Germacrone Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.
ABSTRACT: Germacrone, a natural 10-membered monocyclic sesquiterpene with three double bonds and a ketone, was isolated from the roots of traditional Chinese medicine Saussurea costus (SC). The pharmacological value and intrinsic mechanism of germacrone in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we further explored the internal molecular mechanism by which germacrone exerts its antiproliferation and antimigration ability against ESCC. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays showed that germacrone dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of ESCC cells. Flow cytometry analysis (FACS) and wound healing experiments on germacrone treated ESCC cells showed that germacrone could induce apoptosis and inhibit the migration of ESCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. In the study on the mechanism of action of germacrone in antiesophageal cancer, we found that germacrone increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in the cytoplasm of ESCC, resulting in the activation of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 and decreased the expression of Grp78, thereby reducing the inhibition of Caspase-12 and Caspase-7. In addition, we found that germacrone also inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we determined that germacrone exerted an antiesophageal effect through intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways and by inhibiting STAT3 activity in ESCC cells.
Project description:Distinct morphological MgO nanoparticles (MgONPs) were synthesized using biomasses of Saussurea costus roots. The biomass of two varieties of Saussurea costus (Qustal hindi and Qustal bahri) were used in the green synthesis of MgONPs. The physical and chemical features of nanoparticles were confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the obtained nanoparticles was detected at different magnifications by SEM and TEM microscopy and the size of nanoparticles were found to be 30 and 34 nm for Qustal hindi and Qustal bahri, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the prepared MgONPs was screened against six pathogenic strains. The synthesized nanoparticles by Qustal bahri biomass exerted significant inhibition zones 15, 16, 18, 17, 14, and 10 mm against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, S. aureus and B. subtilis as compared to those from Qustal hindi 12, 8 and 17 mm against B. subtilis, E. coli and C. tropicalis, respectively. MgONPs showed a potential cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Cellular investigations of MgONPs revealed that the prepared nanoparticles by Qustal bahri exhibited high cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cancer cell lines. IC50 values in MCF-7 cells were found to be 67.3% and 52.1% for MgONPs of Saussurea costus biomasses, respectively. Also, the photocatalytic activity of MgONPs of each Saussurea costus variety was comparatively studied. They exhibited an enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue after UV irradiation for 1 h as 92% and 59% for those prepared by Qustal bahri and Qustal hindi, respectively. Outcome of results revealed that the biosynthesized MgONPs showed promising biomedical potentials.
Project description:Germacrone is one of the major bioactive components in the Curcuma zedoaria oil product, which is extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe, known as zedoary. The present study designed some novel germacrone derivatives based on combination principles, synthesized these compounds, and investigated their inhibitions on Bel-7402, HepG2, A549 and HeLa cells. Meanwhile, the study evaluated inhibitions of these derivatives on c-Met kinase, which has been detected in a number of cancers. The results suggested that the majority of the compounds showed stronger inhibitory effect on cancers and c-Met kinase than germacrone. Furthermore, our docking experiments analyzed the results and explained the molecular mechanism. Molecular dynamics simulations were then applied to perform further evaluation of the binding stabilities between compounds and their receptors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Germacrone is an anti-inflammatory ingredient in the Chinese medicine zedoary turmeric. The purpose of this study was to explore the protective mechanism of germacrone against PC12 cells injury caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R). METHODS:OGD/R injury model of PC12 cells was established by using OGD/R (2?h/24?h). The cell viability was assessed by MTT assay and LDH release. The ultrastructure of cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of autophagy related proteins in cells was determined by Western Blot. RESULTS:The results of ultrastructural observation showed that PC12 cells damaged by OGD/R showed typical autophagy characteristics. In addition, OGD/R observably up-regulated the expression of autophagy related proteins: the class III type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K III), light chain 3(LC3), and Beclin-1 in PC12 cells, and inhibited the expression of the class I type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K I), Protein kinase B (Akt), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and B-cell lymphoma 2(Bcl-2) proteins. Furthermore, germacrone increased the cell viability of OGD/R-damaged PC12 cells by down-regulating the expression of LC3 protein in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. More importantly, germacrone significantly inhibited the expression of PI3K III, LC3, and Beclin-1 in OGD/R-injured PC12 cells, and up-regulated the expressionof PI3K I, Akt, mTOR, and Bcl-2 proteins in cells, and this inhibited or up-regulated effect was reversed by PI3K I inhibitor (ZSTK474). CONCLUSION:The above results indicated that germacrone could inhibit the autophagy effect in OGD/R injury model of PC12 cells, the mechanism of inhibition was regulated by PI3K III/Beclin-1/Bcl-2 and PI3K I/Akt/mTOR pathways, thereby improving the cell viability of PC12 cells and playing a neuroprotective role, which provided a new drug for the treatment of OGD/R.
