Monitoring the Whole Cycle Length Change of Cement Mortar Incorporated with SRA by CMOS Image Sensor.
ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a new method to measure whole cycle length change non-destructively and continuously using a digital image analysis system. The macroscale length changes of mortars containing different shrinkage-reducing admixture (SRA) dosages (0%, 1%, 2% and 5% by cement weight) were first determined using a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor under alternating dry and wet curing conditions. After that, the length change was calculated using developed digital image processing technology (DIPT) software. After that, several significant conclusions could be drawn by combining with the results of systematic tests of the macroscopic and microscale physical properties of the cement mortar using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The test results indicated that SRAs exhibited significant effects on the shrinkage inhibition of cement mortars, whereas the shrinkage reduction behaviour was also affected by varying the curing conditions. The MIP and NMR analyses demonstrated that SRAs reduced the irreversible shrinkage of the cement mortars by decreasing the volume percentage of the 3-50 nm pores and promoting the conversion of calcium silicate hydrate gel from an oligomeric to a high polymerization state thereby improving the volume stability of cement mortars.
Project description:Volumetric stability is an important aspect of the performance of building materials, and the shrinkage of CaO-FeOx-Al2O3-SiO2-rich inorganic polymers (IPs) has not been thoroughly investigated yet. Hence, this paper describes the outcome of a study conducted to investigate ways to minimize their shrinkage using different curing regimes. Two different slags were used as case studies to assess the robustness of the developed mitigation strategies. IP pastes and mortars were cured at (i) room condition, (ii) in slightly elevated temperature (60 °C for 2 d) and (iii) in a water-saturated environment. The reaction kinetics and formed products were examined on IP pastes, while mortars were made to characterize the 28 d pore structure, autogenous shrinkage, drying shrinkage, and strength development. The results showed that the precursors' reactivity and curing conditions severely affect shrinkage mechanisms and magnitude. Volumetric changes in the plastic stage can be related to the precursors' reactivity but drying shrinkage was the driving mechanism affecting the volumetric stability of all IP mortars. Understanding the effect of a precursor's composition and curing conditions on shrinkage is fundamental to develop proper mitigation strategies and to overcome one of IPs' main technical drawbacks.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to prevent early age autogenous shrinkage in high-strength mortars with saturated tea waste particles. In general, high strength and high performance concretes are made with low water/binder ratios; hence, they are susceptible to shrink at early ages. This shrinkage occurs due to self-desiccation that leads to autogenous shrinkage. To overcome self-desiccation problems in high-strength cement composites, it is necessary to keep the composites moist for a long time. Pre-saturated porous lightweight aggregates and super absorbent polymers are the most commonly used materials in high-strength cement composites to keep them moist for a long time; however, in this study, porous tea waste particles were used to keep the cement mortars moist. Pre-saturated tea waste particles were used in two different size proportions, making up as much as 3% of the volume of the binder. Moreover, commonly used lightweight aggregate (perlite) was also used to compare the outcomes of specimens made with tea waste particles. Different parameters were observed, such as, flow of fresh mortars, autogenous shrinkage, mechanical strengths and microstructure of specimens. The addition of tea waste and perlite particles in mortars made with Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as the only binder, showed a reduction in flow, autogenous shrinkage and mechanical strengths, as compared to mixes made with partial addition of silica fume. Although, the use of silica fume improved the mechanical strength of specimens. Moreover, the use of saturated tea waste and perlite particles also improved the microstructure of specimens at an age of 28 days. The results revealed that the saturated tea waste particles have the ability to prevent autogenous shrinkage but they reduce strength of high-strength mortars at early ages.
