Incorporating Sex and Gender-based Medical Education Into Residency Curricula.
ABSTRACT: Background:Emergency medicine (EM) residents do not generally receive sex- and gender-specific education. There will be increasing attention to this gap as undergraduate medical education integrates it within their curriculum. Methodology:Members of the Sex and Gender in Emergency Medicine (SGEM) Interest Group set out to develop a SGEM toolkit and pilot integrating developed components at multiple residency sites. The curriculum initiative involved a pre- and posttraining assessment that included basic demographics and queries regarding previous training in sex-/gender-based medicine (SGBM). It was administered to PGY-1 to -4 residents who participated in a 3-hour training session that included one small group case-based discussion, two oral board cases, and one simulation and group debriefing. Analysis:Components of the developed toolkit (https://www.sexandgenderhealth.org) were implemented at four unique SGEM Interest Group member residency programs. Residents (n = 82/174, 47%) participated; 64% (n = 49) were male and 36% (n = 28) were female. Twenty-six percent (n = 21) of the residents reported that they had less than 1 hour of training in this domain during residency; 59% (n = 48) reported they had 1 to 6 hours and 16% (n = 13) reported they had >6 hours. The average preassessment score was 61% and postassessment was 88%. After training, 74% (n = 60) felt that their current practice would have benefited from further training in sex-/gender-based topics in medicine during medical school and 83% (n = 67) felt their clinical practice would have benefited from further training in this domain during residency. Implications:The majority of EM residents who participated in this training program reported that they had limited instruction in this domain in medical school or residency. This initiative demonstrated a method that can be emulated for the incorporation of SGBM educational components into an EM residency training educational day. After training, the majority of residents who participated felt that their current practice would have benefited from further training in sex- and gender-based topics in residency.
Project description:Importance:Although implicit bias in medical training has long been suspected, it has been difficult to study using objective measures, and the influence of sex and gender in the evaluation of medical trainees is unknown. The emergency medicine (EM) milestones provide a standardized framework for longitudinal resident assessment, allowing for analysis of resident performance across all years and programs at a scope and level of detail never previously possible. Objective:To compare faculty-observed training milestone attainment of male vs female residency training. Design, Setting, and Participants:This multicenter, longitudinal, retrospective cohort study took place at 8 community and academic EM training programs across the United States from July 1, 2013, to July 1, 2015, using a real-time, mobile-based, direct-observation evaluation tool. The study examined 33?456 direct-observation subcompetency evaluations of 359 EM residents by 285 faculty members. Main Outcomes and Measures:Milestone attainment for male and female EM residents as observed by male and female faculty throughout residency and analyzed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression modeling. Results:A total of 33?456 direct-observation evaluations were collected from 359 EM residents (237 men [66.0%] and 122 women [34.0%]) by 285 faculty members (194 men [68.1%] and 91 women [31.9%]) during the study period. Female and male residents achieved similar milestone levels during the first year of residency. However, the rate of milestone attainment was 12.7% (0.07 levels per year) higher for male residents through all of residency (95% CI, 0.04-0.09). By graduation, men scored approximately 0.15 milestone levels higher than women, which is equivalent to 3 to 4 months of additional training, given that the average resident gains approximately 0.52 levels per year using our model (95% CI, 0.49-0.54). No statistically significant differences in scores were found based on faculty evaluator gender (effect size difference, 0.02 milestone levels; 95% CI for males, -0.09 to 0.11) or evaluator-evaluatee gender pairing (effect size difference, -0.02 milestone levels; 95% CI for interaction, -0.05 to 0.01). Conclusions and Relevance:Although male and female residents receive similar evaluations at the beginning of residency, the rate of milestone attainment throughout training was higher for male than female residents across all EM subcompetencies, leading to a gender gap in evaluations that continues until graduation. Faculty should be cognizant of possible gender bias when evaluating medical trainees.
