Interleukin-22 Mediates the Chemotactic Migration of Breast Cancer Cells and Macrophage Infiltration of the Bone Microenvironment by Potentiating S1P/SIPR Signaling.
ABSTRACT: The interleukin-22 (IL-22) signaling pathway is well known to be involved in the progression of various cancer types but its role in bone metastatic breast cancer remains unclear. We demonstrate using human GEO profiling that bone metastatic breast cancer displays elevated interleukin-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) expression. Importantly, IL-22 stimuli promoted the expression of IL-22R1 and S1PR1 in aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. IL-22 treatment also increased sphingosine-1-phosphate production in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and induced the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)-mediated chemotactic migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was inhibited by an S1P antagonist. In addition to the S1PR1 axis, IL-22 stimulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), thereby promoting breast cancer cell invasion. Moreover, IL-22 induced IL22R1 and S1PR1 expression in macrophages, myeloid cell, and MCP1 expression in MSCs to facilitate macrophage infiltration. Immunohistochemistry indicated that IL-22R1 and S1PR1 are overexpressed in invasive malignant breast cancers and that this correlates with the MMP-9 levels. Collectively, our present results indicate a potential role of IL-22 in driving the metastasis of breast cancers into the bone microenvironment through the IL22R1-S1PR1 axis.
Project description:Interleukin-6 (IL-6)-Janus kinase (JAK) signaling is viewed as crucial for persistent signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation in cancer. However, IL-6-induced STAT3 activation is normally transient. Here we identify a key mechanism for persistent STAT3 activation in tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. We show that expression of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), a G protein-coupled receptor for the lysophospholipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), is elevated in STAT3-positive tumors. STAT3 is a transcription factor for the S1pr1 gene. Reciprocally, enhanced S1pr1 expression activates STAT3 and upregulates Il6 gene expression, thereby accelerating tumor growth and metastasis in a STAT3-dependent manner. Silencing S1pr1 in tumor cells or immune cells inhibits tumor STAT3 activity, tumor growth and metastasis. S1P-S1PR1-induced STAT3 activation is persistent, in contrast to transient STAT3 activation by IL-6. S1PR1 activates STAT3 in part by upregulating JAK2 tyrosine kinase activity. We show that STAT3-induced S1PR1 expression, as well as the S1P-S1PR1 pathway reciprocal regulation of STAT3 activity, is a major positive feedback loop for persistent STAT3 activation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment and for malignant progression.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease is an important risk factor for colorectal cancer. We show that sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) produced by upregulation of sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) links chronic intestinal inflammation to colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and both are exacerbated by deletion of Sphk2. S1P is essential for production of the multifunctional NF-?B-regulated cytokine IL-6, persistent activation of the transcription factor STAT3, and consequent upregulation of the S1P receptor, S1PR1. The prodrug FTY720 decreased SphK1 and S1PR1 expression and eliminated the NF-?B/IL-6/STAT3 amplification cascade and development of CAC, even in Sphk2(-/-) mice, and may be useful in treating colon cancer in individuals with ulcerative colitis. Thus, the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis is at the nexus between NF-?B and STAT3 and connects chronic inflammation and CAC.
Project description:The fundamental interaction between the immune and skeletal systems, termed as osteoimmunology, has been demonstrated to play indispensable roles in the maintenance of balance between bone resorption and formation. The pleiotropic sphingolipid metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), together with its cognate receptor, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1), are known as key players in osteoimmunology due to the regulation on both immune system and bone remodeling. The role of S1P-S1PR1 signaling in bone remodeling can be directly targeting both osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis. Meanwhile, inflammatory cell function and polarization in both adaptive immune (T cell subsets) and innate immune cells (macrophages) are also regulated by this signaling axis, suggesting that S1P-S1PR1 signaling could aslo indirectly regulate bone remodeling via modulating the immune system. Therefore, it could be likely that S1P-S1PR1 signaling might take part in the maintenance of continuous bone turnover under physiological conditions, while lead to the pathogenesis of bone deformities during inflammation. In this review, we summarized the immunological regulation of S1P-S1PR1 signal axis during bone remodeling with an emphasis on how osteo-immune regulators are affected by inflammation, an issue with relevance to chronical bone disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis and periodontitis.
