Double burden of malnutrition among Indian schoolchildren and its measurement: a cross-sectional study in a single school.
ABSTRACT: Objective:This cross-sectional study set in a single school on the outskirts of a large city aimed to document the extent of double burden of malnutrition (coexistence of overnutrition and undernutrition) among Indian schoolchildren from lower socioeconomic groups, and to determine if mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) can be used as a proxy for body mass index (BMI). Subjects:The total number of participants was 1444, comprising 424 girls and 1020 boys belonging to playgroups and grades 1 to 7. Measurements:Anthropometric measurements, such as participants' MUAC, height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Descriptive statistics for BMI and MUAC were obtained based on gender; z-scores were computed using age-specific and sex-specific WHO reference data. The distribution of variables was calculated for three groups: girls, boys and all participants. Homogeneous subsets for BMI and MUAC were identified in the three groups. Age-wise comparisons of BMI and MUAC were conducted for each gender. Main outcome measures:(1) To know if MUAC and BMI are correlated among boys and girls. (2) To study BMI and MUAC z-score distribution among the participants. Results:MUAC was positively correlated with BMI in both boys and girls. The following BMI z-score distribution was observed: severe acute malnutrition (SAM), 5 (0.3%); moderate acute malnutrition (MAM), 146 (10.1%) and undernourished, at risk of MAM/SAM, 141 (9.8%); obese, 21 (1.5%); overweight, 36 (2.5%) and pre-obese, 136 (9.4%). The distribution of categories of children based on MUAC z-scores was: SAM, 7 (0.5%); MAM, 181 (12.5%) and undernourished, at risk of MAM/SAM, 181 (12.5%); obese, 19 (1.3%); overweight, 178 (12.3%) and pre-obese, 135 (9.3%). Conclusions:SAM/MAM/undernourished states and obesity/overweight/pre-obese states, indicating undernutrition more than overweight, coexist among Indian schoolchildren from lower middle/lower socioeconomic categories. BMI and MUAC were significantly correlated. MUAC identifies both undernutrition and overnutrition by early detection of aberrant growth.
Project description:Background:Good nutrition and physical activity of school-aged children are important for ensuring optimum growth and reducing obesity. This present study assessed associations between breakfast consumption, BMI-for-Age (BMI) and physical fitness in a cross-section of school-aged children attending government-owned primary schools in Kumasi, Ghana. Method:The sample consisted of 438 pupils (boys?=?213; girls?=?225; mean age 11.1?±?1.1), attending 10 randomly selected schools. Weight (kg), height (cm) and Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) were measured for each participant, and BMI-for-age z-scores determined using the World Health Organisation (WHO) anthroplus software. Participants were stratified into thinness, normal weight, overweight/obese using WHO cut offs. Physical fitness was assessed using forward jump, left and right handgrips, flexibility, sit-ups and 50?metre run following standard procedures and converted to scores of 1 to 10 following Japanese standards, based on which percentiles were derived. Total fitness score for each pupil was computed by adding all scores. A questionnaire was used to assess meal intake patterns. Results:The mean BMI-for-age z-score for participants was -?0.24?±?0.99. Thinness, normal weight and overweight/obesity were 2.7, 86.5, and 10.5% respectively among the pupils. Overweight was higher in girls (14.2%) compared to boys (4.2%), p?=?0.003. Similarly, mean MUAC was significantly (p?=?0.021) higher in the girls (22.0 ± 3.2?cm) than the boys (20.7 ± 7.3?cm). For physical fitness, the girls scored higher in forward jump (p?<?0.0001), 50-m run (p?=?0.002) and overall fitness score than the boys (21.0?±?6.2 versus 19.2?±?8.3, p?=?0.012). However, a larger proportion of boys performed excellently and poorly than girls (p?=?0.019). A positive correlation was observed between BMI z-score and hand grip (r =?0.21, p?<?0.001), while sit up (r =?-?0.11, p?=?0.018) showed a negative correlation with BMI z-score. No other fitness test varied by BMI. Overweight children performed best in handgrip. Majority of children said they engaged in exercise (89.9%) and consumed breakfast (78.9%). Breakfast consumption was not associated with BMI z-score (x2 0.0359, p?=?0.549) but non-breakfast consumers performed better in 50?m run compared to consumers (7.0 seconds?±?2.3 vrs 6.3 seconds?±?2.5, p?=?0.022). Children who reported to exercise were physically fitter than those who did not. Conclusion:Underweight levels were low while overweight was over 10% in these children. Girls were more than 3 times affected by overweight than boys, and were also physically fitter than boys. Breakfast consumption was not related to weight or fitness.