Influence of Promotion on the Growth of Anchored Colloidal Iron Oxide Nanoparticles during Synthesis Gas Conversion.
ABSTRACT: Using colloidal iron oxide nanoparticles with organic ligands, anchored in a separate step from the supports, has been shown to be beneficial to obtain homogeneously distributed metal particles with a narrow size distribution. Literature indicates that promoting these particles with sodium and sulfur creates an active Fischer-Tropsch catalyst to produce olefins, while further adding an H-ZSM-5 zeolite is an effective way to obtain aromatics. This research focused on the promotion of iron oxide colloids with sodium and sulfur using an inorganic ligand exchange followed by the attachment to H-ZSM-5 zeolite crystals. The catalyst referred to as FeP/Z, which consists of iron particles with inorganic ligands attached to a H-ZSM-5 catalyst, was compared to an unpromoted Fe/Z catalyst and an Fe/Z-P catalyst, containing the colloidal nanoparticles with organic ligands, promoted after attachment. A low CO conversion was observed on both FeP/Z and Fe/Z-P, originating from an overpromotion effect for both catalysts. However, when both promoted catalysts were washed (FeP/Z-W and Fe/Z-P-W) to remove the excess of promoters, the activity was much higher. Fe/Z-P-W simultaneously achieved low selectivity toward methane as part of the promoters were still present after washing, whereas for FeP/Z-W the majority of promoters was removed upon washing, which increased the methane selectivity. Moreover, due to the addition of Na+S promoters, the iron nanoparticles in the FeP/Z(-W) catalysts had grown considerably during catalysis, while those in Fe/Z-P(-W) and Fe/Z(-W) remained relatively stable. Lastly, as a large broadening of particle sizes for the used FeP/Z-W was found, where particle sizes had both increased and decreased, Ostwald ripening is suggested for particle growth accelerated by the presence of the promoters.
Project description:Fe/ZSM-5 nanosheet zeolites of varying thickness were synthesized with di- and tetraquaternary ammonium structure directing agents and extensively characterized for their textural, structural, and catalytic properties. Introduction of Fe<sup>3+</sup> ions in the framework of nanosheet zeolites was slightly less effective than in bulk ZSM-5 zeolite. Steaming was necessary to activate all catalysts for N<sub>2</sub>O decomposition and benzene oxidation. The higher the Fe content, the higher the degree of Fe aggregation was after catalyst activation. The degree of Fe aggregation was lower when the crystal domain size of the zeolite or the Fe content was decreased. These two parameters had a substantial influence on the catalytic performance. Decreasing the number of Fe sites along the <i>b</i>-direction strongly suppressed secondary reactions of phenol and, accordingly, catalyst deactivation. This together with the absence of diffusional limitations in nanosheet zeolites explains the much higher phenol productivity obtainable with nanostructured Fe/ZSM-5. Steamed Fe/ZSM-5 zeolite nanosheet synthesized using C<sub>22-6-3</sub>·Br<sub>2</sub> (domain size in <i>b</i>-direction ?3 nm) and containing 0.24 wt % Fe exhibited the highest catalytic performance. During the first 24 h on stream, this catalyst produced 185 mmol<sub>phenol</sub> g<sup>-1</sup>. Calcination to remove the coke deposits completely restored the initial activity.
Project description:Hollow Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolites with hierarchical porous shells have been synthesized by using a dissolution-recrystallization method. The morphology, structure, and acidity of these zeolites supported Pt catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, MAS-SSNMR, FE-SEM, FE-TEM, N₂-BET, XPS, NH₃-TPD, and CO pulse chemisorption. Compared to the conventional ZSM-5 supported Pt catalyst, the special structure in hollow ZSM-5 zeolite significantly promotes the dispersion of metallic Pt and the synergistic effect between metal active sites and acid sites. These boost the catalytic activity, selectivity of guaiacol hydrodeoxygenation toward cycloalkanes and long-term stability over the Pt/hollow ZSM-5 catalyst combined with improved mass transfer of products and reactants derived from the hierarchical hollow porous structure. Moreover, the Pt/hollow ZSM-5 catalyst exhibits excellent low temperature catalytic activity to completely transform guaiacol into cycloalkanes with the cyclohexane selectivity of more than 93% at 220 °C, suggesting that hollow ZSM-5 zeolite is a promising support for upgrading of bio-oils.
