The Assessment of Problematic Internet Pornography Use: A Comparison of Three Scales with Mixed Methods.
ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to compare different screening tools for problematic internet pornography use (IPU) and identify the most accurate measure. The reliability and validity of three scales, namely, the Problematic Pornography Consumption Scale (PPCS), Problematic Pornography Use Scale (PPUS), and Short Internet Addiction Test Adapted to Online Sexual Activities(s-IAT-sex), were examined using three homogeneous groups, respectively. A total of 972 adults (mean age = 24.8) from 28 provinces/regions in China participated in the quantitative part (QUAN). The Brief Pornography Screener served as the reference standard. The PPCS demonstrated stronger reliability and validity, including criterion validity, as well as greater sensitivity and acceptable specificity; therefore, it was considered to be the more accurate screening instrument. In the qualitative part (QUAL), we interviewed 22 volunteers and 11 therapists (who had worked with individuals with problematic IPU) to examine their perspectives on the core features of problematic IPU and dimensions of the PPCS. Almost all the interviewees endorsed the structure of the PPCS. These findings encourage the use of the PPCS in future research studies and underscore its screening applications because of its ability to classify IPU as problematic or nonproblematic.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The problematic use of online gaming, social networking sites (SNS) and online pornography (OP) is an evolving problem. Contrary to the problematic use of SNS and OP, Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was included in the new edition of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) as a condition for further study. The present study adapted the criteria for IGD to the problematic use of SNS and OP by modifying a validated questionnaire for IGD (Internet Gaming Disorder Questionnaire: IGDQ) and investigating the psychometric properties of the modified versions, SNSDQ and OPDQ. METHODS:Two online samples (SNS: n?=?700, 25.6?±?8.4?years, 76.4% female; OP: n?=?700, 32.9?±?12.6?years, 76.7% male) completed the SNSDQ/OPDQ, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the short Internet Addiction Test (sIAT) and provided information on their SNS/OP use. Standard item and reliability analyses, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and correlations with the sIAT were calculated. Problematic and non-problematic users were compared. RESULTS:The internal consistencies were ?ordinal?=?0.89 (SNS) and ?ordinal?=?0.88 (OP). The exploratory factor analyses extracted one factor for both questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the results. The SNSDQ/OPDQ scores correlated highly with the sIAT scores and moderately with SNS/OP usage time. Of the users, 3.4% (SNS) and 7.1% (OP) lay above the cutoff for problematic use. Problematic users had higher sIAT scores, used the applications for longer and experienced more psychological distress. CONCLUSION:Overall, the results of the study indicate that the adaption of the IGD criteria is a promising approach for measuring problematic SNS/OP use.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Internet pornography consumption is prevalent among college students and problematic for some, yet little is known regarding the psychological constructs underlying problematic Internet pornography use (PIPU). Drawing on the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution model, this study tested a model that sexual sensation seeking (SSS) would impact PIPU through online sexual activities (OSAs) and that this relationship would be influenced by the third-person effect (TPE; a social cognitive bias relating to perceived impacts on others as compared to oneself) in a gender-sensitive manner. METHODS:A total of 808 Chinese college students (age range: 17-22 years, 57.7% male) were recruited and surveyed. RESULTS:Men scored higher than women on OSAs and PIPU and on each scale's component factors. The relationship between SSS and PIPU was mediated by OSAs, and the TPE moderated this relationship: the predictive path (SSS to PIPU) was significant only in participants with high TPE. The moderated mediation model was not invariant across gender groups, with data suggesting that it accounted for a greater proportion of the variance in men as compared with women. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that SSS may operate through participation in OSAs to lead to PIPU, and this relationship is particularly relevant for college-aged males scoring high on the TPE. These findings have implications for individuals who might be particularly vulnerable to developing PIPU and for guiding educational efforts and targeting interventions in college-aged students. The extent to which these findings extend to other age groups and cultures warrants further examination.
