Overexpression of Rice Expansin7 (Osexpa7) Confers Enhanced Tolerance to Salt Stress in Rice.
ABSTRACT: Expansins are key regulators of cell-wall extension and are also involved in the abiotic stress response. In this study, we evaluated the function of OsEXPA7 involved in salt stress tolerance. Phenotypic analysis showed that OsEXPA7 overexpression remarkably enhanced tolerance to salt stress. OsEXPA7 was highly expressed in the shoot apical meristem, root, and the leaf sheath. Promoter activity of OsEXPA7:GUS was mainly observed in vascular tissues of roots and leaves. Morphological analysis revealed structural alterations in the root and leaf vasculature of OsEXPA7 overexpressing (OX) lines. OsEXPA7 overexpression resulted in decreased sodium ion (Na+) and accumulated potassium ion (K+) in the leaves and roots. Under salt stress, higher antioxidant activity was also observed in the OsEXPA7-OX lines, as indicated by lower reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and increased antioxidant activity, when compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. In addition, transcriptional analysis using RNA-seq and RT-PCR revealed that genes involved in cation exchange, auxin signaling, cell-wall modification, and transcription were differentially expressed between the OX and WT lines. Notably, salt overly sensitive 1, which is a sodium transporter, was highly upregulated in the OX lines. These results suggest that OsEXPA7 plays an important role in increasing salt stress tolerance by coordinating sodium transport, ROS scavenging, and cell-wall loosening.
Project description:Sodium (Na+) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These results provide stronger evidence that HKT1;5 gene in barley play a key role in withdrawing Na+ from the xylem and therefore reducing its transport to leaves. Given all that, these data support the hypothesis that HKT1;5 gene is responsible for Na+ unloading to the xylem and controlling its distribution in the shoots, which provide new insight into the understanding of this QTL for salinity tolerance in barley.
Project description:Salt stress can severely reduce crop yields. To understand how rice (Oryza sativa) plants respond to this environmental challenge, we investigated the genes involved in conferring salt tolerance by screening T-DNA tagging lines and identified OsSta2-D (Oryza sativa Salt tolerance activation 2-Dominant). In that line, expression of OsSta2 was enhanced by approximately eightfold when compared with the non-transformed wild type (WT). This gene was highly expressed in the callus, roots, and panicles. To confirm its role in stress tolerance, we generated transgenic rice that over-expresses OsSta2 under a maize ubiquitin promoter. The OsSta2-Ox plants were salt-tolerant at the vegetative stage, based on our calculations of chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll concentrations, and survival rates. Under normal paddy field conditions, the Ox plants were somewhat shorter than the WT control but had improved agronomic traits such as higher total grain yield. They were also more tolerant to osmotic stress and hypersensitive to abscisic acid. Based on all of these results, we suggest that OsSta2 has important roles in determining yields as well as in conferring tolerance to salt stresses.
Project description:To understand the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying seedling salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.), the phenotypic, metabolic, and transcriptome responses of two related rice genotypes, IR64 and PL177, with contrasting salt tolerance were characterized under salt stress and salt+abscisic acid (ABA) conditions. PL177 showed significantly less salt damage, lower Na(+)/K(+) ratios in shoots, and Na(+) translocation from roots to shoots, attributed largely to better salt exclusion from its roots and salt compartmentation of its shoots. Exogenous ABA was able to enhance the salt tolerance of IR64 by selectively decreasing accumulation of Na(+) in its roots and increasing K(+) in its shoots. Salt stress induced general and organ-specific increases of many primary metabolites in both rice genotypes, with strong accumulation of several sugars plus proline in shoots and allantoin in roots. This was due primarily to ABA-mediated repression of genes for degradation of these metabolites under salt. In PL177, salt specifically up-regulated genes involved in several pathways underlying salt tolerance, including ABA-mediated cellular lipid and fatty acid metabolic processes and cytoplasmic transport, sequestration by vacuoles, detoxification and cell-wall remodeling in shoots, and oxidation-reduction reactions in roots. Combined genetic and transcriptomic evidence shortlisted relatively few candidate genes for improved salt tolerance in PL177.
Project description:Plants acclimate rapidly to stressful environmental conditions. Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels are predicted to influence tolerance to stresses such as soil salinity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. To resolve this issue, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were grown under ambient (380 ?mol mol(-1)) or high (760 ?mol mol(-1)) CO2 in the absence or presence of sodium chloride (100mM). The higher atmospheric CO2 level induced the expression of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE 1 (SlRBOH1) and enhanced H2O2 accumulation in the vascular cells of roots, stems, leaf petioles, and the leaf apoplast. Plants grown with higher CO2 levels showed improved salt tolerance, together with decreased leaf transpiration rates and lower sodium concentrations in the xylem sap, vascular tissues, and leaves. Silencing SlRBOH1 abolished high CO2 -induced salt tolerance and increased leaf transpiration rates, as well as enhancing Na(+) accumulation in the plants. The higher atmospheric CO2 level increased the abundance of a subset of transcripts involved in Na(+) homeostasis in the controls but not in the SlRBOH1-silenced plants. It is concluded that high atmospheric CO2 concentrations increase salt stress tolerance in an apoplastic H2O2 dependent manner, by suppressing transpiration and hence Na(+) delivery from the roots to the shoots, leading to decreased leaf Na(+) accumulation.
Project description:The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the shoots was simultaneously promoted. PgTIP1 transformation into soybean plants enhanced the expression of some stress-related genes (GmPOD, GmAPX1, GmSOS1, and GmCLC1) in the roots and leaves under salt treatment. This indicates that the causes of enhanced salt tolerance of heterologous PgTIP1-transformed soybean are associated with the positive regulation on water relations, ion homeostasis, and ROS scavenging under salt stress both at root-specific and whole plant levels.