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While HIV has had a major impact on health care in southern Africa, there are few data on its impact on acute malnutrition in children in the community. We report an analysis of outcomes in a large programme of community management of acute malnutrition in the south of Lusaka. PROGRAMME ACTIVITIES AND ANALYSIS:Over 3 years, 68,707 assessments for undernutrition were conducted house-to-house, and children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) or moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) were enrolled into either Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) or Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) respectively. Case records were analysed using tabulation and unconditional logistic regression. FINDINGS:1,859 children (889 boys, 970 girls; median age 16 months) with MAM (n = 664) or SAM (n = 1,195) were identified. Of 1,796 children whose parents consented to testing, 185 (10.3%) were HIV positive. Altogether 1,163 (62.6%) were discharged as recovered from acute malnutrition. Case fatality while in the programme was 4.2% in children with SAM and 0.5% in those with MAM (RR of SAM 10.9; 95%CI 3.4,34.8; P<0.0001), and higher in children with HIV infection (RR 5.2, 95%CI 2.9, 9.0; P<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, HIV (OR 5.2; 95%CI 2.6, 10.1; P<0.0001), MUAC <11.5 cm (OR 4.1; 95%CI 2.2, 7.4; P<0.0001) and the first year of the programme (OR 1.9; 95%CI 1.0, 3.4; P = 0.04) all increased mortality. Children with HIV infection who were able to initiate antiretroviral therapy had lower mortality (RR 0.23; 95%CI 0.10, 0.57; P = 0.0008). INTERPRETATION:Our programme suggests that a comprehensive community malnutrition programme, incorporating HIV care, can achieve low mortality even in a population heavily affected by HIV.
Project description:Some studies have investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adolescents, but their results have been discrepant and few paid attention to the role of gender. The present investigation aimed to assess the relationship between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents and to verify whether it was similar in boys and girls.Five thousand two hundred and twenty six adolescents aged 14 to 18 years were included in the PRomotion de l'ALIMentation et de l'Activité Physique (PRALIMAP) trial, a 2x2x2 factorial cluster randomized trial performed in 24 high schools in France. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and HRQoL data were collected. BMI was categorized in four classes (thin, normal-weight, overweight, obese). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between weight status and HRQoL, adjusting for confounders.The mean age of adolescents was 15.7±0.6 years and their mean BMI was 21.6 ±3.5 kg/m2; 55% were girls. Boys were more often overweight and obese than were girls (overweight: 15.6% vs 14.2%, obese: 4.8% vs 3.3%), and girls were more likely to be thin (5.5% vs 4.5%, p=0.0042). All HRQoL scores were higher for boys (p=<0.0001). Weight status was not associated with physical and social scores neither in boys nor in girls. Conversely, it was associated with mental score, but differently in girls than boys. As compared with normal-weight girls, thin girls had better mental HRQoL (β=+6.17, p=0.0010), and overweight and obese girls had lower mental HRQoL (β=-3.89 and β=-5.90, respectively, p<0.001). Mental HRQoL was lower for thin, overweight and obese boys than for normal-weight boys (β= -4.97, β= -1.68 and β= -3.17, respectively, p<0.0001).Gender can modify the association between weight status and HRQoL in adolescents. Body image could be an important target of public health programs to improve subjective health during adolescence.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To examine, whether overweight in adolescents can be predicted from the body mass index (BMI) category, at the age of 6, the mother's education level and mother's obesity and to quantify the proportion of overweight at the age of 14 that can be explained by these predictors. METHOD: Pooled data from three German cohorts providing anthropometric and other relevant data to a total of 1 287 children. We used a classification and regression tree (CART) approach to identify the contribution of BMI category at the age of 6 (obese: BMI > 97th percentile (P97); overweight: P90 < BMI ? P97; high normal weight: P75<BMI ? P90; third quartile: P50<BMI ? P75; below the median: ? P50), maternal education level and maternal obesity for prediction of overweight/obesity (BMI>P90) at the age of 14. RESULTS: While 4.8% [95%CI: 3.2;7.0] of 651 boys and 4.1% [95%CI: 2.6;6.2] of 636 girls with a BMI<P75 at age 6 were overweight/obese in adolescence, prevalence increased to 41.3% [95%CI: 31.9;51.1] and 42.5% [95%CI: 33.8;51.6], respectively, in those with BMI ? P75. The lowest prevalence was 1.9% [95%CI: 0.8;3.8] in boys with a BMI ? P50 and the highest prevalence 91.7% [95%CI: 61.5;99.8] with a BMI>P97 (similar results for girls). BM I ? P75 at the age of 6 explained 63.5% [95%CI: 51.1;74.5]) and 72.0% [95%CI: 60.4;81.8] of overweight/obesity at the age of 14 in boys and girls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obesity in adolescence can be predicted by BMI category at the age of 6 allowing for parent counselling or risk guided interventions in children with BMI ? P75, who accounted for >2/3 of overweight/obesity in adolescents.