Expression of RcHSP70, heat shock protein 70 gene from Chinese rose, enhances host resistance to abiotic stresses.
ABSTRACT: There exist differences in the heat tolerance of Chinese rose varieties, and high temperature in summer can lead to failure of blooming in non-heat-tolerant Chinese rose varieties. We cloned a heat shock protein 70 gene (designated RcHSP70) from heat-tolerant varieties of Chinese rose (Rosa hybrida L.) to elucidate the molecular mechanism of heat tolerance and improve the quality of Chinese rose. Degenerate primers were designed for RcHSP70 according to the 5'- and 3'-end sequences of HSP70 genes in apple and tea. RcHSP70 was cloned from heat-tolerant Chinese rose varieties after heat shock. The heat shock-induced expression patterns of RcHSP70 in different Chinese rose varieties were analyzed by RT-PCR. Following heat shock (38?°C/3?h), RcHSP70 was highly expressed in the heat-tolerant varieties but not in the non-heat-tolerant varieties, indicating a close relationship between RcHSP70 and heat resistance in Chinese rose. To verify the function of RcHSP70, we constructed a prokaryotic expression recombinant vector for this gene and transformed it into Escherichia coli BL21. The tolerance of recombinant strains to abiotic stresses, including high temperature, low temperature, high salt, heavy metals, high pH, and oxidation, was evaluated. Additionally, RcHSP70 was transformed into tobacco plants. Because of the overexpression of this gene, transgenic tobacco plants improved their tolerance to high temperature and cold. In addition, transgenic tobacco showed better photosynthetic performance, relative electrical conductivity and proline content than wild tobacco after heat stress and cold stress. Our findings indicate that RcHSP70 is involved in the resistance of Chinese rose to abiotic stresses.
Project description:Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. chinensis Lei) is an important vegetable crop in South China, valued for its nutritional content and taste. Nonetheless, the thermal tolerance of Chinese kale still needs improvement. Molecular characterization of Chinese kale's heat stress response could provide a timely solution for developing a thermally tolerant Chinese kale variety. Here, we report the cloning of multi-protein bridging factor (MBF) 1c from Chinese kale (BocMBF1c), an ortholog to the key heat stress responsive gene MBF1c. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BocMBF1c is highly similar to the stress-response transcriptional coactivator MBF1c from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtMBF1c), and the BocMBF1c coding region conserves MBF1 and helix-turn-helix (HTH) domains. Moreover, the promoter region of BocMBF1c contains three heat shock elements (HSEs) and, thus, is highly responsive to heat treatment. This was verified in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue using a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. In addition, the expression of BocMBF1c can be induced by various abiotic stresses in Chinese kale which indicates the involvement of stress responses. The BocMBF1c-eGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein) chimeric protein quickly translocated into the nucleus under high temperature treatment in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf tissue. Overexpression of BocMBF1c in Arabidopsis thaliana results in a larger size and enhanced thermal tolerance compared with the wild type. Our results provide valuable insight for the role of BocMBF1c during heat stress in Chinese kale.
Project description:Heat is a major abiotic stress that seriously affects watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) production. However, its effects may be mitigated through grafting watermelon to heat tolerant bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) rootstocks. Understanding the genetic basis of heat tolerance and development of reliable DNA markers to indirectly select for the trait are necessary in breeding for new varieties with heat tolerance. The objectives of this study were to investigate the inheritance of heat tolerance and identify molecular markers associated with heat tolerance in bottle gourd. A segregating F2 population was developed from a cross between two heat tolerant and sensitive inbred lines. The population was phenotyped for relative electrical conductivity (REC) upon high temperature treatment which was used as an indicator for heat tolerance. QTL-seq was performed to identify regions associated with heat tolerance. We found that REC-based heat tolerance in this population exhibited recessive inheritance. Seven heat-tolerant quantitative trait loci (qHT1.1, qHT2.1, qHT2.2, qHT5.1, qHT6.1, qHT7.1, and qHT8.1) were identified with qHT2.1 being a promising major-effect QTL. In the qHT2.1 region, we identified three non-synonymous SNPs that were potentially associated with heat tolerance. These SNPs were located in the genes that may play roles in pollen sterility, intracellular transport, and signal recognition. Association of the three SNPs with heat tolerance was verified in segregating F2 populations, which could be candidate markers for marker assisted selection for heat tolerance in bottle gourd. The qHT2.1 region is an important finding that may be used for fine mapping and discovery of novel genes associated with heat tolerance in bottle gourd.