Project description:Pornography consumption is highly prevalent, particularly among young adult males. For some individuals, problematic pornography use (PPU) is a reason for seeking treatment. Despite the pervasiveness of pornography, PPU appears under-investigated, including with respect to the underlying neural mechanisms. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined ventral striatal responses to erotic and monetary stimuli, disentangling cue-related 'wanting' from reward-related 'liking' among 28 heterosexual males seeking treatment for PPU and 24 heterosexual males without PPU. Subjects engaged in an incentive delay task in the scanner, in which they received erotic or monetary rewards preceded by predictive cues. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses to erotic and monetary cues were analyzed and examined with respect to self-reported data on sexual activity collected over the 2 preceding months. Men with and without PPU differed in their striatal responses to cues predicting erotic pictures but not in their responses to erotic pictures. PPU subjects when compared with control subjects showed increased activation of ventral striatum specifically for cues predicting erotic pictures but not for cues predicting monetary gains. Relative sensitivity to cues predicting erotic pictures vs monetary gains was significantly related to the increased behavioral motivation to view erotic images (suggestive of higher 'wanting'), severity of PPU, amount of pornography use per week, and number of weekly masturbations. Our findings suggest that, similar to what is observed in substance and gambling addictions, the neural and behavioral mechanisms associated with the anticipatory processing of cues specifically predicting erotic rewards relate importantly to clinically relevant features of PPU. These findings suggest that PPU may represent a behavioral addiction and that interventions helpful in targeting behavioral and substance addictions warrant consideration for adaptation and use in helping men with PPU.
Project description:Recent decades witnessed a surge in pornography use, contributing to what some researchers referred to as problematic pornography use (PPU; excessive, compulsive, and uncontrollable pornography use). Informed by cognitive scripts theory, cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental research spanning several decades documented a positive association between men's pornography use and physical and sexual violence perpetration. However, there is a paucity of research investigating pornography use broadly, and PPU specifically, among men who perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV). The present cross-sectional study investigated the association between self-reported PPU and physical and sexual IPV perpetration among 273 men in batterer intervention programs. After accounting for psychiatric symptomology and substance use and problems, results revealed a positive association between PPU and both physical and sexual IPV perpetration. Findings highlighted the need for continued investigation of the function of pornography use for violent men, particularly as it relates to physical and sexual IPV perpetration.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Problematic internet use (PIU; otherwise known as Internet Addiction) is a growing problem in modern societies. There is scarce knowledge of the demographic variables and specific internet activities associated with PIU and a limited understanding of how PIU should be conceptualized. Our aim was to identify specific internet activities associated with PIU and explore the moderating role of age and gender in those associations. METHODS:We recruited 1749 participants aged 18 and above via media advertisements in an Internet-based survey at two sites, one in the US, and one in South Africa; we utilized Lasso regression for the analysis. RESULTS:Specific internet activities were associated with higher problematic internet use scores, including general surfing (lasso ?: 2.1), internet gaming (?: 0.6), online shopping (?: 1.4), use of online auction websites (?: 0.027), social networking (?: 0.46) and use of online pornography (?: 1.0). Age moderated the relationship between PIU and role-playing-games (?: 0.33), online gambling (?: 0.15), use of auction websites (?: 0.35) and streaming media (?: 0.35), with older age associated with higher levels of PIU. There was inconclusive evidence for gender and gender?×?internet activities being associated with problematic internet use scores. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social anxiety disorder were associated with high PIU scores in young participants (age???25, ?: 0.35 and 0.65 respectively), whereas generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were associated with high PIU scores in the older participants (age?>?55, ?: 6.4 and 4.3 respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Many types of online behavior (e.g. shopping, pornography, general surfing) bear a stronger relationship with maladaptive use of the internet than gaming supporting the diagnostic classification of problematic internet use as a multifaceted disorder. Furthermore, internet activities and psychiatric diagnoses associated with problematic internet use vary with age, with public health implications.
