Mutant IDH1 Depletion Downregulates Integrins and Impairs Chondrosarcoma Growth.
ABSTRACT: Chondrosarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant bone tumors that produce hyaline cartilaginous matrix. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzymes (IDH1/2) were recently described in several cancers, including conventional and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These mutations lead to the inability of IDH to convert isocitrate into ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG). Instead, ?-KG is reduced into D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite. IDH mutations and D-2HG are thought to contribute to tumorigenesis due to the role of D-2HG as a competitive inhibitor of ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases. However, the function of IDH mutations in chondrosarcomas has not been clearly defined. In this study, we knocked out mutant IDH1 (IDH1mut) in two chondrosarcoma cell lines using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We observed that D-2HG production, anchorage-independent growth, and cell migration were significantly suppressed in the IDH1mut knockout cells. Loss of IDH1mut also led to a marked attenuation of chondrosarcoma formation and D-2HG production in a xenograft model. In addition, RNA-Seq analysis of IDH1mut knockout cells revealed downregulation of several integrin genes, including those of integrin alpha 5 (ITGA5) and integrin beta 5 (ITGB5). We further demonstrated that deregulation of integrin-mediated processes contributed to the tumorigenicity of IDH1-mutant chondrosarcoma cells. Our findings showed that IDH1mut knockout abrogates chondrosarcoma genesis through modulation of integrins. This suggests that integrin molecules are appealing candidates for combinatorial regimens with IDH1mut inhibitors for chondrosarcomas that harbor this mutation.
Project description:Chondrosarcomas are malignant bone tumors that produce cartilaginous matrix. Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase enzymes (IDH1/2) were recently described in several cancers including chondrosarcomas. The IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 abrogates the ability of mutant IDH1 to produce the oncometabolite D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) in gliomas. We sought to determine if treatment with AGI-5198 would similarly inhibit tumorigenic activity and D-2HG production in IDH1-mutant human chondrosarcoma cells. Two human chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and HT1080 with endogenous IDH1 mutations and a human chondrocyte cell line C28 with wild type IDH1 were employed in our study. Mutation analysis of IDH was performed by PCR-based DNA sequencing, and D-2HG was detected using tandem mass spectrometry. We confirmed that JJ012 and HT1080 harbor IDH1 R132G and R132C mutation, respectively, while C28 has no mutation. D-2HG was detectable in cell pellets and media of JJ012 and HT1080 cells, as well as plasma and urine from an IDH-mutant chondrosarcoma patient, which decreased after tumor resection. AGI-5198 treatment decreased D-2HG levels in JJ012 and HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and dramatically inhibited colony formation and migration, interrupted cell cycling, and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our study demonstrates anti-tumor activity of a mutant IDH1 inhibitor in human chondrosarcoma cell lines, and suggests that D-2HG is a potential biomarker for IDH mutations in chondrosarcoma cells. Thus, clinical trials of mutant IDH inhibitors are warranted for patients with IDH-mutant chondrosarcomas.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are found in 6% of AML patients. Mutant IDH produces R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG), which induces histone- and DNA-hypermethylation through the inhibition of epigenetic regulators, thus linking metabolism to tumorigenesis. Here we report the biochemical characterization, in vivo antileukemic effects, structural binding, and molecular mechanism of the inhibitor HMS-101, which inhibits the enzymatic activity of mutant IDH1 (IDH1mut). Treatment of IDH1mut primary AML cells reduced 2-hydroxyglutarate levels (2HG) and induced myeloid differentiation in vitro. Co-crystallization of HMS-101 and mutant IDH1 revealed that HMS-101 binds to the active site of IDH1mut in close proximity to the regulatory segment of the enzyme in contrast to other IDH1 inhibitors. HMS-101 also suppressed 2HG production, induced cellular differentiation and prolonged survival in a syngeneic mutant IDH1 mouse model and a patient-derived human AML xenograft model in vivo. Cells treated with HMS-101 showed a marked upregulation of the differentiation-associated transcription factors CEBPA and PU.1, and a decrease in cell cycle regulator cyclin A2. In addition, the compound attenuated histone hypermethylation. Together, HMS-101 is a unique inhibitor that binds to the active site of IDH1mut directly and is active in IDH1mut preclinical models.
