Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Pathogenesis and the Emerging Role of Long Non-Coding RNAs.
ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive chronic disease characterized by excessing scarring of the lungs leading to irreversible decline in lung function. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear, although lung fibroblast and epithelial cell activation, as well as the secretion of fibrotic and inflammatory mediators, have been strongly associated with the development and progression of IPF. Significantly, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as modulators of multiple biological processes, although their function and mechanism of action in IPF is poorly understood. LncRNAs have been shown to be important regulators of several diseases and their aberrant expression has been linked to the pathophysiology of fibrosis including IPF. This review will provide an overview of this emerging role of lncRNAs in the development of IPF.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed RNAs with more than 200 nucleotides in length. A growing body of evidence supports the notion that lncRNAs act as competitive endogenous RNAs for microRNAs and play roles in physiological and pathological processes. Several studies have demonstrated the roles of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, it is unknown whether lncRNAs are involved in IPF. To investigate the roles of lncRNAs in IPF, we determined the interaction of lncRNAs and microRNAs by motif search and manual comparison. The sequences of the dysregulated microRNAs in IPF including miR-21, miR-31, miR-101, miR-29, miR-199, and let-7d were used to search NONCODE database containing 33,829 human lncRNAs. A total of 34 lncRNAs with potential binding sites to these microRNAs were identified. We then examined the expression levels of the identified lncRNAs in the lungs of IPF patients by real-time PCR. Of 34 lncRNAs, nine lncRNAs were dysregulated in the IPF lungs. Four of them were inversely correlated to the microRNA expression in IPF. Further studies revealed that silencing the lncRNA CD99 molecule pseudogene 1 (CD99P1) inhibited proliferation and ?-smooth muscle actin expression of lung fibroblasts, while knockdown of the lncRNA n341773 increased collagen expression in lung fibroblasts. These results suggest that CD99P1 and n341773 may be involved in the regulation of lung fibroblast proliferation and differentiation. The identification of regulatory functions of lncRNAs in lung fibroblasts may provide new research directions for the therapy of IPF.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fatal chronic lung disease characterized by progressive scarring of the lung tissue, leading to respiratory failure. There is no cure for IPF, and current anti-fibrotic treatments modestly arrest its further progression. IPF prevalence and incidence increase with age, which is a recognized risk factor. Intense clinical and basic research over the last fifteen years has shown that hallmarks of accelerated aging are present in the lungs of patients with IPF. Different cell types in IPF lungs exhibit premature hallmarks of aging, including telomere attrition and cellular senescence. In this Review, we discuss recent insights into the mechanisms behind these age-related alterations and their contribution to the development of lung fibrosis. We focus on the genetic and molecular basis of telomere attrition in alveolar type II epithelial cells, which promote cellular senescence and lung fibrosis. Mechanistically, senescent cells secrete pro-fibrotic factors that activate scar-forming myofibroblasts. Ultimately, senescent alveolar epithelial cells lose their regenerative capacity, impeding fibrosis resolution. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction is strongly associated with the appearance of senescent epithelial cells and senescent myofibroblasts in IPF, which persist in the fibrotic tissue by adapting their metabolic pathways and becoming resistant to apoptosis. We discuss emerging novel therapeutic strategies to treat IPF by targeting cellular senescence with the so-called senotherapeutics.
