Investigation of the relationship between ischemic stroke and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphisms [G894T, intron 4 VNTR and T786C]
ABSTRACT: Background/aim:We aimed to investigate the associations between endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) gene polymorphisms [G894T (rs1799983)], intron 4 (27-bpTR) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and T786C (rs2070744), and ischemic stroke in the Anatolian population. Materials and methods:This case-control study included 112 patients with “stroke of undetermined etiology” and 160 controls. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was used to analyze these polymorphisms. Between-group frequencies of alleles and genotypes were compared using binary logistic regression analysis. Results:No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the genotype and allele distributions of the eNOS G894T (rs1799983) polymorphism (P > 0.05). The a alleles and the 4b/a and 4a/a genotypes of the intron 4 (27-bpTR) VNTR polymorphism had significantly higher frequencies in the patient group than in the control group (OR: 2.715, P < 0.001; OR: 3.396, P < 0.001; OR: 10.631, P = 0.016, respectively). On the contrary, the TC genotype and C alleles of the T786C (rs2070744) polymorphism had a significantly lower frequency in the patient group than in the control group (OR: 0.244, P < 0.001, OR: 0.605, P = 0.006, respectively) Conclusion:Our findings indicate that the eNOS G894T and T786C [rs2070744] polymorphisms are not associated with the risk of ischemic stroke, whereas the intron 4 [27-bpTR] VNTR may be a risk factor in the Anatolian population.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) synthesized by endothelial cells is known to be a potent vasodilator. It has been suggested that polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) can affect the response of the vascular endothelium to increased oxidative stress. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence of G894T (rs1799983), intron-4 (27-bp TR) and -T786C (rs2070744) polymorphisms in the eNOS gene among the Colombian general population. RESULTS: Genotype and allele frequencies showed significant differences in their distribution. White, black and mixed populations were in HW equilibrium for the variants in 27-bp TR- and rs1799983, but the black population was in HW disequilibrium for rs2070744 (p < 0.001). Allele "T" of rs1799983 polymorphisms was more common in the white population (26,5%) than the others, while allele "C" of rs2070744 polymorphisms had a similar frequency in all populations, and the allele 4a from 27-bp TR was more frequent in the black population (26,2%) than the others. Similar differences were found when genotypes were analyzed. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that there is a substantial difference in the distribution of eNOS polymorphisms between different ethnic groups. These results could aid the understanding of inter-ethnic differences in NO bioavailability, cardiovascular risk, and response to drugs.
Project description:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) variants have been found to be associated with several vascular disorders as well as the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD) complications such as vaso-occlusive crises (VOC). Studies on eNOS gene variants among SCD patients are rare in Ghana and several other African countries. The current study aimed to determine a possible association between variants of the eNOS gene (variable number of tandem repeats in intron 4 and T786C) in SCD complications among Ghanaian patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving 89 HbSS patients with complications and 46 HbSS patients without complications. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes in the buffy coat and separated from collected whole blood samples of the study participants. PCR amplification, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to genotype T786C (rs2070744) variants. Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in intron 4 was genotyped by PCR and direct electrophoresis. There was a significant difference in the genotype frequency of the T786C variant between HbSS patients with complications and those without complications (p = 0.0165). However, there was no significant difference in the VNTR intron 4 variant of the eNOS gene between patients with complications and those without complications (p > 0.05). The study shows an association between the eNOS gene variant (T786C) and complications in SCD.
Project description:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the catalyst of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Polymorphisms in the eNOS gene may influence the risk of intracranial aneurysm (IA), but the results of existing researches are still inconsistent. Thus, we performed the present meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation between eNOS polymorphisms (T786C, G894T, 27-bp-variable number of tandem repeat [VNTR]) and IA risk. Case-control studies evaluating the association between the eNOS polymorphisms and IA risk were searched in PubMed, Ovid & Embase, Web of Science, and Chinese Wanfang datasets with the last search up to July 15, 2014. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between eNOS polymorphisms and IA and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using the random or fixed-effects model. Finally, 10 studies for T786C polymorphism (1819 cases and 1893 controls), 9 studies for G894T polymorphism (1393 cases and 1508 controls), and 7 studies for 27-bp-VNTR polymorphism (1281 cases and 1406 controls) were included in the meta-analyses. In the overall analysis, no evidence of association between eNOS polymorphisms and susceptibility of IA was found. When subgrouped by race descent, significantly increased risk was detected among Asians for T786C polymorphism (heterozygous comparison of codominant model: OR?=?1.294, 95% CI?=?1.025-1.634; dominant model: OR?=?1.277, 95% CI?=?1.019-1.600), but not in Caucasians or the other 2 polymorphisms. Our meta-analysis suggested that T786C polymorphism was associated with increased risk of IA among Asians, whereas G894T and 27-bp-VNTR polymorphisms might have no influence on the susceptibility of IA.
