Study on the Permeability of Recycled Aggregate Pervious Concrete with Fibers.
ABSTRACT: Pervious concrete is considered to be porous concrete because of its pore structure and excellent permeability. In general, larger porosity will increase the permeability coefficient, but will significantly decrease the compressive strength. The effects of water-cement ratio, fiber types, and fiber content on the permeability coefficient, porosity, compressive strength, and flexural strength were investigated. The pore tortuosity of the pervious concrete was determined by volumetric analysis and two-dimensional cross-sectional image analysis. The concept and calculation method of porosity tortuosity were further proposed. Results show that the permeability coefficient of the pervious concrete is the most suitable with a water-cement ratio of 0.30; the water permeability of the pervious concrete is influenced by fiber diameter. The permeability coefficient of pervious concrete with polypropylene thick fiber (PPTF) is greater than that with copper coated steel fiber (CCF) and the polypropylene fiber (PPF). The permeability coefficient is related to tortuosity and porosity, but when porosity is the same, the permeability coefficient may be different. Finally, general relations between the permeability coefficient and porosity tortuosity are constructed.
Project description:One of the most efficient and environmentally friendly methods for preventing a landslide on a slope is to vegetate it. Vegetation-pervious concretes have a promising potential for soil protection. In this study, the vegetation-pervious concrete with low alkalinity was developed and studied. Combined with a grid beam structure system, the stability and strength between the vegetation-pervious concrete and base soil are believed to be enhanced effectively. For improving plant adaptability, the alkalinity of concrete can be decreased innovatively by adding a self-designed admixture into the cement paste. The effects of the admixture content on alkalinity and compressive strength of the hardened pervious concrete were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and compression test, respectively. Meanwhile, the permeability of the vegetation-pervious concrete was studied as well. Through comparing with ordinary pervious concrete, the effect of low alkaline pervious concrete on vegetation growth was investigated in a small-scale field for ten weeks. The test results indicated that the alkalinity of the cement samples decreased with the increase of admixture content, and the vegetation grew successfully on previous concrete. By increasing the admixture content to approximately 3.6%, the compressive strength of pervious concrete was more than 25 MPa.
Project description:The development of cracking in concrete structures leads to significant permeability and to durability problems as a result. Approaches to controlling crack development and crack width in concrete structures have been widely debated. Recently, it was recognized that a high-performance fiber-reinforced cement composite (HPFRCC) provides a possible solution to this inherent problem of cracking by smearing one or several dominant cracks into many distributed microcracks under tensile loading conditions. However, the chloride permeability of HPFRCC under compressive loading conditions is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the goal of the present study is to explore the chloride diffusion characteristics of HPFRCC damaged by compressive loads. The chloride diffusivity of HPFRCC is measured after being subjected to various repeated loads. The results show that the residual axial strain, lateral strain and specific crack area of HPFRCC specimens increase with an increase in the damage induced by repeated loads. However, the chloride diffusion coefficient increases only up to 1.5-times, whereas the specific crack area increases up to 3-times with an increase in damage. Although HPFRCC shows smeared distributed cracks in tensile loads, a significant reduction in the diffusion coefficient of HPFRCC is not obtained compared to plain concrete when the cyclic compressive load is applied below 85% of the strength.
Project description:To study the permeability of superabsorbent polymer (SAP) modified concrete and the effect of internal pore characteristics on the permeability of concrete specimens, the results of the water penetration under pressure test, the mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) test, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of SAP concrete were obtained and analyzed. The research shows that the addition of an appropriate amount of SAP can effectively improve the anti-permeability performance of concrete. After adding 0.2~0.6% SAP of cement quality to concrete, the penetration height value was reduced by 35~45%, the porosity was increased by 21-95%, and the tortuosity is increased by 14-15%, and all indicators show regular changes with the increase in SAP usage. Adding SAP to concrete changes the internal connection state of concrete, thereby further improving its impermeability by reducing the capillary pressure and changing the shape of the pores. The liquid permeation resistance is increased by the "threshold effect" inside concrete; this "threshold effect" is caused by the addition of SAP.
Project description:In the present work, the effect of mineral aggregates (pumice stone and expanded clay aggregates) and chemical admixtures (superplasticizers and shrinkage reducing additives) as an alternative internal curing technique was investigated, to improve the properties of high-performance concrete. In the fresh and hardened state, concretes with partial replacements of Portland cement (CPC30R and OPC40C) by pulverized fly ash in combination with the addition of mineral aggregates and chemical admixtures were studied. The physical, mechanical, and durability properties in terms of slump, density, porosity, compressive strength, and permeability to chloride ions were respectively determined. The microstructural analysis was carried out by scanning electronic microscopy. The results highlight the effect of the addition of expanded clay aggregate on the internal curing of the concrete, which allowed developing the maximum compressive strength at 28 days (61 MPa). Meanwhile, the replacement of fine aggregate by 20% of pumice stone allowed developing the maximum compressive strength (52 MPa) in an OPC-based concrete at 180 days. The effectiveness of internal curing to develop higher strength is attributed to control in the porosity and a high water release at a later age. Finally, the lowest permeability value at 90 days (945 C) was found by the substitutions of fine aggregate by 20% of pumice stone saturated with shrinkage reducing admixture into pores and OPC40C by 15% of pulverized fly ash. It might be due to impeded diffusion of chloride ions into cement paste in the vicinity of pulverized fly ash, where the pozzolanic reaction has occurred. The proposed internal curing technology can be considered a real alternative to achieve the expected performance of a high-performance concrete since a concrete with a compressive strength range from 45 to 67 MPa, density range from 2130 to 2310 kg/m3, and exceptional durability (< 2000 C) was effectively developed.