Project description:Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are the varied set of transcripts that play a critical role in biological processes like gene regulation, transcription, post-transcriptional modification, and chromatin remodeling. Recent studies have reported the presence of lncRNAs in the exosomes that are involved in regulating cell-to-cell communication in lung pathologies including lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). In this study, we compared the lncRNA profiles in the plasma-derived exosomes amongst non-smokers (NS), cigarette smokers (CS), E-cig users (E-cig), waterpipe smokers (WP) and dual smokers (CSWP) using GeneChip™ WT Pico kit for transcriptional profiling. We found alterations in a distinct set of lncRNAs among subjects exposed to E-cig vapor, cigarette smoke, waterpipe smoke and dual smoke with some overlaps. Gene enrichment analyses of the differentially expressed lncRNAs demonstrated enrichment in the lncRNAs involved in crucial biological processes including steroid metabolism, cell differentiation and proliferation. Thus, the characterized lncRNA profiles of the plasma-derived exosomes from smokers, vapers, waterpipe users, and dual smokers will help identify the biomarkers relevant to chronic lung diseases such as COPD, asthma or IPF.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive scarring disease of the lung with few effective therapeutic options. Structural remodelling of the extracellular matrix [i.e. collagen cross-linking mediated by the lysyl oxidase (LO) family of enzymes (LOX, LOXL1-4)] might contribute to disease pathogenesis and represent a therapeutic target. This study aimed to further our understanding of the mechanisms by which LO inhibitors might improve lung fibrosis. Lung tissues from IPF and non-IPF subjects were examined for collagen structure (second harmonic generation imaging) and LO gene (microarray analysis) and protein (immunohistochemistry and western blotting) levels. Functional effects (collagen structure and tissue stiffness using atomic force microscopy) of LO inhibitors on collagen remodelling were examined in two models, collagen hydrogels and decellularized human lung matrices. LOXL1/LOXL2 gene expression and protein levels were increased in IPF versus non-IPF. Increased collagen fibril thickness in IPF versus non-IPF lung tissues correlated with increased LOXL1/LOXL2, and decreased LOX, protein expression. ?-Aminoproprionitrile (?-APN; pan-LO inhibitor) but not Compound A (LOXL2-specific inhibitor) interfered with transforming growth factor-?-induced collagen remodelling in both models. The ?-APN treatment group was tested further, and ?-APN was found to interfere with stiffening in the decellularized matrix model. LOXL1 activity might drive collagen remodelling in IPF lungs. The interrelationship between collagen structural remodelling and LOs is disrupted in IPF lungs. Inhibition of LO activity alleviates fibrosis by limiting fibrillar collagen cross-linking, thereby potentially impeding the formation of a pathological microenvironment in IPF.
Project description:There is accumulating evidence to indicate that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of the inflammatory response. In this report, we have employed next generation sequencing to identify 14 lncRNAs that are differentially expressed in human lung fibroblasts following the induction of inflammation using interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Knockdown of the two most highly expressed lncRNAs, IL7AS, and MIR3142HG, showed that IL7AS negatively regulated IL-6 release whilst MIR3142HG was a positive regulator of IL-8 and CCL2 release. Parallel studies in fibroblasts derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis showed similar increases in IL7AS levels, that also negatively regulate IL-6 release. In contrast, IL-1?-induced MIR3142HG expression, and its metabolism to miR-146a, was reduced by 4- and 9-fold in IPF fibroblasts, respectively. This correlated with a reduced expression of inflammatory mediators whilst MIR3142HG knockdown showed no effect upon IL-8 and CCL2 release. Pharmacological studies showed that IL-1?-induced IL7AS and MIR3142HG production and release of IL-6, IL-8, and CCL2 in both control and IPF fibroblasts were mediated via an NF-?B-mediated pathway. In summary, we have cataloged those lncRNAs that are differentially expressed following IL-1?-activation of human lung fibroblasts, shown that IL7AS and MIR3142HG regulate the inflammatory response and demonstrated that the reduced inflammatory response in IPF fibroblast is correlated with attenuated expression of MIR3142HG/miR-146a.