Project description:Enchondromas are benign cartilage tumors and precursors to malignant chondrosarcomas. Somatic mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes (IDH1 and IDH2) are present in the majority of these tumor types. How these mutations cause enchondromas is unclear. Here, we identified the spectrum of IDH mutations in human enchondromas and chondrosarcomas and studied their effects in mice. A broad range of mutations was identified, including the previously unreported IDH1-R132Q mutation. These mutations harbored enzymatic activity to catalyze ?-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2HG). Mice expressing Idh1-R132Q in one allele in cells expressing type 2 collagen showed a disordered growth plate, with persistence of type X-expressing chondrocytes. Chondrocyte cell cultures from these animals or controls showed that there was an increase in proliferation and expression of genes characteristic of hypertrophic chondrocytes with expression of Idh1-R132Q or 2HG treatment. Col2a1-Cre;Idh1-R132Q mutant knock-in mice (mutant allele expressed in chondrocytes) did not survive after the neonatal stage. Col2a1-Cre/ERT2;Idh1-R132 mutant conditional knock-in mice, in which Cre was induced by tamoxifen after weaning, developed multiple enchondroma-like lesions. Taken together, these data show that mutant IDH or d-2HG causes persistence of chondrocytes, giving rise to rests of growth-plate cells that persist in the bone as enchondromas.
Project description:PURPOSE:Chondrosarcomas are the second most common primary malignant bone tumors. Although histologic grade is the most important factor predicting the clinical outcome of chondrosarcoma, it is subject to interobserver variability. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 hotspot mutations were recently found to be frequently mutated in central chondrosarcomas. However, a few published articles have been controversial regarding the association between IDH1/IDH2 mutation status and clinical outcomes in chondrosarcomas. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We performed hotspot sequencing of IDH1 and IDH2 genes in 89 central chondrosarcomas and targeted next-generation sequencing in 54 of them, and then correlated the IDH1/IDH2 mutation status with the patient's clinical outcome. RESULTS:Although no association was discovered between IDH mutation status and the patient's overall survival, IDH1/IDH2 mutation was found to be associated with longer relapse-free and metastasis-free survival in high-grade chondrosarcomas. Genomic profiling reveals TERT gene amplification and ATRX mutation, for the first time, in addition to TERT promoter mutation in a subset (6/30, 20%) of high-grade and dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas. These abnormalities in telomere genes are concurrent with IDH1/IDH2 mutation and with CDKN2A/2B deletion or TP53 mutation, suggesting a possible association and synergy among these genes in chondrosarcoma progression. We found 21% of patients with chondrosarcoma also had histories of second malignancies unrelated to cartilaginous tumors, suggesting possible unknown genetic susceptibility to chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSIONS:IDH1/IDH2 mutations are associated with longer relapse-free and metastasis-free survival in high-grade chondrosarcomas, and they tend to co-occur with TERT mutations and with CDKN2A/2B and TP53 alterations in a subset of high-grade chondrosarcomas.
Project description:Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (<i>IDH1</i> or <i>IDH2</i>) genes are common in enchondromas and chondrosarcomas, and lead to elevated levels of the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate causing widespread changes in the epigenetic landscape of these tumors. With the use of a DNA methylation array, we explored whether the methylome is altered upon progression from <i>IDH</i> mutant enchondroma towards high-grade chondrosarcoma. High-grade tumors show an overall increase in the number of highly methylated genes, indicating that remodeling of the methylome is associated with tumor progression. Therefore, an epigenetics compound screen was performed in five chondrosarcoma cell lines to therapeutically explore these underlying epigenetic vulnerabilities. Chondrosarcomas demonstrated high sensitivity to histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition in both 2D and 3D in vitro models, independent of the <i>IDH</i> mutation status or the chondrosarcoma subtype. siRNA knockdown and RNA expression data showed that chondrosarcomas rely on the expression of multiple HDACs, especially class I subtypes. Furthermore, class I HDAC inhibition sensitized chondrosarcoma to glutaminolysis and Bcl-2 family member inhibitors, suggesting that HDACs define the metabolic state and apoptotic threshold in chondrosarcoma. Taken together, HDAC inhibition may represent a promising targeted therapeutic strategy for chondrosarcoma patients, either as monotherapy or as part of combination treatment regimens.
