Electroacupuncture for postoperative pain after nasal endoscopic surgery: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Postoperative pain is common after nasal endoscopic surgery. It interferes with the quality of sleep and delays postoperative recovery. Acupuncture is an effective tool for pain management. However, electroacupuncture specifically for the relief of postoperative pain after nasal endoscopic surgery has not yet been studied in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN:This randomized sham-controlled patient- and assessor-blind pilot trial has been designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture in managing postoperative pain following nasal endoscopic surgery to treat sinusitis due to nasal polyps. Altogether, 30 participants will be randomly allocated to an electroacupuncture or non-invasive sham control in a 1:1 ratio. Treatment will occur within 2?h before the operation, immediately after the operation upon arrival in the recovery ward, and once daily for 3?days. The primary outcome is the pain numerical rating scale, which will be analyzed using the area under the curve. The secondary outcome measures include heart rate and blood pressure after the operation, sleep quality during the hospital stay (actigraph), quality of recovery, and the 36-item short form health survey. This trial will use an intention-to-treat analysis. DISCUSSION:This pilot randomized controlled trial will explore the feasibility of the further clinical application of electroacupuncture for the management of postoperative pain. It will inform the design of a further full-scale trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900024183. Registered on 29 June 2019.
Project description:Neuronal stimulation improves physiological responses to infection and trauma, but the clinical potential of this strategy is unknown. We hypothesized that transdermal neural stimulation through low-frequency electroacupuncture might control the immune responses to surgical trauma and expedite the postoperative recovery. However, the efficiency of electroacupuncture is questioned due to the placebo effect. Here, electroacupuncture was performed on anesthetized patients to avoid any placebo. This is a prospective double-blinded pilot trial to determine whether intraoperative electroacupuncture on anesthetized patients improves postoperative recovery. Patients with electroacupuncture required 60% less postoperative analgesic, even they had pain scores similar to those in the control patients. Electroacupuncture prevented postoperative hyperglycemia and attenuated serum adrenocorticotropic hormone in the older and heavier group of patients. From an immunological perspective, electroacupuncture did not affect the protective immune responses to surgical trauma, including the induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10. The most significant immunological effect of electroacupuncture was enhancing transforming growth factor-?1 production during surgery in the older and lighter group of patients. These results suggest that intraoperative electroacupuncture on anesthetized patients can reduce postoperative use of analgesics and improve immune and stress responses to surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postoperative pain is a major complaint following abdominal surgery for gynecological diseases. Effective postoperative pain control after abdominal surgery is particularly important for patient recovery, mobility, and satisfaction. Acupuncture has been commonly used for pain management. However, its efficacy in postoperative pain control is inconclusive and health economic evaluation is limited. METHODS:A randomized, sham-controlled, patient- and- assessor-blind trial is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in managing postoperative pain following abdominal surgery of gynecological diseases. Patients who are eligible for laparotomy with a midline incision for gynecological neoplasia, including ovarian mass, uterine mass, and cervical lesions, will be recruited. Seventy-two participants will be randomly allocated to an acupuncture or non-invasive sham control in a 1:1 ratio. Treatment will be done within 2 h before operation, upon arrival to the ward and once daily for 5 days. The Pain Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) on the first 5 days during hospitalization will be the primary outcome and will be analyzed using the area-under-the-curve (AUC) method. The secondary outcome measures include frequency of rescue analgesic use during hospital stay, cumulative morphine consumption; quality of recovery as measured by time to recovery variables and the Quality of Recovery-9 (QoR-9); quality of life as measured by the Short Form-6 dimension (SF-6D) and EuroQol-5 Dimension-5 Level (EQ-5D-5 L). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of acupuncture vs sham acupuncture will be calculated. DISCUSSION:This study protocol provides an example of integrative medicine practice in a hospital setting for the management of postoperative pain using acupuncture treatment. The acupuncture treatment protocol, if proven to be effective, can be implemented in routine settings to play a role in postoperative pain management for patients who have undergone abdominal surgery for gynecological diseases. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02851186 . Registered on 19 July 2016.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) for postoperative pain after laparoscopic appendectomy compared with sham electroacupuncture (SEA) and no acupuncture treatment. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:This study is a protocol for a three-arm, randomised, patient-assessor-blinded (to the type of acupuncture treatment), controlled, parallel trial. 