ABSTRACT: Today's electronics cannot perform in harsh environments (e.g., elevated temperatures and ionizing radiation environments) found in many engineering applications. Based on the coupling between near-field thermal radiation and MEMS thermal actuation, we presented the design and modeling of NanoThermoMechanical AND, OR, and NOT logic gates as an alternative, and showed their ability to be combined into a full thermal adder to perform complex operations. In this work, we introduce the fabrication and characterization of the first ever documented Thermal AND and OR logic gates. The results show thermal logic operations can be achieved successfully through demonstrated and easy-to-manufacture NanoThermoMechanical logic gates.
Project description:We discuss the design of the thermal analog of logic gates in systems made of a collection of nanoparticles. We demonstrate the possibility to perform NOT, OR, NOR, AND and NAND logical operations at submicrometric scale by controlling the near-field radiative heat exchanges between their components. We also address the important point of the role played by the inherent non-additivity of radiative heat transfer in the combination of logic gates. These results pave the way to the development of compact thermal circuits for information processing and thermal management.
Project description:The integration of multiple DNA logic gates on a universal platform to implement advance logic functions is a critical challenge for DNA computing. Herein, a straightforward and powerful strategy in which a guanine-rich DNA sequence lighting up a silver nanocluster and fluorophore was developed to construct a library of logic gates on a simple DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (DNA-AgNCs) platform. This library included basic logic gates, YES, AND, OR, INHIBIT, and XOR, which were further integrated into complex logic circuits to implement diverse advanced arithmetic/non-arithmetic functions including half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, and demultiplexer. Under UV irradiation, all the logic functions could be instantly visualized, confirming an excellent repeatability. The logic operations were entirely based on DNA hybridization in an enzyme-free and label-free condition, avoiding waste accumulation and reducing cost consumption. Interestingly, a DNA-AgNCs-based multiplexer was, for the first time, used as an intelligent biosensor to identify pathogenic genes, E. coli and S. aureus genes, with a high sensitivity. The investigation provides a prototype for the wireless integration of multiple devices on even the simplest single-strand DNA platform to perform diverse complex functions in a straightforward and cost-effective way.
Project description:Logic gates are important components in integrated photonic circuitry. Here, a series of logic gates to achieve fundamental logic operations based on linear interference in spoof surface plasmon polariton waveguides are demonstrated at terahertz frequencies. A metasurface-based plasmonic source is adopted to couple free-space terahertz radiation into surface waves, followed by a funnel-shaped metasurface to efficiently couple the surface waves to the waveguides built on a domino structure. A single Mach-Zehnder waveguide interferometer can work as logic gates for four logic functions: AND, NOT, OR, and XOR. By cascading two such interferometers, NAND and NOR operations can also be achieved. Experimental investigations are supported by numerical simulations, and good agreement is obtained. The logic gates have compact sizes and high intensity contrasts for the output "1" and "0" states. More complicated functions can be envisioned and will be of great value for future terahertz integrated computing.
Project description:Multi-valued logic gates, which can handle quaternary numbers as inputs, are developed by exploiting the ballistic transport properties of quantum point contacts in series. The principle of a logic gate that finds the minimum of two quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. The device is scalable to allow multiple inputs, which makes it possible to find the minimum of multiple inputs in a single gate operation. Also, the principle of a half-adder for quaternary number inputs is demonstrated. First, an adder that adds up two quaternary numbers and outputs the sum of inputs is demonstrated. Second, a device to express the sum of the adder into two quaternary digits [Carry (first digit) and Sum (second digit)] is demonstrated. All the logic gates presented in this paper can in principle be extended to allow decimal number inputs with high quality QPCs.
Project description:Synthetic biologists have developed DNA/molecular modules that perform genetic logic operations in living cells to track key moments in a cell's life or change the fate of a cell. Increasing evidence has also revealed that diverse genetic logic gates capable of generating a Boolean function play critically important roles in synthetic biology. Basic genetic logic gates have been designed to combine biological science with digital logic. SynBioLGDB (http://bioinformatics.ac.cn/synbiolgdb/) aims to provide the synthetic biology community with a useful resource for efficient browsing and visualization of genetic logic gates. The current version of SynBioLGDB documents more than 189 genetic logic gates with experimental evidence involving 80 AND gates and 16 NOR gates, etc. in three species (Human, Escherichia coli and Bacillus clausii). SynBioLGDB provides a user-friendly interface through which conveniently to query and browse detailed information about these genetic logic gates. SynBioLGDB will enable more comprehensive understanding of the connection of genetic logic gates to execute complex cellular functions in living cells.