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This study was designed to investigate the relation between health-related physical fitness and weight status in Hong Kong adolescents. METHODS: 3,204 students aged 12-18 years participated in the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project in 2006-2007. Anthropometric measures (height, weight) and health-related fitness (push-up, sit-up, sit-and-reach, 9-minute run) were assessed. Body mass index (BMI) was computed to classify participants into normal weight, underweight (Grade I, II/III), overweight, and obese groups. The associations of health-related physical fitness with BMI and weight status were examined by partial correlation coefficients and analysis of covariance, respectively. RESULTS: More boys than girls were overweight or obese (18.0% vs 8.7%), but more girls than boys were underweight (22.3% vs 16.7%). Boys performed significantly (P < 0.001) better in sit-up (38.8 vs 31.6 times/min) and 9-minute run (1632.1 vs 1353.2 m), but poorer in sit-and-reach (27.4 vs 32.2 cm) than girls. All four physical fitness tests were significantly positively correlated with each other in both sexes, and BMI was only weakly correlated with sit up and sit-and-reach tests in boys. Decreasing performance (P for trend < 0.05) was observed from normal weight to overweight and obese for push-up, sit-up, and 9-minute run in both sexes. From normal weight to Grade I and Grade II/III underweight, decreasing performance (P for trend < 0.05) for sit-up and sit-and-reach in both sexes and for push-up in boys was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The relations between BMI and health-related physical fitness in adolescents were non-linear. Overweight/obese and underweight adolescents had poorer performance in push-up and sit-up tests than normal weight adolescents. Different aspects of health-related physical fitness may serve as immediate indicators of potential health risks for underweight and overweight adolescents.
Project description:Overweight has become a global pandemic and is associated with a rise in diet-related non-communicable diseases and associated co-morbidities. Most of the world's undernourished people live in South Asia, yet the number of overweight and obese individuals in this region is growing. This study explores trends and correlates of overweight among pre-school age children, adolescent girls, and adult women in South Asia. Using pooled data from 12 national surveys in six countries, generalized linear mixed models were run to analyze relationships. Overweight children had significantly higher odds than non-overweight children of having an overweight mother (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.34, p < 0.01). Overweight adolescent girls were more likely to come from a wealthier household (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR): 2.46, p < 0.01) in an urban area (1.74, p < 0.01), and have formal education (1.22, p < 0.01), compared to non-overweight girls. Similar relationships were seen among overweight vs. non-overweight adult women. In Bangladesh, India, and Nepal, overweight among girls and women increased over time, while differentials associated with household wealth, urban residence, and formal education attenuated over time. Overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent across South Asia in a context of persisting undernutrition. Once a condition of the wealthier, more educated and urban, rates of overweight are increasing among poorer, less educated, and rural women. This requires immediate attention to 'multi-use' policies and programmes.
Project description:Many low- and middle-income countries are undergoing a nutrition transition associated with rapid social and economic transitions. We explore the coexistence of over and under- nutrition at the neighborhood and household level, in an urban poor setting in Nairobi, Kenya.Data were collected in 2010 on a cohort of children aged under five years born between 2006 and 2010. Anthropometric measurements of the children and their mothers were taken. Additionally, dietary intake, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements were collected from a stratified random sample of adults aged 18 years and older through a separate cross-sectional study conducted between 2008 and 2009 in the same setting. Proportions of stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight/obesity were dettermined in children, while proportions of underweight and overweight/obesity were determined in adults.Of the 3335 children included in the analyses with a total of 6750 visits, 46% (51% boys, 40% girls) were stunted, 11% (13% boys, 9% girls) were underweight, 2.5% (3% boys, 2% girls) were wasted, while 9% of boys and girls were overweight/obese respectively. Among their mothers, 7.5% were underweight while 32% were overweight/obese. A large proportion (43% and 37%%) of overweight and obese mothers respectively had stunted children. Among the 5190 adults included in the analyses, 9% (6% female, 11% male) were underweight, and 22% (35% female, 13% male) were overweight/obese.The findings confirm an existing double burden of malnutrition in this setting, characterized by a high prevalence of undernutrition particularly stunting early in life, with high levels of overweight/obesity in adulthood, particularly among women. In the context of a rapid increase in urban population, particularly in urban poor settings, this calls for urgent action. Multisectoral action may work best given the complex nature of prevailing circumstances in urban poor settings. Further research is needed to understand the pathways to this coexistence, and to test feasibility and effectiveness of context-specific