138 participants diagnosed with appendicitis and scheduled for laparoscopic appendectomy will be randomly assigned to the EA group (n=46), SEA group (n=46) or control group (n=46). The EA group will receive acupuncture treatment at both regional and distal acupuncture points with electrostimulation. The SEA group will receive sham acupuncture treatment with mock electrostimulation. Both EA and SEA groups will receive a total of four treatments 1?hour preoperative, 1?hour postoperative and during the morning and afternoon the day after surgery with the same routine postoperative pain control. The control group will receive only routine postoperative pain control. The primary outcome is the 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) at 24?hours after surgery. The secondary outcomes are the PI-NRS, analgesic consumption, opioid-related side effects, time to first passing flatus, quality of life and adverse events evaluated 6, 12, 24 and 36?hours and 7 days after surgery. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study was planned in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration and the Korean Good Clinical Practice Guidelines to protect the participants and was approved by the institutional review board (IRB) of Kyung Hee University Medical Center (KMC IRB-1427-02). The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:Clinical Research Information Service (KCT0001328).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acupuncture-balanced anesthesia has been found to offer protective benefits. Electrical stimulation at certain acupoints can potentially promote perioperative gastrointestinal function recovery. The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function, on anesthesia strategies for abdominal surgery, on postoperative pain treatment, and on any associated complications or alterations in immune function. We further seek to verify the protective effects of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS), to explore possible underlying neuroimmune-endocrine mechanisms, and to thereby develop an optimized acupuncture-balanced anesthesia strategy suitable for abdominal surgery. Together, these findings will provide a scientific basis for the clinical utilization of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia in the context of abdominal surgery. METHODS/DESIGN:This study is a multicenter, large-sample, randomized placebo-controlled trial. All subjects will be patients undergoing elective gastric or colorectal surgery. In Part 1, these patients will be stratified according to surgical site (gastric or colorectal), and randomly divided into four groups based on different perioperative interventions: Con group, which will undergo sham TEAS before, during, and after surgery; T1 group, which will receive TEAS during the preoperative and intraoperative periods, and sham TEAS during the postoperative period; T2 group, which will receive TEAS during the preoperative period, sham TEAS during the intraoperative period, and TEAS during the postoperative period; and T3 group, which will receive TEAS before, during, and after operation. Part 2 of this study will focus solely on colorectal surgery patients. All patients will receive TEAS during the preoperative and intraoperative periods, and they will be randomized into four groups according to different postoperative treatments: Con' group, which will not receive TEAS; T1' group, which will receive sham TEAS; T2' group, which will receive 5-Hz TEAS; and T3' group, which will receive 100-Hz TEAS. Venous blood (5 ml) will be used to measure immunological and inflammatory indexes both at the preoperative stage prior to TEAS and 4-5 days after operation. The primary outcome will be the time to first bowel sounds after surgery. Secondary outcomes will include gastrointestinal functional recovery, analgesic efficacy during the postoperative period, acupuncture-balanced anesthesia efficacy, postoperative nausea and vomiting, and postoperative complications. DISCUSSION:This study is designed to investigate the clinical value of TEAS during various perioperative periods in those undergoing abdominal surgery, with the overall goal of evaluating the clinical value and advantages of acupuncture-balanced anesthesia, and of providing new strategies for improving patient prognoses. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TRC-14004435. Registered on 26 March 2014.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) to relieve pain and promote functional rehabilitation after total knee surgery. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We propose a single-blinded, randomised placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of EA. Patients with osteoarthritis (aged 55-80 years) undergoing unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) will be included in the trial. They will be randomised to receive either EA or sham-EA. A total of 110 patients will receive EA and sham-EA for 3 days after TKA. Postoperative pain will be measured using visual analogue score, and the need for an additional dose of opioid and analgesics will be recorded as the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes include knee function and swelling, postoperative anxiety, postoperative nausea and vomiting among other complications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study has been approved by the ethics committee, and subsequent modifications of the protocol will be reported and approved by it. Written informed consent will be obtained from all of the participants or their authorised agents. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR1800016200; Pre-results.