Project description:Mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or its mitochondrial homolog IDH2 can lead to R(-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production. To date, mutations in three active site arginine residues, IDH1 R132, IDH2 R172 and IDH2 R140, have been shown to result in the neomorphic production of 2HG. Here we report on three additional 2HG-producing IDH1 mutations: IDH1 R100, which is affected in adult glioma, IDH1 G97, which is mutated in colon cancer cell lines and pediatric glioblastoma, and IDH1 Y139. All these new mutants stereospecifically produced 2HG's (R) enantiomer. In contrast, we find that the IDH1 SNPs V71I and V178I, as well as a number of other single-sample reports of IDH non-synonymous mutation, did not elevate cellular 2HG levels in cells and retained the wild-type ability for isocitrate-dependent NADPH production. Finally, we report the existence of additional rare, but recurring mutations found in lymphoma and thyroid cancer, which while failing to elevate 2HG nonetheless displayed loss of function, indicating a possible tumorigenic mechanism for a non-2HG-producing subset of IDH mutations in some malignancies. These data broaden our understanding of how IDH mutations may contribute to cancer through either neomorphic R(-)-2HG production or reduced wild-type enzymatic activity, and highlight the potential value of metabolite screening in identifying IDH-mutated tumors associated with elevated oncometabolite levels.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 or -2 are found in ~50% of conventional central chondrosarcomas and in up to 87% of their assumed benign precursors enchondromas. The mutant enzyme acquires the activity to convert α-ketoglutarate into the oncometabolite d-2-hydroxyglutarate (d-2-HG), which competitively inhibits α-ketoglutarate dependent enzymes such as histone- and DNA demethylases.We therefore evaluated the effect of IDH1 or -2 mutations on histone modifications (H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3), chromatin remodeler ATRX expression, DNA modifications (5-hmC and 5-mC), and TET1 subcellular localization in a genotyped cohort (IDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH)) of enchondromas and central chondrosarcomas (n = 101) using immunohistochemistry.IDH1 or -2 mutations were found in 60.8% of the central cartilaginous tumours, while mutations in FH and SDH were absent. The mutation status did not correlate with outcome. Chondrosarcomas are strongly positive for the histone modifications H3K4me3, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, which was independent of the IDH1 or -2 mutation status. Two out of 36 chondrosarcomas (5.6%) show complete loss of ATRX. Levels of 5-hmC and 5-mC are highly variable in central cartilaginous tumours and are not associated with mutation status. In tumours with loss of 5-hmC, expression of TET1 was more prominent in the cytoplasm than the nucleus (p = 0.0001).In summary, in central chondrosarcoma IDH1 or -2 mutations do not affect immunohistochemical levels of 5-hmC, 5mC, trimethylation of H3K4, -K9 and K27 and outcome, as compared to wildtype.
Project description:The somatic mutations in cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) observed in gliomas can lead to the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Here, we report that tumor 2HG is elevated in a high percentage of patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Surprisingly, less than half of cases with elevated 2HG possessed IDH1 mutations. The remaining cases with elevated 2HG had mutations in IDH2, the mitochondrial homolog of IDH1. These data demonstrate that a shared feature of all cancer-associated IDH mutations is production of the oncometabolite 2HG. Furthermore, AML patients with IDH mutations display a significantly reduced number of other well characterized AML-associated mutations and/or associated chromosomal abnormalities, potentially implicating IDH mutation in a distinct mechanism of AML pathogenesis.
Project description:Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) are key metabolic enzymes that convert isocitrate to ?-ketoglutarate. IDH1/2 mutations define distinct subsets of cancers, including low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas, chondrosarcomas, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, and hematologic malignancies. Somatic point mutations in IDH1/2 confer a gain-of-function in cancer cells, resulting in the accumulation and secretion in vast excess of an oncometabolite, the D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG). Overproduction of D-2HG interferes with cellular metabolism and epigenetic regulation, contributing to oncogenesis. Indeed, high levels of D-2HG inhibit ?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, including histone and DNA demethylases, leading to histone and DNA hypermethylation and finally a block in cell differentiation. Furthermore, D-2HG is a biomarker suitable for the detection of IDH1/2 mutations at diagnosis and predictive of the clinical response. Finally, mutant-IDH1/2 enzymes inhibitors have entered clinical trials for patients with IDH1/2 mutations and represent a novel drug class for targeted therapy.