRV indices demonstrated similar predictive values related to exercise capacity across various subpopulations, especially in the young. In patients with CSX, HRV was independently associated with exercise capacity, especially in young subjects. The healthiness of autonomic nervous system may have a role in modulating the exercise capacity in patients with CSX.
Project description:PURPOSE:To study the associations of physical activity (PA), sedentary time (ST), and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with heart rate variability (HRV) in children. METHODS:The participants were a population sample of 377 children aged 6-9 years (49% boys). ST, light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and PA energy expenditure (PAEE) were assessed using a combined heart rate and movement sensor, maximal power output per kilograms of lean body mass as a measure of CRF by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, and HRV variables (SDNN, RMSSD, LF, and HF) using 5 min resting electrocardiography. Data were analysed by linear regression adjusted for years from peak height velocity. RESULTS:In boys, ST was inversely associated (??=?- 0.185 to - 0.146, p???0.049) and MVPA, VPA, PAEE, and CRF were directly associated (??=?0.147 to 0.320, p???0.048) with HRV variables. CRF was directly associated with all HRV variables and PAEE was directly associated with RMSSD after mutual adjustment for ST, PAEE, and CRF (??=?0.169 to 0.270, p???0.046). In girls, ST was inversely associated (??=?- 0.382 to - 0.294, p?<?0.001) and LPA, MPA, VPA, MVPA, and PAEE were directly associated with HRV variables (??=?0.144 to 0.348, p???0.049). After mutual adjustment for ST, PAEE, and CRF, only the inverse associations of ST with HRV variables remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:Higher ST and lower PA and CRF were associated with poorer cardiac autonomic nervous system function in children. Lower CRF in boys and higher ST in girls were the strongest correlates of poorer cardiac autonomic function.
Project description:This study examined the cardiac autonomic responses, as measured by heart rate variability (HRV), during cycling exercise and short-term rest after energy drink consumption. Seventeen participants (seven males and 10 females; age: 22.8 ± 3.5 years; BMI: 24.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2) completed this double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced crossover design study. Participants received an energy drink formula containing 140 mg of caffeine and a placebo in a randomized order before completing a 10-min steady-state warm up (WUP) and a graded exercise test to exhaustion (GXT) followed by a 15-min short-term rest (STR) period. Heartbeat intervals were recorded using a heart rate monitor. Data were divided into WUP, GXT, and STR phases, and HRV parameters were averaged within each phase. Additionally, root mean square of the standard deviation of R-R intervals (RMSSD) during GXT was analyzed to determine the HRV threshold. Separate two-way (sex (male vs. female) x drink (energy drink vs. placebo)) repeated measures ANOVA were utilized. Significant increases in high frequency (HF) and RMSSD were shown during WUP after energy drink consumption, while interactions between drink and sex were observed for HRV threshold parameters (initial RMSSD and rate of RMSSD decline). No significant differences were noted during STR. Energy drink consumption may influence cardiac autonomic responses during low-intensity exercise, and sex-based differences in response to graded exercise to exhaustion may exist.
Project description:systemic arterial hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disease; physical activity for hypertensive patients is related to several beneficial cardiovascular adaptations. This paper evaluated the effect of water- and land-ergometry exercise sessions on post-exercise hypotension (PEH) of healthy normotensive subjects versus treated or untreated hypertensive patients.Forty-five older women composed three experimental groups: normotensive (N, n = 10), treated hypertensive (TH, n = 15) and untreated hypertensive (UH, n = 20). The physical exercise acute session protocol was performed at 75% of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for 45 minutes; systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) and mean (MBP) blood pressure were evaluated at rest, peak and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes after exercise cessation. Additionally, the heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed by R-R intervals in the frequency domain for the assessment of cardiac autonomic function.In both exercise modalities, equivalent increases in SBP were observed from rest to peak exercise for all groups, and during recovery, significant PEH was noted. At 90 minutes after the exercise session, the prevalence of hypotension was significantly higher in water- than in the land-based protocol. Moreover, more pronounced reductions in SBP and DBP were observed in the UH patients compared to TH and N subjects. Finally, exercise in the water was more effective in restoring HRV during recovery, with greater effects in the untreated hypertensive group.Our data demonstrated that water-ergometry exercise was able to induce expressive PEH and improve cardiac autonomic modulation in older normotensive, hypertensive treated or hypertensive untreated subjects when compared to conventional land-ergometry.