Project description:Sphingosine kinase (SphK)/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor (S1PR) signaling pathway has been implicated in a variety of pathological processes of ovarian cancer. However, the function of this axis in ovarian cancer angiogenesis remains incompletely defined. Here we provided the first evidence that SphK1/S1P/S1PR1/3 pathway played key roles in ovarian cancer angiogenesis. The expression level of SphK1, but not SphK2, was closely correlated with the microvascular density (MVD) of ovarian cancer tissue. In vitro, the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of ovarian cancer cells could be attenuated by SphK1, but not SphK2, blockage and were restored by the addition of S1P. Moreover, in these cells, we found S1P stimulation induced the angiogenic factor secretion via S1PR1 and S1PR3, but not S1PR2. Furthermore, inhibition of S1PR1/3, but not S1PR2, attenuated the angiogenic potential and angiogenic factor secretion of the cells. in vivo, blockage of SphK or S1PR1/3 could attenuate ovarian cancer angiogenesis and inhibit angiogenic factor expression in mouse models. Collectively, the current study showed a novel role of SphK1/S1P/S1PR1/3 axis within the ovarian cancer, suggesting a new target to block ovarian cancer angiogenesis.
Project description:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biolipid involved in chronic inflammation in several inflammatory disorders. Recent studies revealed that elevated S1P contributes to sickling in sickle cell disease (SCD), a devastating hemolytic, genetic disorder associated with severe chronic inflammation and tissue damage. We evaluated the effect of elevated S1P in chronic inflammation and tissue damage in SCD and underlying mechanisms. First, we demonstrated that interfering with S1P receptor signaling by FTY720, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug, significantly reduced systemic, local inflammation and tissue damage without antisickling effects. These findings led us to discover that S1P receptor activation leads to substantial elevated local and systemic IL-6 levels in SCD mice. Genetic deletion of IL-6 in SCD mice significantly reduced local and systemic inflammation, tissue damage, and kidney dysfunction. At the cellular level, we determined that elevated IL-6 is a key cytokine functioning downstream of elevated S1P, which contributes to increased S1P receptor 1 ( S1pr1) gene expression in the macrophages of several tissues in SCD mice. Mechanistically, we revealed that S1P-S1PR1 signaling reciprocally up-regulated IL-6 gene expression in primary mouse macrophages in a JAK2-dependent manner. Altogether, we revealed that elevated S1P, coupled with macrophage S1PR1 reciprocally inducing IL-6 expression, is a key signaling network functioning as a malicious, positive, feed-forward loop to sustain inflammation and promote tissue damage in SCD. Our findings immediately highlight novel therapeutic possibilities.-Zhao, S., Adebiyi, M. G., Zhang, Y., Couturier, J. P., Fan, X., Zhang, H., Kellems, R. E., Lewis, D. E., Xia, Y. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 mediates elevated IL-6 signaling to promote chronic inflammation and multitissue damage in sickle cell disease.
Project description:Recent research has led to contradictory notions regarding the conventional theory that apoptotic cell death can evoke inflammatory or immunogenic responses orchestrated by released damage-associated patterns (DAMPs). By inducing IL-1? from bone marrow-derived macrophages in an effort to determine the inflammatory mediators released from apoptotic cells, we found that exosomal fractions called "apoptotic exosome-like vesicles" (AEVs) prepared from apoptotic-conditioned medium were the main inflammatory factors. These AEVs showed characteristics of exosomes in their size, density, morphology, and protein expression but had unique marker proteins, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors 1 and 3 (S1PR1 and 3). Their biogenesis was completely dependent on cellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/S1PRs signaling from multiple fine spindles of plasma membrane accompanied by F-actin, S1PR1, S1PR3, and CD63 at the early apoptotic phase and progressing to the maturation of F-actin-guided multivesicular endosomes mediated by G?? subunits of S1PRs downstream. S1P-loaded S1PRs on AEVs were critical factors for inducing IL-1? via NF-?B transcriptional factor and p38 MAPK, possibly through the RHOA/NOD2 axis, in differentiating macrophages. The AEVs induced genes of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and mediators in both in vitro and in vivo models. In conclusion, AEVs could be key inflammatory mediators, acting as DAMPs that could explain the pathogeneses of various chronic inflammations, autoimmune diseases, or cancers in the future.
