Magnetically assisted intraperitoneal drug delivery for cancer chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy has revived hopes during the past few years for the management of peritoneal disseminations of digestive and gynecological cancers. Nevertheless, a poor drug penetration is one key drawback of IP chemotherapy since peritoneal neoplasms are notoriously resistant to drug penetration. Recent preclinical studies have focused on targeting the aberrant tumor microenvironment to improve intratumoral drug transport. However, tumor stroma targeting therapies have limited therapeutic windows and show variable outcomes across different cohort of patients. Therefore, the development of new strategies for improving the efficacy of IP chemotherapy is a certain need. In this work, we propose a new magnetically assisted strategy to elevate drug penetration into peritoneal tumor nodules and improve IP chemotherapy. A computational model was developed to assess the feasibility and predictability of the proposed active drug delivery method. The key tumor pathophysiology, including a spatially heterogeneous construct of leaky vasculature, nonfunctional lymphatics, and dense extracellular matrix (ECM), was reconstructed in silico. The transport of intraperitoneally injected magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) inside tumors was simulated and compared with the transport of free cytotoxic agents. Our results on magnetically assisted delivery showed an order of magnitude increase in the final intratumoral concentration of drug-coated MNPs with respect to free cytotoxic agents. The intermediate MNPs with the radius range of 200-300?nm yield optimal magnetic drug targeting (MDT) performance in 5-10?mm tumors while the MDT performance remains essentially the same over a large particle radius range of 100-500?nm for a 1?mm radius small tumor. The success of MDT in larger tumors (5-10?mm in radius) was found to be markedly dependent on the choice of magnet strength and tumor-magnet distance while these two parameters were less of a concern in small tumors. We also validated in silico results against experimental results related to tumor interstitial hypertension, conventional IP chemoperfusion, and magnetically actuated movement of MNPs in excised tissue.
Project description:Peritoneal metastasis (PM) frequently occurs in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and confers a dismal prognosis despite advances in systemic chemotherapy. While systemic chemotherapy has poor peritoneal penetration, intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy remains sequestered, resulting in high peritoneal drug concentrations with less systemic side-effects. The first application of IP treatment was hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) for gastric cancer peritoneal metastasis (GCPM); but was associated with an increased morbidity and mortality rate without significantly improving overall survival (OS). While CRS confers limited benefit, the potential role of prophylactic HIPEC and laparoscopic neoadjuvant HIPEC are currently being evaluated. Combination systemic and IP chemotherapy (SIPC) gained popularity in the 1990s, since it provided the benefits of IP treatment while reducing surgical morbidity, demonstrating promising early results in multiple Phase II trials. Unfortunately, these findings were not confirmed in the recent PHOENIX-GC randomized controlled trial; therefore, the appropriate treatment for GCPM remains controversial. Small observational studies from Japan and Singapore have reported successful downstaging of PM in GC patients receiving SIPC who subsequently underwent conversion gastrectomy with a median OS of 21.6-34.6 months. Recently, the most significant development in IP-directed therapy is pressurized IP aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC). Given that aerosol chemotherapy achieves a wider distribution and deeper penetration, the outcomes of multiple ongoing trials assessing its efficacy are eagerly awaited. Indeed, IP-directed therapy has evolved rapidly in the last 3 decades, with an encouraging trend toward improved outcomes in GCPM, and may offer some hope for an otherwise fatal disease.
Project description:Although intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) has been suggested as a promising method for the management of peritoneal dissemination (PD) of ovarian or colorectal cancers, the actual clinical use of this method has been restricted due to such problems as poor drug penetration into the tumor and high side effects. It is, therefore, necessary to develop new strategies to improve the efficacy of this approach. In the present work, a new strategy is proposed based on intraperitoneal (IP) injection of thermosensitive liposomal doxorubicin (TSL-Dox) with triggered release by mild hyperthermia induced by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). A computational model is developed to evaluate the proposed drug delivery system. Results show an order of magnitude increase in drug penetration depth into the tumor compared to the conventional IP delivery. Furthermore, the effects of thermal conditions applied to the tumor, TSL size, tumor vessel permeability, and tumor size are investigated. Results indicate an improved efficiency of the drug delivery by expanding the heated region, yet, it increases the risk of unintentional TSL drug load release in the peritoneal cavity. Results also indicate that smaller TSLs have better treatment outcome. However, there is a significant reduction in treatment efficacy for TSLs with sizes smaller than the vessel wall pore size. Thus, tuning the size of TSL should be based on the tumor microvascular permeability. The simulation results suggest that the TSL-Dox delivery system in smaller tumors is far advantageous than larger ones. Results of our model can be used as guidelines for future preclinical studies.