interventions to curb associated health risks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Body mass index (BMI) overweight/obesity thresholds in South Asian (SA) adults, at equivalent type-2 diabetes risk are lower than for white Europeans (WE). We aimed to define adjusted overweight/obesity thresholds for UK-SA children based on equivalent insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) to WE children. METHODS:In 1138 WE and 1292 SA children aged 9.0-10.9 years, multi-level regression models quantified associations between BMI and HOMA-IR by ethnic group. HOMA-IR levels for WE children were calculated at established overweight/obesity thresholds (at 9.5 years and 10.5 years), based on UK90 BMI cut-offs. Quantified associations in SA children were then used to estimate adjusted SA weight-status thresholds at the calculated HOMA-IR levels. RESULTS:At 9.5 years, current WE BMI overweight and obesity thresholds were 19.2?kg/m2, 21.3?kg/m2 (boys) and 20.0?kg/m2, 22.5?kg/m2 (girls). At equivalent HOMA-IR, SA overweight and obesity thresholds were lower by 2.9?kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5-3.3?kg/m2) and 3.2?kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6?kg/m2) in boys and 3.0?kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.6-3.4?kg/m2) and 3.3?kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.8-3.8?kg/m2) in girls, respectively. At these lower thresholds, overweight/obesity prevalences in SA children were approximately doubled (boys: 61%, girls: 56%). Patterns at 10.5 years were similar. CONCLUSIONS:SA adjusted overweight/obesity thresholds based on equivalent IR were markedly lower than BMI thresholds for WE children, and defined more than half of SA children as overweight/obese.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Earlier age of menarche has been associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases during adulthood, but whether early menarche has intergenerational effect is not clear. METHODS:In this population-based cross-sectional study, we recruited children from 26 primary schools using cluster random probability sampling in Shanghai, China, in 2014. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate the adjusted associations of maternal age of menarche (MAM) with offspring body mass index (BMI). We also used the mediation analysis to examine the contribution of maternal BMI and gestational diabetes to offspring BMI. RESULTS:A total of 17,571 children aged 6-13 years were enrolled, of whom 16,373 had their weight and height measured. Earlier MAM was associated with higher child BMI in boys (- 0.05 z-score per year older MAM, 95% CI - 0.08 to - 0.02) and in girls (- 0.05 z-score per year older MAM, 95% CI - 0.07 to - 0.02). Maternal BMI positively mediated the association of MAM with offspring BMI in both sexes, with mediation effects of 37.7 and 19.4% for boys and girls, respectively. CONCLUSION:Early maternal menarche was associated with greater offspring BMI. This study provides evidence for the intergenerational effect in the development of BMI in offspring.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Self-reported screen time is associated with elevated health risk in children and youth; however, research examining the relationship between accelerometer-measured sedentary time and health risk has reported mixed findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between accelerometer-measured patterns of sedentary time and health risk in children and youth. METHODS: The results are based on 1,608 children and youth aged 6 to 19 years from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2009). Sedentary time was measured using the Actical accelerometer. Breaks in sedentary time and prolonged bouts of sedentary time lasting 20 to 120 minutes were derived for all days, weekend days and during the after-school period (i.e., after 3 pm on weekdays). Regression analyses were used to examine the association between patterns of sedentary time and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure and non-HDL cholesterol. RESULTS: Boys accumulated more sedentary time on weekdays after 3 pm and had a higher number of breaks in sedentary time compared to girls. Overweight/obese boys (aged 6-19 years) accumulated more sedentary time after 3 pm on weekdays (282 vs. 259 min, p < .05) and as prolonged bouts lasting at least 80 minutes (171 vs. 133 min, p < .05) compared to boys who were neither overweight nor obese. Prolonged bouts of sedentary time lasting at least 80 minutes accumulated after 3 pm on weekdays were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference in boys aged 11-14 years (p < .006). Each additional 60 min of sedentary time after 3 pm on weekdays was associated with a 1.4 kg·m-2 higher BMI and a 3.4 cm higher waist circumference in 11-14 year old boys. No sedentary pattern variables differed between girls who were not overweight or obese and those who were overweight/obese and none of the sedentary pattern variables were associated with any health markers in girls. CONCLUSIONS: The findings confirm results of other studies that reported accelerometer-measured sedentary time was not associated with health risk in children and youth. Even when the pattern and timing of sedentary time was examined relative to health markers, few associations emerged and were limited to boys aged 11-14 years.