Project description:While the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)/sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1 (S1PR1) axis is critically important for lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs, S1PR1-activation also occurs in vascular endothelial cells (ECs), including those of the high-endothelial venules (HEVs) that mediate lymphocyte immigration into lymph nodes (LNs). To understand the functional significance of the S1P/S1PR1-Gi axis in HEVs, we generated Lyve1;Spns2?/? conditional knockout mice for the S1P-transporter Spinster-homologue-2 (SPNS2), as HEVs express LYVE1 during development. In these mice HEVs appeared apoptotic and were severely impaired in function, morphology and size; leading to markedly hypotrophic peripheral LNs. Dendritic cells (DCs) were unable to interact with HEVs, which was also observed in Cdh5CRE-ERT2;S1pr1?/? mice and wildtype mice treated with S1PR1-antagonists. Wildtype HEVs treated with S1PR1-antagonists in vitro and Lyve1-deficient HEVs show severely reduced release of the DC-chemoattractant CCL21 in vivo. Together, our results reveal that EC-derived S1P warrants HEV-integrity through autocrine control of S1PR1-Gi signaling, and facilitates concomitant HEV-DC interactions.
Project description:The bioactive lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) was recently assigned critical roles in platelet biology: whereas S1P1 receptor-mediated S1P gradient sensing was reported to be essential for directing proplatelet extensions from megakaryocytes (MKs) toward bone marrow sinusoids, MK sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2)-derived S1P was reported to further promote platelet shedding through receptor-independent intracellular actions, and platelet aggregation through S1P1 Yet clinical use of S1P pathway modulators including fingolimod has not been associated with risk of bleeding or thrombosis. We therefore revisited the role of S1P in platelet biology in mice. Surprisingly, no reduction in platelet counts was observed when the vascular S1P gradient was ablated by impairing S1P provision to plasma or S1P degradation in interstitial fluids, nor when gradient sensing was impaired by S1pr1 deletion selectively in MKs. Moreover, S1P1 expression and signaling were both undetectable in mature MKs in situ, and MK S1pr1 deletion did not affect platelet aggregation or spreading. When S1pr1 deletion was induced in hematopoietic progenitor cells, platelet counts were instead significantly elevated. Isolated global Sphk2 deficiency was associated with thrombocytopenia, but this was not replicated by MK-restricted Sphk2 deletion and was reversed by compound deletion of either Sphk1 or S1pr2, suggesting that this phenotype arises from increased S1P export and S1P2 activation secondary to redistribution of sphingosine to Sphk1. Consistent with clinical observations, we thus observe no essential role for S1P1 in facilitating platelet production or activation. Instead, S1P restricts megakaryopoiesis through S1P1, and can further suppress thrombopoiesis through S1P2 when aberrantly secreted in the hematopoietic niche.
Project description:Production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is linked to 17?-estradiol (E2) activity in many estrogen-responsive cells; in bone development, the role of S1P is unclear. We studied effects of S1P on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts (hOB). Ten nM E2, 1 ?M S1P, or 1 ?M of the S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonist SEW2871 increased hOB proliferation at 24 hours. S1PR 1, 2, and 3 mRNAs are expressed by hOB but not S1PR4 or S1PR5. Expression of S1PR2 was increased at 7 and 14 days of differentiation, in correspondence with osteoblast-related mRNAs. Expression of S1PR1 was increased by E2 or S1P in proliferating hOB, whereas S1PR2 mRNA was unaffected in proliferating cells; S1PR3 was not affected by E2 or S1P. Inhibiting sphingosine kinase (SPHK) activity with sphingosine kinase inhibitor (Ski) greatly reduced the E2 proliferative effect. Both E2 and S1P increased SPHK mRNA at 24 hours in hOB. S1P promoted osteoblast proliferation via activating MAP kinase activity. Either E2 or S1P increased S1P synthesis in a fluorescent S1P assay. Interaction of E2 and S1P signaling was indicated by upregulation of E2 receptor mRNA after S1P treatment. E2 and S1P also promoted alkaline phosphatase expression. During osteoblast differentiation, S1P increased bone-specific mRNAs, similarly to the effects of E2. However, E2 and S1P showed differences in the activation of some osteoblast pathways. Pathway analysis by gene expression arrays was consistent with regulation of pathways of osteoblast differentiation; collagen and cell adhesion proteins centered on Rho/Rac small GTPase signaling and Map kinase or signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) intermediates. Transcriptional activation also included significant increases in superoxide dismutase 1 and 2 transcription by either S1P or E2. We demonstrate that the SPHK system is a co-mediator for osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, which is mainly, but not entirely, complementary to E2, whose effects are mediated by S1PR1 and S1PR2.