Project description:The research reported herein studied the permeability of concrete containing recycled-concrete aggregate (RA), superfine phosphorous slag (PHS), and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) with and without stress. Test results showed that the chloride diffusion coefficient of RA concrete (RAC) without external loads decreased with time, and the permeability of RAC is much lower than that of the reference concrete due to the on-going hydration and the pozzolanic reaction provided by the PHS and GGBS additives in the RAC mixture. The permeability of chloride under flexural load is much more sensitive than that under compressive load due to the differences in porosity and cracking pattern. At low compressive stress levels, the permeability of chloride decreased by the closing of pores and microcracks within RAC specimens. However, in a relatively short time the chloride diffusion coefficient and the chloride content increased rapidly with the increase of compressive stress when it exceeded a threshold stress level of approximate 35% of the ultimate compressive strength. Under flexural stress, the chloride transport capability increased with the increase of stress level and time. At high compressive and flexural stress levels, creep had a significant effect on the permeability of chloride in the RAC specimens due to the damage from the nucleation and propagation of microcracks over time. It is apparent that mortar cracking has more of a significant effect on the chloride transport in concrete than cracking in the interfacial transition zone (ITZ).
Project description:In this paper, the impact energy potential of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) was explored with different fiber mixes manufactured for comparative analyses of hybridization. The uniaxial compression and 3-point bending tests were conducted to determine the compressive strength and flexural strength. The experimental results imply that the steel fiber outperforms the polypropylene fiber and polyvinyl alcohol fiber in improving compressive and flexural strength. The sequent repeated drop weight impact tests for each mixture concrete specimens were performed to study the effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the impact energy. It is suggested that the steel fiber incorporation goes moderately ahead of the polypropylene or polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforcement in terms of the impact energy improvement. Moreover, the impact toughness of steel-polypropylene hybrid fiber reinforced concrete as well as steel-polyvinyl alcohol hybrid fiber reinforced concrete was studied to relate failure and first crack strength by best fitting. The impact toughness is significantly improved due to the positive hybrid effect of steel fiber and polymer fiber incorporated in concrete. Finally, the hybrid effect index is introduced to quantitatively evaluate the hybrid fiber reinforcement effect on the impact energy improvement. When steel fiber content exceeds polyvinyl alcohol fiber content, the corresponding impact energy is found to be simply sum of steel fiber reinforced concrete and polyvinyl alcohol fiber reinforced concrete.
Project description:Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC) concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel-space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods.
Project description:Experiments have been conducted to study the effect of addition of fly ash, copper slag, and steel and polypropylene fibres on compressive strength of concrete and to determine the hierarchical order of influence of the mix variables in affecting the strength using cluster analysis experimentally. While fly ash and copper slag are used for partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate, respectively, defined quantities of steel and polypropylene fibres were added to the mixes. It is found from the experimental study that, in general, irrespective of the presence or absence of fibres, (i) for a given copper slag-fine aggregate ratio, increase in fly ash-cement ratio the concrete strength decreases and with the increase in copper slag-sand ratio also the rate of strength decrease and (ii) for a given fly ash-cement ratio, increase in copper slag-fine aggregate ratio increases the strength of the concrete. From the cluster analysis, it is found that the quantities of coarse and fine aggregate present have high influence in affecting the strength. It is also observed that the quantities of fly ash and copper slag used as substitutes have equal "influence" in affecting the strength. Marginal effect of addition of fibres in the compression strength of concrete is also revealed by the cluster analysis.
Project description:Pore structure, tortuosity and permeability are considered key properties of porous materials such as cement pastes to understand their long-term durability performance. Three-dimensional image analysis techniques were used in this study to quantify pore size, effective porosity, tortuosity, and permeability from the X-ray computed tomography (CT) images of deteriorated pastes that were subjected to accelerated leaching test. X-ray microtomography is a noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique which has been recently gaining attention for material characterization. Coupled with 3D image analysis, the digitized pore can be extracted and computational simulation can be applied to the pore network to measure relevant microstructure and transport properties. At a spatial resolution of 0.50 μm, the effective porosity (ψe) was found to be in the range of 0.04 to 0.33. The characteristic pore size (d) using a local thickness algorithm was found to be in the range of 3 to 7 μm. The geometric tortuosity (τg) based on a 3D random walk simulation in the percolating pore space was found to be in the range of 2.00 to 7.45. The water permeability values (K) using US NIST Permeability Stokes Solver range from an order of magnitudes of 10-14 to 10-17 m². Indications suggest that as effective porosity increases, the geometric tortuosity increases and the permeability decreases. Correlation among these microstructure and transport parameters is also presented in this study.
Project description:The incorporation of pozzolanic materials in concrete has many beneficial effects to enhance the mechanical properties of concrete. The calcium silicate hydrates in cement matrix of concrete increase by pozzolanic reaction of silicates and calcium hydroxide. The fine pozzolanic particles fill spaces between clinker grains, thereby resulting in a denser cement matrix and interfacial transition zone between cement matrix and aggregates; this lowers the permeability and increases the compressive strength of concrete. In this study, Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) was mixed with 1% and 3% nanosilica by weight to produce cement pastes with water to binder ratio (w/b) of 0.45. The specimens were cured for 7 days. 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments are conducted and conversion fraction of nanosilica is extracted. The results are compared with a solid-state kinetic model. It seems that pozzolanic reaction of nanosilica depends on the concentration of calcium hydroxide.