Loss of cytoplasmic survivin expression is an independent predictor of poor prognosis in radically operated prostate cancer patients.
ABSTRACT: Survivin is an inhibitor of apoptosis. Aberrant survivin expression occurs in malignant tumors and has often been linked to unfavorable patient outcome. Here we analyzed 12 432 prostate cancers by immunohistochemistry. Survivin immunostaining was regularly expressed at high levels in normal prostate epithelium but expression was often reduced in prostate cancers. Among 9492 evaluable prostate cancers, 9% expressed survivin strongly, 19% moderately, 28% weakly, and 44% lacked it. Loss of cytoplasmic survivin was seen in advanced tumor stage, higher Gleason score, preoperative PSA levels, and Ki-67 labeling index, and associated with earlier PSA recurrence (P < .0001). Survivin loss was significantly more common in cancers carrying TMPRSS2:ERG fusions (61% survivin negative) than in ERG wild-type cancers (32% survivin negative; P < .0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that reduced cytoplasmic survivin expression predicted poor prognosis independent from Gleason score, pT, pN, and serum PSA level. This was valid for ERG-positive and ERG-negative cancers. Survivin expression loss even retained its prognostic impact in 1020 PTEN deleted cancers, a group that is already characterized by dismal patient prognosis. In conclusion, reduced survivin expression is associated with more aggressive tumors and inferior prognosis in prostate cancer.
Project description:Dysregulation of S100A8 is described in many different human tumor types, but its role in prostate cancer is unknown. To evaluate the clinical relevance of S100A8 expression in prostate cancer, a tissue microarray containing 13,665 tumors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Cytoplasmic S100A8 staining was compared to prostate cancer phenotype, patient prognosis and molecular features including TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status and deletions of PTEN, 3p, 5q and 6q. S100A8 immunostaining was typically seen in normal prostate tissue but lost in 60% of 9786 interpretable prostate cancers. In the remaining tumors, S100A8 was considered weak in 17.9%, moderate in 17.8% and strong in 5.4% of cases. Loss of S100A8 expression was linked to advanced tumor stage, high Gleason grade, positive nodal status, positive surgical margin and high preoperative PSA (P?<?.0001 each). In addition, loss of S100A8 expression was associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusions (P?<?.0001), deletions of PTEN, 3p, and 6q (P?<?.005), and a high number of genomic deletions per tumor (P?=?.0009). Absence of S100A8 immunostaining was also linked to an elevated risk for early PSA recurrence (P?<?.0001). In a multivariate analysis limited to features that are preoperatively available, the prognostic impact of S100A8 expression (P?<?.0001) was independent of clinical stage, Gleason grade, and serum PSA level (P?<?.0001). Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that complete loss of S100A8 expression is linked to adverse tumor features and predicts early biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer. S100A8 measurement, either alone or in combination might be of clinical utility in prostate cancers.
Project description:The A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of endopeptidases plays a role in many solid cancers and includes promising targets for anticancer therapies. Deregulation of ADAM15 has been linked to tumor aggressiveness and cell line studies suggest that ADAM15 overexpression may also be implicated in prostate cancer. To evaluate the impact of ADAM15 expression and its relationship with key genomic alterations, a tissue microarray containing 12,427 prostate cancers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. ADAM15 expression was compared to phenotype, prognosis and molecular features including TMPRSS2:ERG fusion and frequent deletions involving PTEN, 3p, 5q and 6q. Normal prostate epithelium did not show ADAM15 staining. In prostate cancers, negative, weak, moderate, and strong ADAM15 staining was found in 87.7%, 3.7%, 5.6%, and 3.0% of 9826 interpretable tumors. Strong ADAM15 staining was linked to high Gleason grade, advanced pathological tumor stage, positive nodal stage and resection margin. ADAM15 overexpression was also associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusions and PTEN deletions (P<.0001) but unrelated to deletions of 3p, 5q and 6q. In univariate analysis, high ADAM15 expression was strongly linked to PSA recurrence (P<.0001). However, in multivariate analyses this association was only maintained if the analysis was limited to preoperatively available parameters in ERG-negative cancers. The results of our study demonstrate that ADAM15 is strongly up regulated in a small but highly aggressive fraction of prostate cancers. In these tumors, ADAM15 may represent a suitable drug target. In a preoperative scenario, ADAM15 expression measurement may assist prognosis assessment, either alone or in combination with other markers.
