A voltage and current measurement dataset for plug load appliance identification in households.
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the Plug-Load Appliance Identification Dataset (PLAID), a labelled dataset containing records of the electrical voltage and current of domestic electrical appliances obtained at a high sampling frequency (30?kHz). The dataset contains 1876 records of individually-metered appliances from 17 different appliance types (e.g., refrigerators, microwave ovens, etc.) comprising 330 different makes and models, and collected at 65 different locations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Additionally, PLAID contains 1314 records of the combined operation of 13 of these appliance types (i.e., measurements obtained when multiple appliances were active simultaneously). Identifying electrical appliances based on electrical measurements is of importance in demand-side management applications for the electrical power grid including automated load control, load scheduling and non-intrusive load monitoring. This paper provides a systematic description of the measurement setup and dataset so that it can be used to develop and benchmark new methods in these and other applications, and so that extensions to it can be developed and incorporated in a consistent manner.
Project description:Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.
Project description:Energy metering has gained popularity as conventional meters are replaced by electronic smart meters that promise energy savings and higher comfort levels for occupants. Achieving these goals requires a deeper understanding of consumption patterns to reduce the energy footprint: load profile forecasting, power disaggregation, appliance identification, startup event detection, etc. Publicly available datasets are used to test, verify, and benchmark possible solutions to these problems. For this purpose, we present the BLOND dataset: continuous energy measurements of a typical office environment at high sampling rates with common appliances and load profiles. We provide voltage and current readings for aggregated circuits and matching fully-labeled ground truth data (individual appliance measurements). The dataset contains 53 appliances (16 classes) in a 3-phase power grid. BLOND-50 contains 213 days of measurements sampled at 50kSps (aggregate) and 6.4kSps (individual appliances). BLOND-250 consists of the same setup: 50 days, 250kSps (aggregate), 50kSps (individual appliances). These are the longest continuous measurements at such high sampling rates and fully-labeled ground truth we are aware of.
Project description:This study explores the effect of slum rehabilitation on appliance ownership and its implications on residential electricity demand. The low-income scenario makes it unique because the entire proposition is based on the importance of non-income drivers of appliance ownership that includes effects of changing the built environment (BE), household practices (HP) and appliances characteristics (AC). This study demonstrates quantitatively that non-income factors around energy practices influence appliance ownership, and therefore electricity consumption. The methodology consists of questionnaire design across the dimension of BE, HP and AC based on social practice theory, surveying of 1224 households and empirical analysis using covariance-based structural equation modelling. Results show that higher appliance ownership in the slum rehabilitation housing is due to change in household practice, built environment and affordability criteria of the appliances. Change in HP shifts necessary activities like cooking, washing and cleaning from outdoor to indoor spaces that positively and significantly influences higher appliance ownership. Poor BE conditions about indoor air quality, thermal comfort and hygiene; and product cost, discounts and ease of use of the appliances also triggers higher appliance ownership. The findings of this study can aid in designing better regulatory and energy efficiency policies for low-income settlements.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The efficacy of stabilization appliance therapy for masticatory muscle pain is debated. Therefore, there are currently no clear usage standards. We analyzed patient factors influencing its efficacy and characterized masticatory muscle pain subtypes to determine appropriate therapy candidates. METHODS:This case series study recruited patients diagnosed with local myalgia or myofascial pain and used variables related to temporomandibular disorders in the analysis. We used temporary appliance to screen patients for sleep bruxism for 2 weeks. Afterwards, we initiated therapy with stabilization appliances. Efficacy was evaluated via tenderness intensity during muscle palpation and the treatment satisfaction score after 2 months of treatment. RESULTS:We analyzed 62 (91%) patients. Tenderness upon muscle palpation was mitigated in 27 patients. Mitigated tenderness odds ratios were 0.035 for myofascial pain, 0.804 for 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores, and 1.915 for facet length. Thirty-nine patients expressed satisfaction; satisfaction odds ratios were 0.855 for 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire scores, 1.606 for facet length, and 4.023 for awake bruxism awareness. CONCLUSIONS:Stabilization appliance therapy is most effective for patients with awake bruxism awareness, local myalgia, long facets, and no psychosocial risk factors.
Project description:In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG's), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL's), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL's. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL's and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL's. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG's registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach.
Project description:Purpose:This study evaluated dentoalveolar skeletal changes promoted by the Forsus appliance, associated to fixed orthodontic appliance, in the correction of Class II, division 1 malocclusion, from Computed Tomography (CT). Methods:sample consisted of 10 youngsters (7 males and 3 females), with a mean age of 13.86 years. Two Forsus® models were installed after the alignment and leveling phase of the teeth. Two tomographic images of each patient, T1 and T2 (initial and immediately after removal of Forsus® appliance) were done to perform the anatomical tracings and obtain the variables of interest. The data were described by means and standard deviations. For the comparison between the initial and final phases, the paired "t" test was used and a significance level of 5% was considered (p < 0.05). Results:small skeletal changes were observed, such as posterior maxillary displacement and a slight mandibular growth. Larger dentoalveolar changes occurred as extrusion, retrusion and lingualization of upper incisors; Intrusion, protrusion and vestibularization of the lower incisors; Mesialization and extrusion of lower molars. Conclusion:Considering the patients evaluated in this study, Forsus® presented similar results to other mandibular propulsion appliances, with dentoalveolar effects that favored Class II correction, however, with very slight skeletal modifications.
Project description:There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments.Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n = 9), oral appliance (n = 9) and physical exercise (n = 7). Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392 RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness.Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.
Project description:Smart energy meters generate real time, high frequency data which can foster demand management and response of consumers and firms, with potential private and social benefits. However, proper statistical techniques are needed to make sense of this large amount of data and translate them into usable recommendations. Here, we apply Functional Data Analysis (FDA), a novel branch of Statistics that analyses functions-to identify drivers of residential electricity load curves. We evaluate a real time feedback intervention which involved about 1000 Italian households for a period of three years. Results of the FDA modelling reveal, for the first time, daytime-indexed patterns of residential electricity consumption which depend on the ownership of specific clusters of electrical appliances and an overall reduction of consumption after the introduction of real time feedback, unrelated to appliance ownership characteristics.
Project description:Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.
Project description:This study investigated the effect of the period of use and location of intraoral appliances on enamel surface loss. This randomized, single blind in situ study was conducted in 2 crossover phases based on the period of use, in which maxillary and mandibular appliances were simultaneously worn. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 120) were randomly divided among the studied groups by surface hardness. In each phase, fifteen volunteers used one maxillary appliance and two mandibular appliances for 5 days. Erosive challenge was performed 4X/day by immersion in 0.01 M HCL for 2 minutes. In the continuous phase, the intraoral appliances were worn for 20 hours. In the intermittent phase the appliances were worn for 8 hours and 30 minutes. Enamel loss was determined profilometrically. The discomfort of use of the appliances were evaluated in a questionnaire. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA/Tukey's test and chi-square test (p<0.05). The maxillary appliance promoted higher enamel loss compared to the mandibular one (p<0.001). Intermittent use of appliances resulted in similar enamel loss to the continuous one (p = 0.686). All volunteers preferred to use the maxillary appliance in an intermittent regimen. The intermittent use of maxillary appliance is a simplified reliable protocol appropriated for in situ erosion studies in enamel.