Project description:Although numerous studies have examined the factors influencing problematic Internet use (PIU), few studies have investigated the interactions between inappropriate physical and mental health (e.g., cyberbullying, Internet pornography, and Internet fraud) as factors facilitating PIU and examined the moderating effect of community bond. Thus, this study analyzed the moderating role of community bond in the relationship between cyberbullying, Internet pornography, Internet fraud, and PIU. Using a cross-sectional survey, adolescents were surveyed through self-report questionnaires. A total of 5,211 responses were received from participant students at 60 senior high schools in Taiwan. Statistical analyses were performed using structural equation modeling. The results indicated that cyberbullying, Internet pornography, Internet fraud, and community bond have significant positive effects on PIU. Community bond has a significant moderating effect in the relationship between cyberbullying, Internet fraud, and the PIU of adolescents. Parental Internet attitude and behavior were found to significantly moderate the relationship between inappropriate physical and mental health, community bond, and PIU. The results suggest that public health and education policies should focus more on adolescents who require additional assistance. Furthermore, school policies could be more informed in regard to relevant psychosocial variables and patterns of Internet use. Finally, this study may serve as a reference for parents, schools, and government education authorities.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aims of this longitudinal study were to identify predictors for continued pornography consumption and to investigate pornography consumption in relation to psychosomatic and depressive symptoms among a group of adolescents in Sweden. METHODS AND MATERIALS:A longitudinal study in classroom environment in 53 randomly selected senior high school classes in mid-Sweden in years 2011 and 2013. Out of 477 participating boys and 400 girls in 2011, 224 boys (47%) and 238 girls (60%) participated in 2013. RESULTS:Higher pornography consumption at baseline and being born outside Sweden predicted continued pornography consumption at follow-up (adjusted R2?=?0.689). Psychosomatic symptoms at follow-up were predicted by higher pornography consumption at baseline (adjusted R2?=?0.254), being a girl, living with separated parents, and attending a vocational high school program. By contrast, depressive symptoms at follow-up were predicted by less pornography consumption at baseline (adjusted R2?=?0.122) and being a girl. CONCLUSIONS:Pornography consumption may, for some individuals, be associated to mental health issues. Differences between teenage boys and girls and between adolescents with diverse ethnic backgrounds imply that counseling and discussion about pornography need to be adjusted and individualized.
Project description:Pornography has become increasingly accessible in the United States, and particularly for younger Americans. While some research considers how pornography use affects the sexual and psychological health of adolescents and emerging adults, sociologists have given little attention to how viewing pornography may shape young Americans' connection to key social and cultural institutions, like religion. This article examines whether viewing pornography may actually have a secularizing effect, reducing young Americans' personal religiosity over time. To test for this, we use data from three waves of the National Study of Youth and Religion. Fixed-effects regression models show that more frequent pornography viewing diminishes religious service attendance, importance of religious faith, prayer frequency, and perceived closeness to God, while increasing religious doubts. These effects hold regardless of gender. The effects of viewing pornography on importance of faith, closeness to God, and religious doubts are stronger for teenagers compared to emerging adults. In light of the rapidly growing availability and acceptance of pornography for young Americans, our findings suggest that scholars must consider how increasingly pervasive pornography consumption may shape both the religious lives of young adults and also the future landscape of American religion more broadly.
Project description:In interdisciplinary investigations into the relationships between pornography and its audiences, the issue of how to define the object of study is more complex than in studies situated within a single discipline. A Delphi panel of 38 leading pornography researchers from a wide range of disciplines was asked about various topics, including the definition of pornography. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of two rounds of survey responses suggested two different and-at first sight-incompatible definitions operating. The first was "Sexually explicit materials intended to arouse." The second was a culturally relative definition suggesting pornography has no innate characteristics. This technical report suggests that we should encourage researchers to choose which definition they want to use in a self-reflective way depending on the needs of the project, so long as they make it explicit and justify their decision.
Project description:We aimed to find the differences in memory capabilities between pornography-addicted and nonaddicted juveniles. We enrolled 30 juveniles (12-16?y) consisting of 15 pornography addiction and 15 nonaddiction subjects. We used Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to measure verbal memory, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT) for visual memory, along with Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B) for attention. We found a significant reduction in the RAVLT A6 result of the addiction group (nonaddiction vs addiction: 13.47?±?2.00 vs 11.67?±?2.44, MD?=?-1.80, p=0.04), but not in ROCFT or attention tests. Analysis in sex subgroups yielded no sex-specific difference. We concluded that pornography addiction may be associated with impaired recent verbal memory in juveniles, regardless of sex and without association to attention.