Project description:Biglycan (BGN), a proteoglycan of the extracellular matrix, is included in mRNA signatures for prostate cancer aggressiveness. To understand the impact of BGN on prognosis and its relationship to molecularly defined subsets, we analyzed BGN expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 12,427 prostate cancers. Seventy-eight percent of 11,050 interpretable cancers showed BGN expression, which was considered as low intensity in 47.7% and as high intensity in 31.1% of cancers. BGN protein expression rose with increasing pathological tumor stage, Gleason grade, lymph node metastasis and early PSA recurrence (P<.0001 each). Comparison with our molecular database attached to the TMA revealed that BGN expression was linked to presence of TMPRRS2:ERG fusion and PTEN deletion (P<.0001 each). In addition, BGN was strongly linked to androgen-receptor (AR) levels (P<.0001), suggesting a hormone-depending regulation of BGN. BGN up-regulation is a frequent feature of prostate cancer that parallels tumor progression and may be useful to estimate tumor aggressiveness particularly if combined with other molecular markers.
Project description:HOXB13 is a prostate cancer susceptibility gene which shows a cancer predisposing (G84E) mutation in 0.1-0.6% of males. We analyzed the prognostic impact of HOXB13 expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 12,400 prostate cancers. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, biochemical recurrence, androgen receptor (AR) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) as well as molecular subtypes defined by ERG status and genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q, and PTEN. HOXB13 immunostaining was detectable in 51.7% of 10,216 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 9.6%, moderate in 19.7% and weak in 22.3% of cases. HOXB13 expression was linked to advanced pT stage, high Gleason grade, positive lymph node status (p < 0.0001 each), high pre-operative PSA levels (p = 0.01), TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, PTEN deletions, AR expression, cell proliferation, reduced PSA expression and early PSA recurrence (p < 0.0001 each). The prognostic value of HOXB13 was independent from established parameters including Gleason, stage, nodal stage and PSA. Co-expression analysis identified a subset of tumors with high HOXB13 and AR but low PSA expression that had a particularly poor prognosis. HOXB13 appears to be a promising candidate for clinical routine tests either alone or in combination with other markers, including AR and PSA.
Project description:FAM13C, a gene with unknown function is included in several mRNA signatures for prostate cancer aggressiveness. To understand the impact of FAM13C on prognosis and its relationship to molecularly defined subsets, we analyzed FAM13C expression by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 12,400 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to phenotype, ERG status, genomic deletions of 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN, and biochemical recurrence. FAM13C was detectable in cell nuclei of cancerous and non-neoplastic prostate cells. 67.5% of 9,633 interpretable cancers showed FAM13C expression: strong in 28.3%, moderate in 24.6% and weak in 14.6%. Strong FAM13C expression was linked to advanced pT stage, high Gleason grade, positive lymph node status, and early biochemical recurrence (p < 0.0001 each). FAM13C expression was associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusions. It was present in 85% of ERG positive but in only 54% of ERG negative cancers (p < 0.0001), and in 91.1% of PTEN deleted but in only 69.2% of PTEN non-deleted cancers (p < 0.0001). The prognostic role of FAM13C expression was independent of classical and quantitative Gleason grade, pT stage, pN stage, surgical margin status and preoperative PSA. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that expression of FAM13C is an independent prognostic marker in prostate cancer. Finding FAM13C also in non-neoplastic prostate tissues highlights the importance of properly selecting cancer-rich areas for RNA-based FAM13C expression analysis.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Overexpression of the cytoskeleton-modulating kinase ROCK1 has been associated with unfavorable outcome in many cancers, but its impact in prostate cancer is largely unknown. RESULTS:A weak ROCK1 staining was found in >90% of normal, and cancerous prostate tissues, but was generally stronger in cancer cells as compared to adjacent normal glands. In cancer, ROCK1 staining was considered weak, moderate, and strong in 22%, 53%, and 18% of cases respectively. Higher ROCK1 expression levels were associated with tumor stage, and Gleason grade, positive nodal stage, positive surgical margin, accelerated cell proliferation and early PSA recurrence in multivariable analysis. ROCK1 up regulation was associated with androgen receptor (AR) expression, TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, genomic deletions of the PTEN tumor suppressor, as well as recurrent deletions at chromosomes 3p, 5q, 6q. Strong ROCK1 staining was found in 3% of AR-negative, but in 27% of strongly AR positive cancers, in 13% of ERG-negative but in 25% of ERG positive cancers, and in 12% of PTEN normal but in 26% of PTEN deleted cancers. CONCLUSIONS:This study identifies ROCK1 expression associated with prognosis in prostate cancer. METHODS:We tested ROCK1 expression in 12 427 prostate cancer specimens and followed PSA recurrence after prostatectomy.