Project description:To investigate the value of a novel simulation-based palliative care educational intervention within an emergency medicine (EM) residency curriculum.A palliative care scenario was designed and implemented in the simulation program at an urban academic emergency department (ED) with a 3-year EM residency program. EM residents attended one of eight high-fidelity simulation sessions, in groups of 5-6. A standardized participant portrayed the patient's family member. One resident from each session managed the scenario while the others observed. A 45-min debriefing session and small group discussion followed the scenario, facilitated by an EM simulation faculty member and a resident investigator. Best practices in palliative care were highlighted along with focused learner performance feedback. Participants completed an anonymous pre/post education intervention survey.Forty of 42 EM residents (95%) participated in the study. Confidence in implementing palliative care skills and perceived importance of palliative care improved after this educational intervention. Specifically, residents 1) felt EM physicians had an important role in palliative care, 2) had increased confidence in the ability to determine patient decision-making capacity, 3) had improved confidence in initiating palliative discussions/treatment, 4) believed palliative education was important in residency, and 5) felt simulation was an effective means to learn palliative care. Differences noted between PGY1 and PGY 3 training levels in survey responses disappeared post-intervention. Residents noted being most comfortable with delivering bad news and symptom management and least comfortable with disease prognostication. Residents reported time constraints and implementation logistics in the ED as the most challenging factors for palliative care initiation.Our case-based simulation intervention was associated with an increase in both the perceived importance of ED palliative care and self-reported confidence in implementing palliative care skills. Time constraints and implementation logistics were rated as the most challenging factors for palliative care initiation in the ED.
Project description:Career preparation in residency training is not standardized. Scholarly tracks have emerged in emergency medicine (EM) residencies to allow specialized training in an area of focus. The characteristics of these tracks and their value and impact on resident career choice are unknown. We aim to describe the current state of scholarly tracks in residency training programs and their association with pursuit of an academic career.Program leaders at EM training programs completed an online survey consisting of multiple-choice items with free-text option. Additionally, participants completed a matrix of dropdown items identifying the immediately chosen post-residency position and applicable track of each member of their graduating class. Descriptive statistics were calculated and reported for multiple-choice items. We performed comparative statistics using chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Free-text responses were analyzed using a thematic approach.113/157(72%) programs participated, 51 with and 62 without tracks. Tracks were more common in four-year programs (odds ratio [OR]=4.8;[2.0-11.9]) and larger programs (chi-sq, p=0.001). Perceived benefits of tracks from programs with them included advanced training (46/50; 92%), career guidance (44/50; 88%), mentorship (44/50; 88%), and preparation for an academic career (40/50; 80%). Residents often participated in a single track (37/50; 74%) usually during their later residency years. Programs with tracks were more likely to graduate residents to an academic career, OR 1.8;[1.3-2.4].This study describes the current characteristics and perceptions of scholarly tracks in EM residencies. Scholarly tracks are associated with an academic position immediately following residency. The results of this study may inform the development and use of scholarly tracks in residency training programs.
Project description:Introduction:In-flight medical emergencies are common occurrences that require medical professionals to manage patients in an unfamiliar setting with limited resources. Emergency medicine (EM) residents should be well prepared to care for patients in unusual environments such as on an aircraft. Methods:We developed a simulation case for EM residents featuring a 55-year-old male passenger who suffers a cardiac arrest secondary to a tension pneumothorax. We conducted this case eight times during a 5-hour block of scheduled simulation time. Participants included EM residents of all training levels from one residency program. We arranged the simulation lab as an airplane cabin, with rows of chairs representing airplane seats and a mannequin in a window seat as the patient. Residents were expected to manage cardiac arrest and perform needle thoracostomy on the patient. Residents also evaluated and treated a flight attendant with a near syncopal episode. Throughout the case, residents were expected to practice teamwork skills, including leadership, communication, situational awareness, and resource utilization. Participants were debriefed and completed voluntary anonymous evaluations of the session. Results:Seventeen EM residents participated in the simulation. Overall, all 17 found the simulation to be a valuable educational experience. In addition, all agreed or strongly agreed that they felt more prepared to respond to an in-flight emergency after participating in the simulation. Discussion:This simulation was determined to be a valuable part of EM resident education. The challenges presented and skills practiced in this in-flight medical emergency simulation case are transferable to other resource-limited environments.