Project description:Abdominal adhesions form in response to peritoneal trauma that can occur during surgery. Postoperative adhesions, which develop in approximately 50-85% of patients who have undergone abdominal surgery, often result in severe complications, including intestinal obstruction, female infertility, chronic pain, and contraindication of surgery for future abdominal illnesses such as cancer. Here, we investigated the cell source of collagen production in postoperative adhesions and explored molecular mechanisms of adhesion using microarray. Overall design: Transcriptional profiling of mouse cecum tissues isolated at 3 different time points during adhesion formation, namely at 3 h, 12 h or 72 h after cauterization and the sham operation, was assessed using microarray analysis
Project description:Delays in recovery of intestinal function following abdominal surgery are associated with longer hospital stays, increased postoperative complications, and higher costs to the health care system. Studies of acupuncture for postoperative ileus and other postoperative issues have reported improvements. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess whether acupuncture assisted recovery following surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from major English and Chinese language biomedical databases. Participants (aged 18 years plus) had received surgical resection for CRC. 22 studies (1,628 participants) were included. Five were sham-controlled. Outcomes included gastrointestinal function recovery (21 studies), recovery of urinary function (1 study), postoperative abdominal distension (3 studies), and quality of life (1 study). Meta-analyses found significant reductions in time to first bowel sounds, first flatus, and first defecation in both the sham-controlled and nonblinded studies. These results suggested that the addition of acupuncture following CRC surgery improved recovery of gastrointestinal function based on four blinded good quality RCTs (281 participants) and 17 nonblinded lower quality RCTs (1,265 participants). The best available evidence was for interventions that included electroacupuncture at the point ST36 Zusanli and there is supporting evidence for other types of acupuncture therapies that involve stimulation of this point. This review is registered with the following: systematic review registration in PROSPERO: CRD42017079590.
Project description:Nasal septum deviation (NSD) typically occurs following otorhinolaryngologic surgery. However, there is a lack of biomechanical parameters able to accurately evaluate the severity of NSD. The present study aimed to determine whether the deformation rate (DR) is associated with visual analogue scale (VAS) and nasal airway resistance (NAR), and to evaluate the application of DR measurements in nasal septoplasty endoscopic surgery. In the present clinical trial, a total of 30 patients with NSD were enrolled, and DRs were calculated prior to surgery by three dimensional computer tomography (3D-CT) reconstruction techniques combined with mechanical analysis. The distribution of stress lines at the nasal septum deviation site was evaluated prior to operation. Following nasal septoplasty endoscopic surgery, pre and postoperation scores for VAS and NAR were compared. The results demonstrated that DR was significantly correlated with preoperational NAR (r=0.534) and VAS scores (r=0.397). According to preoperative CT measurements of NSD, DR and biomechanical properties, selective excision was performed to remove core areas of stress. It was observed that postoperative DR, NAR and VAS scores were significantly lower (all P<0.01) than those measured preoperation. Furthermore, over a follow-up period of 3 months, 23 cases (73.1%) were cured and 7 cases (23.3%) exhibited improvements. These results indicate that preoperative measurement of septum DR by 3D-CT reconstruction techniques may be important in determining the specific surgical approach of nasal septoplasty required.