Project description:About 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus develop clinically overt nephropathy. Hyperglycemia is necessary, but not sufficient, to cause the renal damage that leads to kidney failure. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a multifactorial disorder that results from interaction between environmental and genetic factors. In the present article we will review the role of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the pathogenesis of DN.Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived gaseous lipophilic molecule produced in almost all tissues, and it has three distinct genes that encode three NOS isoforms: neuronal (nNOS), inducible (iNOS) and endothelial (eNOS).The correct function of the endothelium depends on NO, participating in hemostasis control, vascular tone regulation, proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and blood pressure homeostasis, among other features. In the kidney, NO plays many different roles, including control of renal and glomerular hemodynamics. The net effect of NO in the kidney is to promote natriuresis and diuresis, along with renal adaptation to dietary salt intake.The eNOS gene has been considered a potential candidate gene for DN susceptibility. Three polymorphisms have been extensively researched: G894T missense mutation (rs1799983), a 27-bp repeat in intron 4, and the T786C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter (rs2070744). However, the potential link between eNOS gene variants and the induction and progression of DN yielded contradictory results in the literature.In conclusion, NOS seems to be involve in the development and progression of DN. Despite the discrepant results of many studies, the eNOS gene is also a good candidate gene for DN.
Project description:There are a number of susceptible factors for an increased risk of gastric cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) is considered to be associated with the development of a range of cancers. In particular, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are known to play a central role in the production of NO. Published studies relating to the association between eNOS rs1799983, rs2070744, and iNOS rs2297518 polymorphisms and the risk of gastric cancer risk are conflicting and inconclusive and require further analysis.This study involved a meta-analysis of case-control studies relating to eNOS rs1799983, rs2070744, and iNOS rs2297518 polymorphisms published prior to January 2018. Literature searches were carried out in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library databases, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of association based on genotype data.A total of 1,356 cases and 1,791 controls were included from nine case-control studies involving eNOS rs1799983 (G894T), rs2070744 (T-786C), and iNOS rs2297518 (C150T) polymorphisms. Data analysis indicated that iNOS rs2297518 was a risk factor for Helicobacter pylorus-positive gastric cancer when compared with H. pylorus-negative gastric cancer (p=0.003, OR [95% CI] =2.19 [1.31-3.66]). In addition, the allelic, dominant, and recessive models of eNOS rs2070744 were significantly associated with a risk of gastric cancer (allelic model: p<0.00001, OR [95% CI] =0.23 [0.16-0.34]; dominant model: p<0.00001, OR [95% CI] =0.25 [0.15-0.42]; recessive model: p<0.00001, OR [95% CI] =0.16 [0.08-0.30]). No association was identified between eNOS rs1799983 and the risk of gastric cancer (p>0.05).iNOS rs2297518 and eNOS rs2070744 polymorphisms may represent susceptible factors for gastric cancer.
Project description:Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C?>?T) and rs1799983 (894T?>?G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p?=?0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p?=?0.018; OR?=?2.57; IC?=?1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T?>?G (p?=?0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue.
Project description:Essential hypertension (EH) is influenced by various environmental and genetic factors. Nitric oxide is important for the functional integrity of the vascular endothelium and is produced in endothelial cells by the enzyme endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). EH has a strong genetic component, and the NOS3 gene, which encodes eNOS, represents an interesting candidate for contribution to the phenotype. The most clinically relevant polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene are rs1799983 in exon 7 (encoding Glu298Asp), a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in intron 4, and rs2070744 (T-786C) in the promoter region. This study aims to investigate the association between these three polymorphisms in the NOS3 gene and EH in Sudanese patients.Hypertensive patients (n?=?157) > 18 years of age with established hypertension from various hospitals in Khartoum, and controls (n?=?85) > 18 years of age and with blood pressure measurements <140/90, were included in this case control study. Genotypes at the NOS3 variants were determined using TaqMan and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between the two groups by ?2 analysis, and differences were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.The rs2070744 polymorphism in NOS3 was found to be associated with EH in the Sudanese population as the patients group had higher frequency of CC genotype compared with the controls (6.6% vs 6.1%, p?=?0.02). Considering a dominant inheritance model, the frequency of TC + CC genotypes in patients was significantly higher than that in the control subjects (52.6% vs 34.1%, respectively; p < 0.01), with an odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.14 (1.23-3.74). In addition, the C allele was more frequent in the patients than the control group (29.6% vs 20%, p?