Project description:The Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis converts synthesis gas from alternative carbon resources, including natural gas, coal, and biomass, to hydrocarbons used as fuels or chemicals. In particular, iron-based catalysts at elevated temperatures favor the selective production of C2-C4 olefins, which are important building blocks for the chemical industry. Bulk iron catalysts (with promoters) were conventionally used, but these deactivate due to either phase transformation or carbon deposition resulting in disintegration of the catalyst particles. For supported iron catalysts, iron particle growth may result in loss of catalytic activity over time. In this work, the effects of promoters and particle size on the stability of supported iron nanoparticles (initial sizes of 3-9 nm) were investigated at industrially relevant conditions (340 °C, 20 bar, H2/CO = 1). Upon addition of sodium and sulfur promoters to iron nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers, initial catalytic activities were high, but substantial deactivation was observed over a period of 100 h. In situ Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed that after 20 h time-on-stream, promoted catalysts attained 100% carbidization, whereas for unpromoted catalysts, this was around 25%. In situ carbon deposition studies were carried out using a tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM). No carbon laydown was detected for the unpromoted catalysts, whereas for promoted catalysts, carbon deposition occurred mainly over the first 4 h and thus did not play a pivotal role in deactivation over 100 h. Instead, the loss of catalytic activity coincided with the increase in Fe particle size to 20-50 nm, thereby supporting the proposal that the loss of active Fe surface area was the main cause of deactivation.
Project description:Fenton oxidation, an advanced oxidation process, is an efficient method for the treatment of recalcitrant wastewaters. Unfortunately, it utilizes H2O2 and iron-based homogeneous catalysts, which lead to the formation of high volumes of sludge and secondary pollutants. To overcome these problems, an alternate option is the usage of heterogeneous catalyst. In this study, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed to provide an alternative solution for homogeneous Fenton oxidation. Iron Zeolite Socony Mobile-5 (Fe-ZSM-5) was synthesized using a new two-step process. Next, the catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis and tested against a model wastewater containing the azo dye Acid Blue 113. Results showed that the loading of iron particles reduced the surface area of the catalyst from 293.59 to 243.93 m2/g; meanwhile, the average particle size of the loaded material was 12.29 nm. Furthermore, efficiency of the developed catalyst was evaluated by performing heterogeneous Fenton oxidation. Taguchi method was coupled with principal component analysis in order to assess and optimize mineralization efficiency. Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions, over 99.7% degradation and 77% mineralization was obtained, with a 90% reduction in the consumption of the developed catalyst. Furthermore, the developed catalyst was stable and reusable, with less than 2% leaching observed under optimized conditions. Thus, the present study proved that newly developed catalyst has enhanced the oxidation process and reduced the chemicals consumption.
Project description:Using model catalysts with well-defined particle sizes and morphologies to elucidate questions regarding catalytic activity and stability has gained more interest, particularly utilizing colloidally prepared metal(oxide) particles. Here, colloidally synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe x O y -NPs, size ?7 nm) on either a titania (Fe x O y /TiO2) or a silica (Fe x O y /SiO2) support were studied. These model catalyst systems showed excellent activity in the Fischer-Tropsch to olefin (FTO) reaction at high pressure. However, the Fe x O y /TiO2 catalyst deactivated more than the Fe x O y /SiO2 catalyst. After analyzing the used catalysts, it was evident that the Fe x O y -NP on titania had grown to 48 nm, while the Fe x O y -NP on silica was still 7 nm in size. STEM-EDX revealed that the growth of Fe x O y /TiO2 originated mainly from the hydrogen reduction step and only to a limited extent from catalysis. Quantitative STEM-EDX measurements indicated that at a reduction temperature of 350 °C, 80% of the initial iron had dispersed over and into the titania as iron species below imaging resolution. The Fe/Ti surface atomic ratios from XPS measurements indicated that the iron particles first spread over the support after a reduction temperature of 300 °C followed by iron oxide particle growth at 350 °C. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed that 70% of iron was present as Fe2+, specifically as amorphous iron titanates (FeTiO3), after reduction at 350 °C. The growth of iron nanoparticles on titania is hypothesized as an Ostwald ripening process where Fe2+ species diffuse over and through the titania support. Presynthesized nanoparticles on SiO2 displayed structural stability, as only ?10% iron silicates were formed and particles kept the same size during in situ reduction, carburization, and FTO catalysis.
Project description:Traditional ionic liquids (ILs) catalysts suffer from the difficulty of product purification and can only be used in homogeneous catalytic systems. In this work, by reacting ILs with co-catalyst (ZnBr?), we successfully converted three polyether imidazole ionic liquids (PIILs), i.e., HO-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (HO-[PECH-MIM]Cl), HOOC-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (HOOC-[PECH-MIM]Cl), and H?N-[Poly-epichlorohydrin-methimidazole]Cl (H?N-[PECH-MIM]Cl), to three composite PIIL materials, which were further immobilized on ZSM-5 zeolite by chemical bonding to result in three immobilized catalysts, namely ZSM-5-HO-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr?], ZSM-5-HOOC-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr?], and ZSM-5-H?N-[PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr?]. Their structures, thermal stabilities, and morphologies were fully characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amount of composite PIIL immobilized on ZSM-5 was determined by elemental analysis. Catalytic performance of the immobilized catalysts was evaluated through the catalytic synthesis of propylene carbonate (PC) from CO? and propylene oxide (PO). Influences of reaction temperature, time, and pressure on catalytic performance were investigated through the orthogonal test, and the effect of catalyst circulation was also studied. Under an optimal reaction condition (130 °C, 2.5 MPa, 0.75 h), the composite catalyst, ZSM-5-HOOC- [PECH-MIM]Cl/[ZnBr?], exhibited the best catalytic activity with a conversion rate of 98.3% and selectivity of 97.4%. Significantly, the immobilized catalyst could still maintain high heterogeneous catalytic activity even after being reused for eight cycles.