Project description:Importance:Chronic low back pain has high societal and personal impact but remains challenging to treat. Electroacupuncture has demonstrated superior analgesia compared with placebo in animal studies but has not been extensively studied in human chronic pain conditions. Objective:To evaluate the treatment effect of real electroacupuncture vs placebo in pain and disability among adults with chronic low back pain and to explore psychophysical, affective, and demographic factors associated with response to electroacupuncture vs placebo in treating chronic low back pain. Design, Setting, and Participants:This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted between August 2, 2016, and December 18, 2018, at a single center in Stanford, California. Primary outcomes were collected at approximately 2 weeks before and after intervention. Participants included English-speaking adults with at least 6 months of chronic low back pain, pain intensity of at least 4 on a scale of 0 to 10, and no radiculopathy. Data analyses for this intent-to-treat study were conducted from June 2019 to June 2020. Interventions:Twelve sessions of real or placebo (sham) electroacupuncture administered twice a week over 6 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures:The main outcome was change in pain severity from baseline to 2 weeks after completion of treatment, measured by the National Institutes of Health PROMIS pain intensity scale. A secondary outcome was change in the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Baseline factors potentially associated with these outcomes included psychophysical testing (ie, thermal temporal summation, conditioned pain modulation, pressure pain threshold), participant's self-report (ie, widespread pain, coping strategies, expectations, self-efficacy, and pain catastrophizing), and demographic characteristics (eg, age, sex, and race). Results:A total of 121 adults were recruited to the study, among whom 59 participants (mean [SD] age, 46.8 [11.9] years; 36 [61.0%] women) were randomized to real electroacupuncture and 62 participants (mean [SD] age, 45.6 [12.8] years; 33 [53.2%] women) were randomized to sham electroacupuncture. At baseline, the mean (SD) PROMIS T-score was 50.49 (3.36) in the real electroacupuncture group and 51.71 (4.70) in the sham acupuncture group, and the mean (SD) RMDQ score was 10.16 (4.76) in the real electroacupuncture group and 10.03 (5.45) in the sham acupuncture group. After adjusting for baseline pain scores, there was no statistically significant difference between groups in change in T-scores 2 weeks after completion of treatment (real electroacupuncture: -4.33; 95% CI, -6.36 to -2.30; sham acupuncture: -2.90; 95% CI, -4.85 to -0.95; difference: -2.09; 95% CI, -4.27 to 0.09; P?=?.06). After adjusting for baseline RMDQ, there was a significantly greater reduction in RMDQ in the real electroacupuncture group (-2.77; 95% CI, -4.11 to -1.43) compared with the sham electroacupuncture group (-0.67; 95% CI, -1.88 to 0.55; difference: -2.11; 95% CI, -3.75 to -0.47; P?=?.01). Within the real electroacupuncture group, effective coping at baseline was associated with greater RMDQ reduction (r?=?-0.32; 95% CI, -0.54 to -0.05; P?=?.02), and White race was associated with worse outcomes in PROMIS score (??=?3.791; 95% CI, 0.616 to 6.965; P?=?.02) and RMDQ (??=?2.878; 95% CI, 0.506 to 5.250; P?=?.02). Conclusions and Relevance:This randomized clinical trial found no statistically significant difference in change in PROMIS pain score in real electroacupuncture vs sham electroacupuncture. There was a statistically significant treatment effect for the secondary outcome of RMDQ compared with sham electroacupuncture. Effective coping skills and non-White race were associated with response to electroacupuncture. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02890810.
Project description:Between July 2014 and November 2015, we compared the curative effects and cost-effectiveness of two kinds of nasal endoscopic surgery for nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) in a single-centre, two-armed clinical trial with a 1-year follow-up. We included two groups: a recessive spherical headed silicone intubation (RSHSI) group and an endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy (En-DCR) group; both received nasal endoscopy. Patients were recruited from the Otorhinolaryngology and Ophthalmology departments. The main outcome measures were epiphora improvement (classified as cure, effective, or invalid), cost-effectiveness, visual analogue scale (VAS) intraoperative pain score, bleeding volume, operating time, hospitalisation time, total cost, and VAS postoperative epiphora score. No significant group difference was identified in postoperative epiphora VAS scores (P?>?0.050) or success rate (P?=?0.406). However, average VAS intraoperative pain score, operating time, bleeding volume, hospitalisation time and total cost in the RSHSI group were clearly lower to those in the En-DCR group (P?=?0.000). In conclusion, RSHSI under nasal endoscopy can provide similar treatment outcomes to En-DCR. RSHSI has advantages including minimal invasiveness, reduced risk, shorter duration of surgery and hospitalisation, reduced intraoperative discomfort, and lower financial burden, which is more acceptable to patients. Thus, RSHSI may be the preferred option for NLDO.