Project description:Heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has several potential benefits. Higher doses of chemotherapy can be used with HIPEC because the plasma-peritoneal barrier results in little absorption into the blood stream. HIPEC offers higher peritoneal penetration in comparison to an intravenous (IV) regimen and does not have the traditional normothermic intraperitoneal (IP) regimen limitation of post-operative adhesions. Hyperthermia itself has cytotoxic effects and can potentiate antineoplastic effects of chemotherapy in part by increasing the depth of tumor penetration by up to 3 mm. For the treatment of ovarian cancer, HIPEC has been evaluated in the recurrent setting with secondary cytoreduction. Recent studies, including a prospective trial, have evaluated its role in primary management of ovarian cancer. This review summarizes previous and ongoing studies regarding the use of HIPEC in the management of ovarian cancer.
Project description:Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with advanced abdominal neoplasms. Intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) is an area of intense interest given its efficacy in ovarian cancer. However, IPC suffers from poor drug penetration into peritoneal tumors. As such, extensive cytoreductive surgery is required prior to IPC. Here, we explore the utility of iRGD, a tumor-penetrating peptide, for improved tumor-specific penetration of intraperitoneal compounds and enhanced IPC in mice. Intraperitoneally administered iRGD significantly enhanced penetration of an attached fluorescein into disseminated peritoneal tumor nodules. The penetration was tumor-specific, circulation-independent, and mediated by the neuropilin-binding RXXK tissue-penetration peptide motif of iRGD. Q-iRGD, which fluoresces upon cleavage, including the one that leads to RXXK activation, specifically labeled peritoneal metastases displaying different growth patterns in mice. Importantly, iRGD enhanced intratumoral entry of intraperitoneally co-injected dextran to approximately 300% and doxorubicin to 250%. Intraperitoneal iRGD/doxorubicin combination therapy inhibited the growth of bulky peritoneal tumors and reduced systemic drug toxicity. iRGD delivered attached fluorescein and co-applied nanoparticles deep into fresh human peritoneal metastasis explants. These results indicate that intraperitoneal iRGD co-administration serves as a simple and effective strategy to facilitate tumor detection and improve the therapeutic index of IPC for peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Project description:Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is an effective way of treating local and regional malignancies confined in the peritoneal cavity such as ovarian cancer. However, a persistent major challenge in IP chemotherapy is the need to provide effective drug concentrations in the peritoneal cavity for an extended period of time. We hypothesized that hyaluronic acid (HA)-based in-situ crosslinkable hydrogel would serve as a carrier of paclitaxel (PTX) particles to improve their IP retention and therapeutic effects. In-vitro gel degradation and release kinetics studies demonstrated that HA gels could entrap microparticulate PTX (>100 ?m) and release the drug over 10 days, gradually degraded by hyaluronidase, but had limited effect on retention of Taxol, a 14-nm micelle form of PTX. When administered IP to tumor-bearing nude mice, PTX was best retained in the peritoneal cavity as PTX-gel (microparticulate PTX entrapped in the HA gel), whereas Taxol-gel and other Taxol-based formulations left negligible amount of PTX in the cavity after 14 days. Despite the increase in IP retention of PTX, PTX-gel did not further decrease the tumor burdens than Taxol-based formulations, presumably due to the limited dissolution of PTX. This result indicates that spatial availability of a drug does not necessarily translate to the enhanced anti-tumor effect unless it is accompanied by the temporal availability.
Project description:This study established a multiscale computational model for intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy, to depict the time-dependent and spatial-dependent drug concentrations in peritoneal tumors as functions of drug properties (size, binding, diffusivity, permeability), transport mechanisms (diffusion, convection), spatial-dependent tumor heterogeneities (vessel density, cell density, pressure gradient), and physiological properties (peritoneal pressure, peritoneal fluid volume). Equations linked drug transport and clearance on three scales (tumor, IP cavity, whole organism). Paclitaxel was the test compound. The required model parameters (tumor diffusivity, tumor hydraulic conductivity, vessel permeability and surface area, microvascular hydrostatic pressure, drug association with cells) were obtained from literature reports, calculation, and/or experimental measurements. Drug concentration-time profiles in peritoneal fluid and plasma were the boundary conditions for tumor domain and blood vessels, respectively. The finite element method was used to numerically solve the nonlinear partial differential equations for fluid and solute transport. The resulting multiscale model accounted for intratumoral spatial heterogeneity, depicted diffusive and convective drug transport in tumor interstitium and across blood vessels, and provided drug flux and concentration as a function of time and spatial position in the tumor. Comparison of model-predicted tumor spatiokinetics with experimental results (autoradiographic data of 3H-paclitaxel in IP ovarian tumors in mice, 6 h posttreatment) showed good agreement (1% deviation for area under curve and 23% deviations for individual data points, which were several-fold lower compared to the experimental intertumor variations). The computational multiscale model provides a tool to quantify the effects of drug-, tumor-, and host-dependent variables on the concentrations and residence time of IP therapeutics in tumors.