=?0.03, OR?=?1.84 (1.15-2.93)). The c allele of intron 4 VNTR was reported in >1% of the Sudanese population under study.The results of this study indicated that the rs2070744 polymorphism in NOS3 may be a genetic susceptibility factor for EH in the Sudanese population. The c allele of intron 4 VNTR is not rare in the Sudanese population.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms of the eNOS gene on the clinical status of patients with normal and high tension glaucoma.266 Polish Caucasian patients with primary open angle glaucoma were studied. Of the 266, 156 had normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and 110 high tension glaucoma (HTG). DNA material was isolated from peripheral venous blood using commercial kits. Real-time PCR reaction was used to amplify the promoter site of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, including the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site T-786C and part of the 7th exon of eNOS, including G894T SNP. Genotypes were determined with TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays.There were no significant differences in frequencies of the allelic variants of both polymorphisms. In G894T SNP, however, the wild GG form was more common in the HTG group. The SNP of the eNOS gene did not significantly influence the progression rate in either of the groups studied. There were no differences in variants of the eNOS gene regarding the necessity for and success of surgery and the progression of the disease. In the NTG group, no statistical correlation was observed between G894T, T786C polymorphism variants, and risk factors such as optic disc haemorrhages, optic disc notches, and peripapillary atrophy. Mean diastolic and systolic pressure during the day and night were lowest in NTG patients with the CC variant of the T786C polymorphism. No statistical correlation was observed between the G894T and T786C polymorphisms and capillaroscopic examination results.Genotype frequencies are similar for both the eNOS G894T and T-786C polymorphisms in NTG and HTG patients. These polymorphisms do not correlate with risk factors and do not influence the state of the capillary system in NTG patients. Systolic blood pressure is lower in NTG patients with mutated alleles of both polymorphisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Numerous individually underpowered association studies have been conducted on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) genetic variants across different ethnic populations, however, the results are often irreproducible. We therefore aimed to meta-analyze three eNOS widely-evaluated polymorphisms, G894T (rs1799983) in exon 7, 4b/a in intron 4, and T-786C (rs2070744) in promoter region, in association with hypertension from both English and Chinese publications, while addressing between-study heterogeneity and publication bias. METHODS: Data were analyzed using Stata software (version 11.0), and random-effects model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity, which was evaluated by subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Publication bias was weighed using the Egger's test and funnel plot. RESULTS: There were total 19284/26003 cases/controls for G894T, and 6890/6858 for 4b/a, and 5346/6392 for T-786C polymorphism. Overall comparison of allele 894T with 894G in all study populations yielded a 16% increased risk for hypertension (odds ratio [OR]?=?1.16; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.07-1.27; P?=?0.001), and particularly a 32% increased risk (95% CI: 1.16-1.52; P<0.0005) in Asians and a 40% increased risk (95% CI: 1.19-1.65; P<0.0005) in Chinese. Further subgroup analyses suggested that published languages accounted for the heterogeneity for G894T polymorphism. The overall OR of allele 4a versus 4b was 1.29 (95% CI: 1.13-1.46; P<0.0005) in all study populations, and this estimate was potentiated in Asians (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI: 1.16-1.72; P<0.0005). For T-786C, ethnicity-stratified analyses suggested a significantly increased risk for -786C allele (OR?=?1.25; 95% CI: 1.06-1.47; P?=?0.007) and -786CC genotype (OR?=?1.69; 95% CI: 1.20-2.38; P?=?0.003) in Whites. As an aside, the aforementioned risk estimates reached significance after Bonferroni correction. Finally, meta-regression analysis on other study-level covariates failed to provide any significance for all polymorphisms. CONCLUSION: We, via a comprehensive meta-analysis, ascertained the role of eNOS G894T and 4b/a polymorphisms on hypertension in Asians, and T-786C polymorphism in Whites.
Project description:Purpose. To clarify the association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. After a systematic literature search in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases, all relevant studies evaluating the association between the polymorphisms (rs2070744 and rs1799983) of eNOS gene and POAG were screened and included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in five genetic models were estimated using fixed-effect model if I (2) < 50% in the test for heterogeneity; otherwise the random-effects model was used. Results. Thirty-one records were obtained, with five being suitable for meta-analysis. The overall results showed that both TT genotype in rs2070744 and GG genotype in rs1799983 are associated with decreased risk of POAG susceptibility. Stratified analysis based on ethnicity showed that the association of rs2070744 with POAG remained only in Caucasians. Results of subgroup analysis by sex indicated association between both polymorphisms and POAG in female group, but not in male group. Conclusions. TT genotype and/or T-allele in rs2070744, as well as GG genotype and/or G-allele in rs1799983, was associated with decreased risk for POAG overall and in female group.