Project description:Drying shrinkage of alkali-activated slag concrete (AASC) is significantly greater than that of concrete made with ordinary Portland cement (OPC). It limits the large-scale application of AASC in field engineering. This study investigates the effect of early age-curing methods, including water curing, curing in elevated-temperature water, and CO2 curing, on drying shrinkage of AASC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG-DTG), and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) were carried out to analyze the composition and microstructure of hydration products, to provide deeper understanding of drying shrinkage of AASC. The results show that water curing decreased drying shrinkage of both C30 and C50 AASC moderately compared to air curing, while it was more effective for C30 AASC. Curing in water of elevated temperature and CO2 curing were very beneficial to mitigate drying shrinkage of AASC. Heat curing decreased drying shrinkage of AASC up to 80%. SEM and TG-DTG results show that denser microstructure formed because of the accelerated hydration, resulting in lower porosity and lower proportion of pores smaller than 25 nm that contributed to the reduction of drying shrinkage. In addition, under high-temperature curing, most autogenous shrinkage of AASC occurred in the first few days because hydration was accelerated. After measurement of drying shrinkage was started, recorded autogenous shrinkage of AASC cured in elevated-temperature water should be much less than that of AASC cured at normal temperature. It is another important reason for the reduction of drying shrinkage. Carbonation occurring in the CO2 curing period led to the decalcification of C-(A)-S-H gel; it coarsened the pore-size distribution and decreased the total porosity. Therefore, drying shrinkage of C30 and C50 AASC was declined by 49% and 53% respectively.
Project description:This study investigated the material properties and hydration characteristics of calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) based mortars cured under 3 different initial curing temperatures. Two CSA cements with different M-values were selected. Obtained experimental results of mechanical properties, dimensional stability, and heat release were explained by hydration characteristics from X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, porosimetry, and thermodynamic modeling. Decomposition of ettringite decreased compressive strength but re-formation of ettringite after additional curing at 30 °C helped to recover the strength in CSA cement with a high amount of calcium sulfate. CSA cement with a low amount of calcium sulfate which was designed to predominantly have monosulfate as the main hydration product, showed increased 1-day strength after higher temperature curing but this occurred was at the expense of decreased 28-day strength.
Project description:This work evaluates the effects of using non-conforming fly ash (Nc-FA) generated in a thermoelectric power plant as filler material for mortars made with natural sand (NA) and recycled sand from masonry waste (FRMA). The incorporation of powdered recycled masonry filler (R-MF) is also tested as an alternative to siliceous filler (Si-F). Three families of mortars were designed to study: the effect of replacing Si-F with Nc-FA on mortars made with NA; the effect of replacing Si-F with Nc-FA on mortars made with 50% of NA and 50% of FRMA; and the effect of replacing Si-F with R-MF on mortars made with NA and FRMA. Replacing Si-F with Nc-FA is a viable alternative that increases the mechanical strength, the workability and durability properties and decreases the shrinkage. The use of FRMA and Nc-FA improved the mechanical strength of mortars, and it slightly increased the shrinkage. The replacement of Si-F with R-MF on mortars made with FRMA is not a good alternative, because it has a negative impact on all of the properties tested. This work can help both to reduce cement and natural resources' consumption and to increase the recycling rate of Nc-FA and FRMA.
Project description:Nanomaterials have been increasingly employed for improving the mechanical properties and durability of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC) with high volume supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). Recently, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have appeared as one of the most promising nanomaterials for enhancing the properties of cementitious composites. To date, a majority of studies have concentrated on cement pastes and mortars with fewer investigations on normal concrete, ultra-high strength concrete, and ultra-high-performance cement-based composites with a high volume of cement content. The studies of UHPC with high volume SCMs have not yet been widely investigated. This paper presents an experimental investigation into the mini slump flow and physical properties of such a UHPC containing GO nanosheets at additions from 0.00 to 0.05% by weight of cement and a water-cement ratio of 0.16. The study demonstrates that the mini slump flow gradually decreases with increasing GO nanosheet content. The results also confirm that the optimal content of GO nanosheets under standard curing and under steam curing is 0.02% and 0.04%, respectively, and the corresponding compressive and flexural strengths are significantly improved, establishing a fundamental step toward developing a cost-effective and environmentally friendly UHPC for more sustainable infrastructure.