Project description:Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) is currently the standard treatment for selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. However, especially after incomplete cytoreduction, disease progression is common and this is likely due to limited tissue penetration and efficacy of intraperitoneal cytotoxic drugs. Tumor microenvironment-targeting drugs, such as VEGF(R) and PDGFR inhibitors, can lower the heightened interstitial fluid pressure in tumors, a barrier to drug delivery. Here, we investigated whether tumor microenvironment-targeting drugs enhance the effectiveness of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. A mouse xenograft model with two large peritoneal implants of colorectal cancer cells was developed to study drug distribution and tumor physiology during intraperitoneal Oxaliplatin perfusion. Mice were treated for six days with either Placebo, Imatinib (anti-PDGFR, daily), Bevacizumab (anti-VEGF, twice) or Pazopanib (anti-PDGFR, -VEGFR; daily) followed by intraperitoneal oxaliplatin chemotherapy. Bevacizumab and Pazopanib significantly lowered interstitial fluid pressure, increased Oxaliplatin penetration (assessed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and delayed tumor growth of peritoneal implants (assessed by MRI). Our findings suggest that VEGF(R)-inhibition may improve the efficacy of IPC, particularly for patients for whom a complete cytoreduction might not be feasible.
Project description:Albumin is a remarkable carrier protein with multiple cellular receptor and ligand binding sites, which are able to bind and transport numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. The development of albumin-bound drugs is gaining increased importance in the targeted delivery of cancer therapy. Intraperitoneal (IP) drug delivery represents an attractive strategy for the local treatment of peritoneal metastasis (PM). PM is characterized by the presence of widespread metastatic tumor nodules on the peritoneum, mostly originating from gastro-intestinal or gynaecological cancers. Albumin as a carrier for chemotherapy holds considerable promise for IP delivery in patients with PM. Data from recent (pre)clinical trials suggest that IP albumin-bound chemotherapy may result in superior efficacy in the treatment of PM compared to standard chemotherapy formulations. Here, we review the evidence on albumin-bound chemotherapy with a focus on IP administration and its efficacy in PM.
Project description:Intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy is more effective than systemic chemotherapy for treating advanced ovarian cancer, but is typically associated with severe complications due to high dose, frequent administration schedule, and use of non-biocompatible excipients/delivery vehicles. Here, we developed paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded microspheres composed of di-block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(sebacic acid) (PEG-PSA) for safe and sustained IP chemotherapy. PEG-PSA microspheres provided efficient loading (~ 13% w/w) and prolonged release (~ 13 days) of PTX. In a murine ovarian cancer model, a single dose of IP PTX/PEG-PSA particles effectively suppressed tumor growth for more than 40 days and extended the median survival time to 75 days compared to treatments with Taxol(®) (47 days) or IP placebo particles (34 days). IP PTX/PEG-PSA was well tolerated, with only minimal to mild inflammation. Our findings support PTX/PEG-PSA microspheres as a promising drug delivery platform for IP therapy of ovarian cancer, and potentially other metastatic peritoneal cancers.
Project description:Gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies disseminate in the peritoneal cavity - a condition known as peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Intraperitoneal (IP) administration can be used to improve therapeutic index of anticancer drugs used for PC treatment. Activity of IP anticancer drugs can be further potentiated by encapsulation in nanocarriers and/or affinity targeting with tumor-specific affinity ligands, such as tumor homing peptides. Here we evaluated a novel tumor penetrating peptide, linTT1 (AKRGARSTA), as a PC targeting ligand for nanoparticles. We first demonstrated that the primary homing receptor for linTT1, p32 (or gC1qR), is expressed on the cell surface of peritoneal carcinoma cell lines of gastric (MKN-45P), ovarian (SKOV-3), and colon (CT-26) origin, and that peritoneal tumors in mice and clinical peritoneal carcinoma explants express p32 protein accessible from the IP space. Iron oxide nanoworms (NWs) functionalized with the linTT1 peptide were taken up and routed to mitochondria in cultured PC cells. NWs functionalized with linTT1 peptide in tandem with a pro-apoptotic [D(KLAKLAK)2] peptide showed p32-dependent cytotoxicity in MKN-45P, SKOV-3, and CT-26 cells. Upon IP administration in mice bearing MKN-45P, SKOV-3, and CT-26 tumors, linTT1-functionalized NWs showed robust homing and penetration into malignant lesions, whereas only a background accumulation was seen in control tissues. In tumors, the linTT1-NW accumulation was seen predominantly in CD31-positive blood vessels, in LYVE-1-positive lymphatic structures, and in CD11b-positive tumor macrophages. Experimental therapy of mice bearing peritoneal MKN-45P xenografts and CT-26 syngeneic tumors with IP linTT1-D(KLAKLAK)2-NWs resulted in significant reduction of weight of peritoneal tumors and significant decrease in the number of metastatic tumor nodules, whereas treatment with untargeted D(KLAKLAK)2-NWs had no effect. Our data show that targeting of p32 with linTT1 tumor-penetrating peptide improves tumor selectivity and antitumor efficacy of IP pro-apoptotic NWs. P32-directed intraperitoneal targeting of other anticancer agents and nanoparticles using peptides and other affinity ligands may represent a general strategy to increase their therapeutic index.