Project description:A series of MoO3/H-ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 25) catalysts were prepared via calcination at a lower-than-usual temperature (400 °C) and subsequently evaluated in the methanol-to-hydrocarbon reaction at that same temperature. The catalytic properties of those catalysts were compared with the sample prepared at the more conventional, higher temperature of 500 °C. For the lower temperature preparations, molybdenum oxide was preferentially dispersed over the zeolite external surface, while only the higher loading level of MoO3 (7.5 wt% or higher) led to observable inner migration of the Mo species into the zeolite channels, with concomitant partial loss of the zeolite Brønsted acidity. On the MoO3 modified samples, the early-period gas yield, especially for valuable propylene and C4 products, was noticeably accelerated, and is gradually converted into an enhanced liquid aromatic formation. The 7.5 wt% MoO3/H-ZSM-5 sample prepared at 400 °C thereby achieved a balance between the zeolite surface dispersion of Mo species, their inner channel migration and the corresponding effect on the intrinsic Brønsted acidity of the acidic zeolite. That loading level also possessed the highest product selectivity (after 5 h reaction) to benzene, toluene and xylenes, as well as higher early-time valuable gas product yields in time-on-stream experiments. However, MoO3 loading levels of 7.5 wt% and above also resulted in earlier catalyst deactivation by enhanced coke accumulation at, or near, the zeolite channel openings. Our research illustrates that the careful adoption of moderate/lower temperature dispersion processes for zeolite catalyst modification gives considerable potential for tailoring and optimizing the system's catalytic performance.
Project description:Non-oxidative dehydroaromatization of methane over Mo/ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts is a promising reaction for the direct conversion of abundant natural gas into liquid aromatics. Rapid coking deactivation hinders the practical implementation of this technology. Herein, we show that catalyst productivity can be improved by nearly an order of magnitude by raising the reaction pressure to 15?bar. The beneficial effect of pressure was found for different Mo/ZSM-5 catalysts and a wide range of reaction temperatures and space velocities. High-pressure operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that the structure of the active Mo-phase was not affected by operation at elevated pressure. Isotope labeling experiments, supported by mass-spectrometry and <sup>13</sup> C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, indicated the reversible nature of coke formation. The improved performance can be attributed to faster coke hydrogenation at increased pressure, overall resulting in a lower coke selectivity and better utilization of the zeolite micropore space.
Project description:Optimizing the number, distribution, and accessibility of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite-based catalysts is of a paramount importance to further improve their catalytic performance. However, it remains challenging to measure real-time changes in reactivity of single zeolite catalyst particles by ensemble-averaging characterization methods. In this work, a detailed 3D single molecule, single turnover sensitive fluorescence microscopy study is presented to quantify the reactivity of Brønsted acid sites in zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals upon steaming. This approach, in combination with the oligomerization of furfuryl alcohol as a probe reaction, allowed the stochastic behavior of single catalytic turnovers and temporally resolved turnover frequencies of zeolite domains smaller than the diffraction limited resolution to be investigated with great precision. It was found that the single turnover kinetics of the parent zeolite crystal proceeds with significant spatial differences in turnover frequencies on the nanoscale and noncorrelated temporal fluctuations. Mild steaming of zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals at 500 °C led to an enhanced surface reactivity, with up to 4 times higher local turnover rates than those of the parent H-ZSM-5 crystals, and revealed remarkable heterogeneities in surface reactivity. In strong contrast, severe steaming at 700 °C significantly dealuminated the zeolite H-ZSM-5 material, leading to a 460 times lower turnover rate. The differences in measured turnover activities are explained by changes in the 3D aluminum distribution due to migration of extraframework Al-species and their subsequent effect on pore accessibility, as corroborated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) sputter depth profiling data.
Project description:Non-oxidative dehydroaromatization of methane (MDA) is a promising catalytic process for direct valorization of natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. The application of this reaction in practical technology is hindered by a lack of understanding about the mechanism and nature of the active sites in benchmark zeolite-based Mo/ZSM-5 catalysts, which precludes the solution of problems such as rapid catalyst deactivation. By applying spectroscopy and microscopy, it is shown that the active centers in Mo/ZSM-5 are partially reduced single-atom Mo sites stabilized by the zeolite framework. By combining a pulse reaction technique with isotope labeling of methane, MDA is shown to be governed by a hydrocarbon pool mechanism in which benzene is derived from secondary reactions of confined polyaromatic carbon species with the initial products of methane activation.