Project description:Emergency medicine (EM) fellowships are becoming increasingly numerous, and there is a growing trend among EM residents to pursue postgraduate fellowship training. Scant data have been published on the prevalence of postgraduate training among emergency physicians. We aimed to describe the prevalence and regional variation of fellowships among EM residency leadership.We conducted an online anonymous survey that was sent to the Council of EM Residency Directors (CORD) membership in October 2014. The survey was a brief questionnaire, which inquired about fellowship, secondary board certification, gender, and length in a leadership position of each member of its residency leadership. We separated the responses to the survey into four different geographic regions. The geographic regions were defined by the same classification used by the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP). We defined residency leadership as program director (PD), associate PD and assistant PD. Residencies that did not complete the survey were then individually contacted to encourage completion. The survey was initially piloted for ease of use and understanding of the questions with a select few EM PDs.We obtained responses from 145 of the 164 Accrediting Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited EM residencies (88%). The fellowship prevalence among PDs, associate PDs, and assistant PDs was 21.4%, 20.3%, and 24.9% respectively. The most common fellowship completed was a fellowship in toxicology. Secondary board certification among PDs, associate PDs, and assistant PDs was 9.7%, 4.8%, and 2.9% respectively. Eighty-two percent of PDs have at least five years in residency leadership. Seventy-six percent of PDs were male, and there was a near-even split of gender among associate PDs and assistant PDs. The Western region had the highest percentage of fellowship and or secondary board certification among all levels of residency leadership.There is a low prevalence of fellowship training and secondary board certification among EM residency leadership, with the most common being toxicology. Assistant PDs, the majority of whom had less than five years residency leadership experience, had the highest percentage of fellowship training. There may be a regional variation in the percentage of residency leadership completing postgraduate training.
Project description:Objectives:The objective was to examine emergency medicine (EM) residents' perceptions of gender as it intersects with resuscitation team dynamics and the experience of acquiring resuscitation leadership skills. Methods:This was an exploratory, qualitative study using grounded theory and a purposive sample of postgraduate year (PGY) 2-4 EM residents who function as resuscitation team leaders in two urban EM programs. One-on-one interviews were conducted by a single experienced researcher. Audiotaped interviews were transcribed and deidentified by two research assistants. A research team composed of a PhD educational researcher, a research nurse, an MPH research assistant, and an EM resident reviewed the transcripts and coded and analyzed data using MAXQDA v12. Themes and coding schema were discussed until consensus was reached. We used member checking to assess the accuracy of our report and to confirm that the interpretations were fair and representative. Results:Theme saturation was reached after interviewing 16 participants: 10 males and 6 females. The three major themes related to gender that emerged included leadership style, gender inequality, and relationship building. Both male and female residents reported that a directive style was more effective when functioning in the resuscitation leadership role. Female residents more often expressed discomfort with a directive style of leadership, preferring a more communicative and collaborative style. Both female and male residents identified several challenges as disproportionately affecting female residents, including negotiating interactions with nurses more and "earning the respect" of the team members. Conclusions:Residents acknowledged that additional challenges exist for female residents in becoming resuscitation team leaders. Increasing awareness in residency program leadership is key to affecting change to ensure all residents are trained in a similar manner, while also addressing gender-specific needs of residents where appropriate. We present suggestions for addressing these barriers and incorporating discussion of leadership styles into residency training.
Project description:Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another's emotional state combined with an ability to modify one's own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI's are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents.This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests.Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p?0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training.Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact on EM residents six months after the intervention involving SPT. One possible explanation for this finding is that residents required time to process and apply the EI skills training in order for us to detect measurable change. More rigorous measurement will be needed in future studies to aid in the interpretation of our findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:There is a high level of interest in international experiences during United States (U.S.) ophthalmology residency training among both program directors and trainees. METHODS:An electronic invitation to a 26-question survey was sent to all 114 U.S. ophthalmology residency program directors. The invitation requested that the survey be completed by the one faculty member who was most involved in overseeing the international experiences for the residents. The survey consisted of multiple choice and Likert-type scale questions. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for analysis of demographic data and Friedman's test and Wilcoxon-Signed Rank test were used to analyze ranked responses. RESULTS:Responses were obtained from 70 faculty mentors representing unique programs, yielding a response rate of 61.4%. The majority of programs that responded (88.6%, n = 62) either offered international ophthalmology experiences for residents or supported residents finding their own experiences to go abroad. International experience participation rate among residents correlated with the number of years the experiences had been offered by the programs (p = 0.001). More than half of the respondents (55.0%, n = 33) felt that the residents benefited more than the hosts during these international experiences. Approximately half of the respondents (51.6%, n = 32) believed that additional training beyond what is covered in the standard curriculum to practice ophthalmology in the U.S. is necessary for practicing ophthalmology in an international setting. CONCLUSIONS:There is high interest and participation in international experiences within U.S. ophthalmology residency programs. This high participation warrants further investigation into the long-term impact of these international experiences and how U.S. residency programs can structure these experiences to maximize the benefits to both the residents and the international host communities.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Asian patients may have more difficulty seeking help for their sexual problems because of a largely conservative culture. Residents from both obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN) and family medicine (FM) departments are ideally placed to address sexual problems. AIM:This survey explored the experience of residents from OBGYN and FM in managing sexual problems and their views on training in sexual medicine (SM). METHOD:An anonymized questionnaire collecting data on trainee characteristics, exposure to male and female sexual problems, and training in SM was sent to all FM and OBGYN residents in Singapore. These residents had completed their medical registration with the Singapore Medical Council and were at various stages of specialty training in both FM and OBGYN residency programs in Singapore. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE:Trainees' exposure to male and female sexual problems and their views on training in Sexual Medicine. RESULTS:The overall response from the survey was 63.5% (122/192)-54% (70/129) and 69% (52/75) of FM and OBGYN residents responded, respectively. 63% were female, with 22% being senior residents, and 55% attended Singaporean medical schools. About one quarter (30/122) of the respondents encountered patients with sexual problems at least monthly. Most would refer these patients directly to specialists, psychologists, and sex therapists. More than 80% of residents were not confident in managing sexual problems in either sex (89% for male problems; 83% for female problems). Among the recognized categories, only 30% felt confident to manage erectile dysfunction, 26% for vaginismus, while less than 10% felt confident to manage libido, arousal, or orgasm disorders. 95% of the residents agreed that SM should be part of both training curricula, with 70% and 25% suggesting at junior and senior residency, respectively. 93% of them were interested to obtain further knowledge and skills in SM through their core training curriculum and from seminars. CONCLUSIONS:This survey reported a significant number of residents in OBGYN and FM departments are regularly exposed to patients with sexual problems but lack the skills to manage them. OBGYN residents were more familiar with managing female sexual problems while FM residents tend to have more experience in male sexual problems. Almost universally, the residents in FM and OBGYN were very keen to acquire skills in SM, and the results support the incorporation of appropriate knowledge and skills into both national residency program curricula. Huang Z, Choong DS, Ganesan AP, et al. A Survey on the Experience of Singaporean Trainees in Obstetrics/Gynecology and Family Medicine of Sexual Problems and Views on Training in Sexual Medicine. J Sex Med 2019;8:107-113.
Project description:Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has engendered difficulties for health systems globally; however, the effect of the pandemic on emergency medicine (EM) residency training programs is unknown. The pandemic has caused reduced volumes of emergency department (ED) patients, except for those with COVID-19 infections, and this may reduce the case exposure of EM residents. The primary objective of this study was to compare the clinical exposure of EM residents between the prepandemic and pandemic periods. Methods This was a retrospective study of EM resident physicians’ training in a tertiary teaching hospital with two branch regional hospitals in Taiwan. We retrieved data regarding patients seen by EM residents in the ED between September 1, 2019, and April 30, 2020. The first confirmed COVID-19 case in Taiwan was reported on January 11, so the pandemic period in our study was defined as spanning from February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020. The number and characteristics of patients seen by residents were recorded. We compared the data between the prepandemic and pandemic periods. Results The mean number of patients per hour (PPH) seen by EM residents in the adult ED decreased in all three hospitals during the pandemic. The average PPH of critical area of medical ED was 1.68 in the pre-epidemic period and decreased to 1.33 in the epidemic period (p value <?0.001). The average number of patients managed by residents decreased from 1.24 to 0.82 in the trauma ED (p value?=?0.01) and 1.56 to 0.51 in the pediatric ED (p value?=?0.003) during the pandemic, respectively. The severity of patient illness did not change significantly between the periods. Conclusions The COVID-19 pandemic engendered a reduced ED volume and decreased EM residents’ clinical exposure. All portion of EM residency training were affected by the pandemic, with pediatric EM being the most affected. The patient volume reduction may persist and in turn reduce patients’ case exposure until the pandemic subsides. Adjustment of the training programs may be necessary and ancillary methods of learning should be used to ensure adequate EM residency training.