Project description:Currently, the use of synthetic pesticides is the main method of plant protection applied in agri- and horticulture. However, its excessive use leads to the development of pesticide resistance, a contamination of the environment, toxicity to non-target organisms, and risks for human health. With the ultimate aim of contributing to the develop of a more sustainable pest management, we used the natural product germacrone (compound 1), reported to possess significant insecticidal activity, as starting material for the generation of molecular diversity (2-24). Some of the generated derivatives are natural compounds, such as 1,10-epoxygermacrone (2), 4,5-epoxygermacrone (3), gajutsulactone A (7), germacrol (11), isogermacrone (14), 9-hydroxyeudesma-3,7(11)dien-6-one (19), eudesma-4,7(11),dien-8-one (20), eudesma-3,7(11)-dien-8-one (21) and eudesma-4(15),7(11)-dien-8-one (22). Compounds, 7,11-9,10-diepoxigermacr-4,5-en-8-ol (17), 7,11-epoxieudesma-4,7(11)-dien-8-one (23) and 7,11-epoxieudesma-3,7(11)-dien-8-one (24) are described for the first time. The biocidal activity of most of these compounds was assayed against the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum. The acaricidal effects of compound 24 were four times higher than that of germacrone (1). Compound 2 is an insect antifeedant a thousand times more potent than germacrone against Rhopalosiphum padi, which makes this substance a promising selective antifeedant against this cereal pest.
Project description:Germacrone, curdione, and furanodiene have been shown to be useful in the treatment of breast cancer but the pharmacological mechanism of action is unclear. In this paper, we explored a new method to study the molecular network and function of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbs and their corresponding ingredients with bioinformatics tools, including PubChem Compound Database, BATMAN-TCM, SystemsDock, Coremine Medical, Gene ontology, and KEGG. Eleven targeted genes/proteins, 4 key pathways, and 10 biological processes were identified to participate in the mechanism of action in treating breast cancer with germacrone, curdione, and furanodiene. The information achieved by the bioinformatics tools was useful to interpretation the molecular mechanism for the treatment of germacrone, curdione, and furanodiene on breast cancers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Germacrone (GM) is a terpenoid compound which is reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. However, its role in treating traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains largely unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups: control group, TBI group [controlled cortical impact (CCI) model], CCI?+?5?mg/kg GM group, CCI?+?10?mg/kg GM group and CCI?+?20?mg/kg GM group. GM was administered via intraperitoneal injection. The neurological functions (including motor coordination, spatial learning and memory abilities) and brain edema were measured. Nissl staining was used to detect the neuronal apoptosis. Colorimetric assays and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to determine the expression levels of oxidative stress markers including myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as the expressions of inflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, protein levels of Nrf2 and p-p65 were detected by Western blot assay.<h4>Results</h4>GM significantly ameliorated motor dysfunction, spatial learning and memory deficits of the mice induced by TBI and it also reduced neuronal apoptosis and microglial activation in a dose-dependent manner. Besides, GM treatment reduced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress compared to those in the CCI group in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GM up-regulated the expression of antioxidant protein Nrf2 and inhibited the expression of inflammatory response protein p-p65.<h4>Conclusions</h4>GM is a promising drug to improve the functional recovery after TBI via repressing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.