Project description:Excessive salt disrupts intracellular ion homeostasis and inhibits plant growth, which poses a serious threat to global food security. Plants have adapted various strategies to survive in unfavorable saline soil conditions. Here, we show that humic acid (HA) is a good soil amendment that can be used to help overcome salinity stress because it markedly reduces the adverse effects of salinity on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. To identify the molecular mechanisms of HA-induced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis, we examined possible roles of a sodium influx transporter HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER 1 (HKT1). Salt-induced root growth inhibition in HKT1 overexpressor transgenic plants (HKT1-OX) was rescued by application of HA, but not in wild-type and other plants. Moreover, salt-induced degradation of HKT1 protein was blocked by HA treatment. In addition, the application of HA to HKT1-OX seedlings led to increased distribution of Na+ in roots up to the elongation zone and caused the reabsorption of Na+ by xylem and parenchyma cells. Both the influx of the secondary messenger calcium and its cytosolic release appear to function in the destabilization of HKT1 protein under salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that HA could be applied to the field to enhance plant growth and salt stress tolerance via post-transcriptional control of the HKT1 transporter gene under saline conditions.
Project description:HKT Na+ transporters correspond to major salt tolerance QTLs in different plant species and are targets of great interest for breeders. In rice, the HKT family is composed of seven or eight functional genes depending on cultivars. Three rice HKT genes, OsHKT1;1, OsHKT1;4 and OsHKT1;5, are known to contribute to salt tolerance by reducing Na+ accumulation in shoots upon salt stress. Here, we further investigate the mechanisms by which OsHKT1;4 contributes to this process and extend this analysis to the role of this transporter in plants in presence of low Na+ concentrations. By analyzing transgenic rice plants expressing a GUS reporter gene construct, we observed that OsHKT1;4 is mainly expressed in xylem parenchyma in both roots and leaves. Using mutant lines expressing artificial microRNA that selectively reduced OsHKT1;4 expression, the involvement of OsHKT1;4 in retrieving Na+ from the xylem sap in the roots upon salt stress was evidenced. Since OsHKT1;4 was found to be also well expressed in the roots in absence of salt stress, we extended the analysis of its role when plants were subjected to non-toxic Na+ conditions (0.5 and 5 mM). Our finding that the transporter, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, displayed a relatively high affinity for Na+, just above 1 mM, provided first support to the hypothesis that OsHKT1;4 could have a physiological role at low Na+ concentrations. We observed that progressive desalinization of the xylem sap along its ascent to the leaf blades still occurred in plants grown at submillimolar Na+ concentration, and that OsHKT1;4 was involved in reducing xylem sap Na+ concentration in roots in these conditions too. Its contribution to tissue desalinization from roots to young mature leaf blades appeared to be rather similar in the whole range of explored external Na+ concentrations, from submillimolar to salt stress conditions. Our data therefore indicate that HKT transporters can be involved in controlling Na+ translocation from roots to shoots in a much wider range of Na+ concentrations than previously thought. This asks questions about the roles of such a transporter-mediated maintaining of tissue Na+ content gradients in non-toxic conditions.
Project description:Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 (sysr1) was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1-overexpressing (sysr1-OX) tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1-OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1-OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT) plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs) in sysr1-OX plants. Actually, the Z-3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1-OX plants than in WT plants within 1-2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z-3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E-2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C6 alcohol (Z-3-hexenol) induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.
Project description:The root plays an important role in the responses of plants to stresses, but the detailed mechanisms of roots in stress responses are still obscure. The GDP-mannose pyrophosphate synthetase (GMPase) OsVTC1-3 is a key factor of ascorbic acid (AsA) synthesis in rice roots. The present study showed that the transcript of OsVTC1-3 was induced by salt stress in roots, but not in leaves. Inhibiting the expression of OsVTC1-3 by RNA interfering (RI) technology significantly impaired the tolerance of rice to salt stress. The roots of OsVTC1-3 RI plants rapidly produced more O?-, and later accumulated amounts of H?O? under salt stress, indicating the impaired tolerance of OsVTC1-3 RI plants to salt stress due to the decreasing ability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, exogenous AsA restored the salt tolerance of OsVTC1-3 RI plants, indicating that the AsA synthesis in rice roots is an important factor for the response of rice to salt stress. Further studies showed that the salt-induced AsA synthesis was limited in the roots of OsVTC1-3 RI plants. The above results showed that specifically regulating AsA synthesis to scavenge ROS in rice roots was one of important factors in enhancing the tolerance of rice to salt stress.
Project description:The plant G-protein network, comprising G?, G?, and G? core subunits, regulates development, senses sugar, and mediates biotic and abiotic stress responses. Here, we report G-protein signalling in the salt stress response using two crop models, rice and maize. Loss-of-function mutations in the corresponding genes encoding the G? subunit attenuate growth inhibition and cellular senescence caused by sodium chloride (NaCl). G? null mutations conferred reduced leaf senescence, chlorophyll degradation, and cytoplasm electrolyte leakage under NaCl stress. Sodium accumulated in both wild-type and G?-mutant shoots to the same levels, suggesting that G? signalling controls cell death in leaves rather than sodium exclusion in roots. Growth inhibition is probably initiated by osmotic change around root cells, because KCl and MgSO4 also suppressed seedling growth equally as well as NaCl. NaCl lowered rates of cell division and elongation in the wild-type leaf sheath to the level of the G?-null mutants; however there was no NaCl-induced decrease in cell division in the G? mutant, implying that the osmotic phase of salt stress suppresses cell proliferation through the inhibition of G?-coupled signalling. These results reveal two distinct functions of G? in NaCl stress in these grasses: attenuation of leaf senescence caused by sodium toxicity in leaves, and cell cycle regulation by osmotic/ionic stress.