Project description:Technological developments in construction have led to an increase in the use of 3D modelling using CAD environments. The popularity of this approach has increased in tandem with developments in industry branches which use 3D printers to print concrete based printing materials in construction, as these allow freedom in shaping the dimensions of supporting elements. One of the biggest challenges for researchers working on this highly innovative technology is that of cement material shrinkage. This article presents the findings of research on an original method of measuring deformations caused by shrinkage in 3D-printed concrete elements. It also discusses the results of tests on base mixes, as well as comparisons between the influence of internal and external curing methods on the development of deformations and their final outcomes. Furthermore, the article discusses differences between deformations formed after seven days of hardening without curing, with those which occur when two common, traditional concrete curing methods are used: foil insulation and shrinkage reducing admixtures. In addition, the article examines the effects of internal curing on the 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 day mechanical properties of concrete, in accordance with EN 196-1 and EN 12390-2. Studies have shown that the optimal amount of shrinkage reducing admixtures is 4% (in relation to the mass of cement), resulting in a reduction in total shrinkage of 23%. The use of a shrinkage reducing admixture in 3D-printed concrete does not affect their strength after 28 days, but slows the strength development during the first 7 days.
Project description:The addition of a range of micro- and nano-particles to high-performance concrete has been the focus of recent research. At present, studies are mainly aimed at designing customised mortars, providing them with specific properties for each application. Improving the durability of mortars is one of the main objectives in such research, as a result of increasing environmental concern. The research presented herein analyses the synergistic effect of nanosilica and metakaolin as additives on the service life of cement-based mortars subject to aggressive environments (i.e., chloride exposure) at early ages. The effects of the additives on the durability properties of submerged samples after two and three days of curing were analysed. Tests were conducted on several different properties: resistivity, porosity, mechanical properties, chloride diffusion, and service life. It is observed that metakaolin and nanosilica exhibit a synergistic effect as additives, which is related to porosity refinement and chloride ion binding capacity, which contributes to enhanced resistance against chloride penetration from very early ages.
Project description:In this study, the researchers investigated the potential use of locally available waste materials from the lime stone quarry and the granite industry as a partial replacement of cement. Quarry sites and granite industry in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia produces tons of powder wastes in the form of quarry dust (QD) and granite sludge (GS), respectively, causing serious environmental problems along with frequent dust storms in the area. According to ASTM C109, identical 50-mm3 specimens were cast throughout this study to evaluate the compressive strength development of mortars (7, 28 and 91 days) containing these waste materials. Experimental variables included different percentage replacement of cement with waste materials (GS, QD), fineness of GS, various curing temperatures (20, 40 and 60 °C as local normal and hot environmental temperatures) and curing moisture (continuously moist and partially moist followed by air curing). Finally, the results of mortar containing waste materials were compared to corresponding results of control mortar (CM) and mortar containing fly ash (FA). The test results indicated that under normal curing (20 °C, moist cured), the compressive strength of mortar containing the different percentage of waste materials (QD, GS, FA and their combinations) remained lower than that of CM at all ages. However, the compressive strength of mortar containing waste materials slightly increased with increased fineness of GS and significantly increased under high curing temperatures. It was recommended that more fineness of GS be achieved to use its high percentage replacement with cement (30% or more) incorporating local environmental conditions.
Project description:Significant drying shrinkage is one of the main limitations for the wider utilization of alkali-activated slag (AAS). Few previous works revealed that it is possible to reduce AAS drying shrinkage by the use of shrinkage-reducing admixtures (SRAs). However, these studies were mainly focused on SRA based on polypropylene glycol, while as it is shown in this paper, the behavior of SRA based on 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol can be significantly different. While 0.25% and 0.50% had only a minor effect on the AAS properties, 1.0% of this SRA reduced the drying shrinkage of waterglass-activated slag mortar by more than 80%, but it greatly reduced early strengths simultaneously. This feature was further studied by isothermal calorimetry, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Calorimetric experiments showed that 1% of SRA modified the second peak of the pre-induction period and delayed the maximum of the main hydration peak by several days, which corresponds well with observed strength development as well as with the MIP and SEM results. These observations proved the certain incompatibility of SRA with the studied AAS system, because the drying shrinkage reduction was induced by the strong retardation of hydration, resulting in a coarsening of the pore structure rather than the proper function of the SRA.