Project description:Heat stress affects the physiology and production performance of Chinese Holstein dairy cows. As such, the selection of heat tolerance in cows and elucidating its underlying mechanisms are vital to the dairy industry. This study aimed to investigate the heat tolerance associated genes and molecular mechanisms in Chinese Holstein dairy cows using a high-throughput sequencing approach and bioinformatics analysis. Heat-induced physiological indicators and milk yield changes were assessed to determine heat tolerance levels in Chinese Holstein dairy cows by Principal Component Analysis method following Membership Function Value Analysis. Results indicated that rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR), and decline in milk production were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in heat tolerant (HT) cows while plasma levels of heat shock protein (HSP: HSP70, HSP90), and cortisol were significantly higher (p < 0.05) when compared to non-heat tolerant (NHT) Chinese Holstein dairy cows. By applying RNA-Seq analysis, we identified 200 (81 down-regulated and 119 up-regulated) significantly (|log2fold change| ? 1.4 and p ? 0.05) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HT versus NHT Chinese Holstein dairy cows. In addition, 14 of which were involved in protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. Importantly, several hub genes (OAS2, MX2, IFIT5 and TGFB2) were significantly enriched in immune effector process. These findings might be helpful to expedite the understanding for the mechanism of heat tolerance in Chinese Holstein dairy cows.
Project description:Cytokinins (CTKs) regulate panicle size and mediate heat tolerance in crops. To investigate the effect of high temperature on panicle CTK expression and the role of such expression in panicle differentiation in rice, four rice varieties (Nagina22, N22; Huanghuazhan, HHZ; Liangyoupeijiu, LYPJ; and Shanyou63, SY63) were grown under normal conditions and subjected to three high temperature treatments and one control treatment in temperature-controlled greenhouses for 15 days during the early reproductive stage. The high temperature treatments significantly reduced panicle CTK abundance in heat-susceptible LYPJ, HHZ, and N22 varieties, which showed fewer spikelets per panicle in comparison with control plants. Exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine application mitigated the effect of heat injury on the number of spikelets per panicle. The high temperature treatments significantly decreased the xylem sap flow rate and CTK transportation rate, but enhanced cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) activity in heat-susceptible varieties. In comparison with the heat-susceptible varieties, heat-tolerant variety SY63 showed less reduction in panicle CTK abundance, an enhanced xylem sap flow rate, an improved CTK transport rate, and stable CKX activity under the high temperature treatments. Enzymes involved in CTK synthesis (isopentenyltransferase, LONELY GUY, and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase) were inhibited by the high temperature treatments. Heat-induced changes in CTK transportation from root to shoot through xylem sap flow and panicle CTK degradation via CKX were closely associated with the effects of heat on panicle CTK abundance and panicle size. Heat-tolerant variety SY63 showed stable panicle size under the high temperature treatments because of enhanced transport of root-derived CTKs and stable panicle CKX activity. Our results provide insight into rice heat tolerance that will facilitate the development of rice varieties with tolerance to high temperature.
Project description:Heat stress is one of the major abiotic factors limiting the growth of cool-season grass species during summer season. The objectives of this study were to assess genetic variations in the transcript levels of selected genes in fine fescue cultivars differing in heat tolerance, and to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with candidate genes related to heat tolerance. Plants of 26 cultivars of five fine fescue species (Festuca spp.) were subjected to heat stress (38/33 °C, day/night temperature) in controlled environmental growth chambers. Physiological analysis including leaf chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and electrolyte leakage demonstrated significant genetic variations in heat tolerance among fine fescue cultivars. The transcript levels of selected genes involved in photosynthesis (RuBisCO activase, Photosystem II CP47 reaction center protein), carbohydrate metabolism (Sucrose synthase), energy production (ATP synthase), growth regulation (Actin), oxidative response (Catalase), and stress protection (Heat shock protein 90) were positively correlated with the physiological traits for heat tolerance. SNP markers for those candidate genes exhibited heterozygosity, which could also separate heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant cultivars into clusters. The development of SNP markers for candidate genes in heat tolerance may allow marker-assisted breeding for the development of new heat-tolerant cultivars in fine fescue and other cool-season grass species.