Project description:Microfluidics is a continuously growing field with potential not only in the fields of medical, chemical, and bioanalysis, but also in the domains of optics and information technology. Here, a pressure-driven 3D microfluidic chip is demonstrated with multiple logic Boolean functions. The presence and absence of fluid at the output of the gates represent the binary signals 1 and 0, respectively. Therefore, the logic gates do not require a specially functionalized liquid to operate. The chip is based on a multilevel of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-based polymeric sheets with aligned microchannels while a flexible polyimide-based sheet with a cantilever-like structure is embedded to enable a one-directional flow of the liquid. Several Boolean logic functions are realized (AND, OR, and XOR) using different fluids in addition to a half adder digital microfluidic circuit. The outputs of the logic gates are designed to be at different heights within the 3D chip to enable different pressure drops. The results show that the logic gates are operational for a specific range of flow rates, which is dependent on the microchannel dimensions, surface roughness, and fluid viscosity and therefore on their hydraulic resistance. The demonstrated approach enables simple cascading of logic gates for large-scale microfluidic computing systems.
Project description:Controlling gene expression with sophisticated logic gates has been and remains one of the central aims of synthetic biology. However, conventional implementations of biocomputers use central processing units (CPUs) assembled from multiple protein-based gene switches, limiting the programming flexibility and complexity that can be achieved within single cells. Here, we introduce a CRISPR/Cas9-based core processor that enables different sets of user-defined guide RNA inputs to program a single transcriptional regulator (dCas9-KRAB) to perform a wide range of bitwise computations, from simple Boolean logic gates to arithmetic operations such as the half adder. Furthermore, we built a dual-core CPU combining two orthogonal core processors in a single cell. In principle, human cells integrating multiple orthogonal CRISPR/Cas9-based core processors could offer enormous computational capacity.
Project description:In vivo logic gates have proven difficult to combine into larger devices. Our cell-based logic system, ParAlleL, decomposes a large circuit into a collection of small subcircuits working in parallel, each subcircuit responding to a different combination of inputs. A final global output is then generated by a combination of the responses. Using ParAlleL, for the first time a completely functional 3-bit full adder and full subtractor were generated using Escherichia coli cells, as well as a calculator-style display that shows a numeric result, from 0 to 7, when the proper 3 bit binary inputs are introduced into the system. ParAlleL demonstrates the use of a parallel approach for the design of cell-based logic gates that facilitates the generation and analysis of complex processes, without the need for complex genetic engineering.
Project description:Photochromes are photoswitchable, bistable chromophores which, like transistors, can implement binary logic operations. When several photochromes are combined in one molecule, interactions between them such as energy and electron transfer allow design of simple Boolean logic gates and more complex logic devices with all-photonic inputs and outputs. Selective isomerization of individual photochromes can be achieved using light of different wavelengths, and logic outputs can employ absorption and emission properties at different wavelengths, thus allowing a single molecular species to perform several different functions, even simultaneously. Here, we report a molecule consisting of three linked photochromes that can be configured as AND, XOR, INH, half-adder, half-subtractor, multiplexer, demultiplexer, encoder, decoder, keypad lock, and logically reversible transfer gate logic devices, all with a common initial state. The system demonstrates the advantages of light-responsive molecules as multifunctional, reconfigurable nanoscale logic devices that represent an approach to true molecular information processing units.
Project description:A series of complex logic gates were constructed based on graphene oxide and DNA-templated silver nanoclusters to perform both arithmetic and nonarithmetic functions. For the purpose of satisfying the requirements of progressive computational complexity and cost-effectiveness, a label-free and universal platform was developed by integration of various functions, including half adder, half subtractor, multiplexer and demultiplexer. The label-free system avoided laborious modification of biomolecules. The designed DNA-based logic gates can be implemented with readout of near-infrared fluorescence, and exhibit great potential applications in the field of bioimaging as well as disease diagnosis.