Project description:Purpose:Esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common subtype of esophageal cancer, with a poor clinical outcome. Cryptotanshinone (CTS) is the main bioactive compound from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Our study aimed to investigate the anti-cancer effects and molecular mechanisms of CTS on ESCC. Materials and methods:We investigated the anti-tumor activity of CTS on ESCC in vitro and in vivo. Activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway was evaluated in ESCC and HEK-Blue™ IL-6 cells. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were assessed using flow cytometry. Cell migration was detected by a scratch wound assay. Results:CTS inhibited STAT3 expression and IL-6-mediated STAT3 activation in esophageal cancer cells. Subsequently, CTS dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells via induction of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, CTS suppressed the migration of esophageal cancer cells. In vivo, CTS inhibited tumor growth of EC109 cell in xenograft mice without any obvious effect on body weight. Conclusion:Our results indicated that STAT3 inhibition may be a therapeutic target for esophageal cancer. CTS could provide a potential approach for esophageal cancer therapy by influencing the janus kinase-2/STAT3 signaling pathway.
Project description:Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the deadliest cancers, and it requires novel treatment approaches and effective drugs. In the present study, we found that treatment with plumbagin, a natural compound, reduced proliferation and survival of the KYSE150 and KYSE450 ESCC cell lines in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The drug also effectively inhibited the viability of primary ESCC cells from fresh biopsy specimens. Furthermore, plumbagin-induced mitotic arrest and massive apoptosis in ESCC cells. Notably, the drug significantly suppressed the colony formation capacity of ESCC cells in vitro and the growth of KYSE150 xenograft tumors in vivo. At the molecular level, we found that exposure to plumbagin decreased both polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) expression in both ESCC cell lines. Enforced PLK1 expression in ESCC cells not only markedly rescued cells from plumbagin-induced apoptosis and proliferation inhibition but also restored the impaired AKT activity. Furthermore, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor of PLK1, was also inactivated in plumbagin-treated ESCC cells; however, the overexpression of a constitutively activated STAT3 mutant, STAT3C, reinstated the plumbagin-elicited blockade of PLK1-AKT signaling in ESCC cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that plumbagin inhibits proliferation and potentiates apoptosis in human ESCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Plumbagin may exert these antitumor effects by abrogating STAT3-PLK1-AKT signaling, which suggests that plumbagin may be a novel, promising anticancer agent for the treatment of ESCC.
Project description:Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are often diagnosed with advanced diseases that respond poorly to chemotherapy. Here we reported that Apollon, a membrane-associated inhibitor of apoptosis protein, was overexpressed in ESCC cell lines and clinical ESCC tissues, and Apollon overexpression clinically correlated with poor response to chemotherapy (P = 0.001), and short overall survival (P = 0.021). Apollon knockdown increased cisplatin/docetaxel-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome c release in two ESCC cell lines. Apollon knockdown potentiated cisplatin/docetaxel-induced long-term cell growth inhibition, and enhanced chemosensitivity of ESCC cells to cisplatin/docetaxel in xenograft tumor models. Apollon knockdown also enhanced cisplatin/docetaxel-induced activation of caspase-8 (extrinsic pathway) and caspase-9 (intrinsic pathway) in ESCC cells and xenograft tumor models. Mechanism studies revealed that the effect of Apollon on chemosensitivity is mainly mediated by Smac. Apollon expression strongly and negatively correlated with Smac expression in clinical ESCC tissues (P = 0.001). Apollon targeted Smac for degradation in ESCC cells. The effect of Apollon on chemosensitivity was reversed by Smac knockdown in ESCC cells. Taken together, our data show association of Apollon expression with chemotherapeutic response in ESCC, and provide a strong rationale for combining Apollon antagonism with chemotherapy to treat ESCC.