Project description:Productivity of rice, world's most important cereal is threatened by high temperature stress, intensified by climate change. Development of heat stress-tolerant varieties is one of the best strategies to maintain its productivity. However, heat stress tolerance is a multigenic trait and the candidate genes are poorly known. Therefore, we aimed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for vegetative stage tolerance to heat stress in rice and the corresponding candidate genes. We used genotyping-by-sequencing to generate single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers and genotype 150 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) obtained by crossing heat tolerant "N22" and heat susceptible "IR64" varieties. A linkage map was constructed using 4,074 high quality SNP markers that corresponded to 1,638 recombinationally unique events in this mapping population. Six QTL for root length and two for shoot length under control conditions with 2.1-12% effect were identified. One QTL rlht5.1 was identified for "root length under heat stress," with 20.4% effect. Four QTL were identified for "root length under heat stress as percent of control" that explained the total phenotypic variation from 5.2 to 8.6%. Three QTL with 5.3-10.2% effect were identified for "shoot length under heat stress," and seven QTL with 6.6-19% effect were identified for "shoot length under heat stress expressed as percentage of control." Among the QTL identified six were overlapping between those identified using shoot traits and root traits: two were overlapping between QTL identified for "shoot length under heat stress" and "root length expressed as percentage of control" and two QTL for "shoot length as percentage of control" were overlapping a QTL each for "root length as percentage of control" and "shoot length under heat stress." Genes coding 1,037 potential transcripts were identified based on their location in 10 QTL regions for vegetative stage heat stress tolerance. Among these, 213 transcript annotations were reported to be connected to stress tolerance in previous research in the literature. These putative candidate genes included transcription factors, chaperone proteins (e.g., alpha-crystallin family heat shock protein 20 and DNAJ homolog heat shock protein), proteases, protein kinases, phospholipases, and proteins related to disease resistance and defense and several novel proteins currently annotated as expressed and hypothetical proteins.
Project description:Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis) is an economically and agriculturally significant vegetable crop and is extensively cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress disturbs cellular homeostasis and causes visible growth inhibition of shoots and roots, severe retardation in growth and development, and even death. However, there are few studies on the transcriptome profiling of heat stress in non-heading Chinese cabbage. In this study, we investigated the transcript profiles of non-heading Chinese cabbage from heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant varieties "GHA" and "XK," respectively, in response to high temperature using RNA sequencing (RNA seq). Approximately 625 genes were differentially expressed between the two varieties. The responsive genes can be divided into three phases along with the time of heat treatment: response to stimulus, programmed cell death and ribosome biogenesis. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the two varieties, including transcription factors (TFs), kinases/phosphatases, genes related to photosynthesis and effectors of homeostasis. Many TFs were involved in the heat stress response of Chinese cabbage, including NAC069 TF which was up-regulated at all the heat treatment stages. And their expression levels were also validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR). These candidate genes will provide genetic resources for further improving the heat-tolerant characteristics in non-heading Chinese cabbage.
Project description:Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL), "HO", and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL), "JK", by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13) were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS). Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.
Project description:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are generally considered as important molecular chaperones; they are known to perform critical functions in plant development and abiotic stress response processes. In this study, we examined the role of a HSP, the Medicago sativa DnaJ-like protein (MsDJLP), in alfalfa and its potential application for the development of abiotic stress tolerance in plants. We found that expression of the MsDJLP gene was induced by chilling (4 °C) and heat (42 °C), but not by cadmium (500 µM) or arsenic (500 µM) stresses. We then cloned the MsDJLP gene downstream of the strong constitutive CaMV 35S promoter and transformed it into tobacco plants. Ectopic expression of MsDJLP conferred enhanced tolerance to both chilling and heat stresses in transgenic tobacco plants. Under chilling stress, the transgenic tobacco plants showed lower H2O2 accumulation and electrolyte leakage (EL) activity, and better photosystem II efficiency than wild-type (WT) plants, indicating that photoinhibition was less severe in transgenic compared to WT plants. Following heat treatment, the transgenic plants showed better relative chlorophyll and water contents, and lower malondialdehyde accumulation than WT plants. Our study provides evidence for a pivotal role of MsDJLP for chilling and heat stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.
Project description:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform significant roles in conferring abiotic stress tolerance to crop plants. In view of this, HSPs and their encoding genes were extensively characterized in several plant species; however, understanding their structure, organization, evolution and expression profiling in a naturally stress tolerant crop is necessary to delineate their precise roles in stress-responsive molecular machinery. In this context, the present study has been performed in C4 panicoid model, foxtail millet, which resulted in identification of 20, 9, 27, 20 and 37 genes belonging to SiHSP100, SiHSP90, SiHSP70, SiHSP60 and SisHSP families, respectively. Comprehensive in silico characterization of these genes followed by their expression profiling in response to dehydration, heat, salinity and cold stresses in foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in stress tolerance revealed significant upregulation of several genes in tolerant cultivar. SisHSP-27 showed substantial higher expression in response to heat stress in tolerant cultivar, and its over-expression in yeast system conferred tolerance to several abiotic stresses. Methylation analysis of SiHSP genes suggested that, in susceptible cultivar, higher levels of methylation might be the reason for reduced expression of these genes during stress. Altogether, the study provides novel clues on the role of HSPs in conferring stress tolerance.