Project description:Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with a devastating prognosis characterized by unrelenting lung scarring. Aberrant activation of lung fibroblasts is a key feature of this disease, yet the key pathways responsible for this are poorly understood. Mitogen-activated protein kinase, kinase, kinase- 19 (MAP3K19) was recently shown to be upregulated in IPF and this MAPK has a key role in target gene transcription in the TGF-? pathway. Herein, we further investigate the role of MAP3K19 in cultured normal and IPF fibroblasts and in a humanized SCID mouse model of IPF employing both short interfering (si) RNA and novel small-molecule inhibitors directed at this kinase. Targeting MAP3K19 had significant inhibitory effects on the expression of both alpha smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix in cultured human IPF fibroblasts. Quantitative protein and biochemical assays, as well as histological analysis, showed that MAP3K19 was required for the development of lung fibrosis in SCID mice humanized with IPF lung fibroblasts. MAP3K19 was required for IPF myofibroblast differentiation, and targeting its activity attenuated the profibrotic activity of these cells both in vitro and in an adoptive transfer SCID model of pulmonary fibrosis.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an interstitial lung disease characterised by chronic, progressive scarring of the lungs and the pathological hallmark of usual interstitial pneumonia. Current paradigms suggest alveolar epithelial cell damage is a key initiating factor. Globally, incidence of the disease is rising, with associated high morbidity, mortality, and economic healthcare burden. Diagnosis relies on a multidisciplinary team approach with exclusion of other causes of interstitial lung disease. Over recent years, two novel antifibrotic therapies, pirfenidone and nintedanib, have been developed, providing treatment options for many patients with IPF, with several other agents in early clinical trials. Current efforts are directed at identifying key biomarkers that may direct more customized patient-centred healthcare to improve outcomes for these patients in the future.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia and is characterized by a poor prognosis, with an estimated 5-year survival of approximately 20%. Progressive and irreversible lung functional impairment leads to chronic respiratory insufficiency with a severely impaired quality of life. In the last 2 decades, novel treatments for IPF have been developed as a consequence of an increasing understanding of disease pathogenesis and pathobiology. In IPF, injured dysfunctional alveolar epithelial cells promote fibroblast recruitment and proliferation, resulting in scarring of the lung tissue. Recently, pirfenidone and nintedanib have been approved for the treatment of IPF, having shown efficacy to slow functional decline and disease progression. This article focuses on the pharmacologic characteristics and clinical evidence supporting the use of nintedanib, a potent small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as therapy for IPF. After introducing the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, an overview of the safety and efficacy results from the most recent clinical trials of nintedanib in IPF is presented.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic disease of the lung that is marked by progressive decline in pulmonary function and ultimately respiratory failure. Genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified that indicate injury to, and dysfunction of the lung epithelium is central to initiating the pathogenic process. Following injury to the lung epithelium, growth factors, matrikines and extracellular matrix driven signaling together activate a variety of repair pathways that lead to inflammatory cell recruitment, fibroblast proliferation and expansion of the extracellular matrix, culminating in tissue fibrosis. This tissue fibrosis then leads to changes in the biochemical and biomechanical properties of the extracellular matrix, which potentiate profibrotic mechanisms through a "feed-forward cycle." This review provides an overview of the interactions of the pathogenic mechanisms of IPF with a focus on epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk and the extracellular matrix as a therapeutic target for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Project description:Fibrosis is characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components. The fibrotic process ultimately leads to organ dysfunction and failure in chronic inflammatory and metabolic diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, advanced kidney disease, and liver cirrhosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a common form of progressive and chronic interstitial lung disease of unknown etiology. Pathophysiologically, the parenchyma of the lung alveoli, interstitium, and capillary endothelium becomes scarred and stiff, which makes breathing difficult because the lungs have to work harder to transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveolar space and bloodstream. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and scarring of the lung tissue. Recent clinical trials focused on the development of pharmacological agents that either directly or indirectly target kinases for the treatment of IPF. Therefore, to develop therapeutic targets for pulmonary fibrosis, it is essential to understand the key factors involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and the underlying signaling pathway. The objective of this review is to discuss the role of kinase signaling cascades in the regulation of either TGF-?-dependent or other signaling pathways, including Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5, and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase pathways, and potential therapeutic targets in IPF.