Project description:Breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1/p130cas) is a hub for diverse oncogenic signaling cascades and promotes tumor development and progression.To understand the effect of BCAR1 in prostate cancer, we analyzed its expression on more than 11,000 prostate cancer samples. BCAR1 expression levels were compared with clinical characteristics, PSA recurrence, molecular subtype defined by ERG status and 3p, 5q, 6q and PTEN deletion.BCAR1 staining was barely detectable in normal prostate glands but seen in 77.6% of 9472 interpretable cancers, including strong expression in 38.5%, moderate in 23.2% and weak in 15.9% of cases. BCAR1 up regulation was associated with positive ERG status (p?<?0.0001), high Gleason score (p?<?0.0001), advanced pathological tumor stage (p?=?0.0082), lower preoperative PSA level (p?<?0.0001), increased cell proliferation (p?<?0.0001), early PSA recurrence (p?=?0.0008), and predicted prognosis independently from clinico-pathological parameters available at the time of the initial biopsy. However, subset analyses revealed that the prognostic impact of BCAR1 expression was limited to ERG-negative cancer. That BCAR1 up regulation was linked to almost all analyzed deletions (p?<?0.0001 each for PTEN, 5q, 6q deletion) may suggest a functional link to genomic instability.The results of our study identify BCAR1 as a prognostic biomarker with potential clinical value for risk stratification of ERG-negative prostate cancer.
Project description:The VEGFR-1 is suggested to promote tumor progression. In the current study we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of the VEGFR-1 by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 3000 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, ETS-related gene (ERG) status, and biochemical recurrence. Membranous VEGFR-1 expression was detectable in 32.6% of 2669 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 1.7%, moderate in 6.7% and weak in 24.2% of cases. Strong VEGFR-1 expression was associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (p < 0.0001 each). Elevated VEGFR-1 expression was linked to high Gleason grade and advanced pT stage in TMPRSS2:ERG negative cancers (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.001), while these associations were absent in TMPRSS2:ERG positive cancers. VEGFR-1 expression was also linked to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletions. A comparison with prostate specific antigen (PSA) recurrence revealed that the 1.7% of prostate cancers with the highest VEGFR-1 levels had a strikingly unfavorable prognosis. This could be seen in all cancers, in the subsets of TMPRSS2:ERG positive or negative, PTEN deleted or undeleted carcinomas (p < 0.0001 each). High level VEGFR-1 expression is infrequent in prostate cancer, but identifies a subgroup of aggressive cancers, which may be candidates for anti-VEGFR-1 targeted therapy.
Project description:SAM pointed domain-containing Ets transcription factor (SPDEF), a member of the ETS transcription factor family, has been associated with prostate cancer development; however, its role in tumour development and progression is controversial. In the present study, SPDEF expression was analysed on a tissue microarray with >12,000 prostate cancer samples. SPDEF expression levels were higher in most prostate cancer samples than in normal prostate epithelium, suggesting SPDEF was upregulated in cancer. Nuclear SPDEF expression was identified in 80% of prostate cancer samples, and considered weak in 26.4%, moderate in 40.1% and strong in 13.5% of cases. SPDEF positivity was significantly associated with tumour stage, Gleason grade, lymph node metastasis and PSA recurrence (all P<0.0001). SPDEF overexpression was more common in ERG positive (94%) than in ERG negative cancer (69%; P<0.0001). Elevated SPDEF expression predicted poor prognosis independent from established prognostic parameters, including Gleason grade, pT, pN, serum PSA level and nodal status (P<0.01). In summary, SPDEF overexpression was associated with aggressive behaviour, particularly in ERG negative prostate cancer, and may have potential for clinical application.
Project description:More than 1,000,000 men undergo prostate biopsy each year in the United States, most for "elevated" serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Given the lack of specificity and unclear mortality benefit of PSA testing, methods to individualize management of elevated PSA are needed. Greater than 50% of PSA-screened prostate cancers harbor fusions between the transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (avian) (ERG) genes. Here, we report a clinical-grade, transcription-mediated amplification assay to risk stratify and detect prostate cancer noninvasively in urine. The TMPRSS2:ERG fusion transcript was quantitatively measured in prospectively collected whole urine from 1312 men at multiple centers. Urine TMPRSS2:ERG was associated with indicators of clinically significant cancer at biopsy and prostatectomy, including tumor size, high Gleason score at prostatectomy, and upgrading of Gleason grade at prostatectomy. TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3), improved the performance of the multivariate Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator in predicting cancer on biopsy. In the biopsy cohorts, men in the highest and lowest of three TMPRSS2:ERG+PCA3 score groups had markedly different rates of cancer, clinically significant cancer by Epstein criteria, and high-grade cancer on biopsy. Our results demonstrate that urine TMPRSS2:ERG, in combination with urine PCA3, enhances the utility of serum PSA for predicting prostate cancer risk and clinically relevant cancer on biopsy.