CDP-Diacylglycerol Synthases (CDS): Gateway to Phosphatidylinositol and Cardiolipin Synthesis.
ABSTRACT: Cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) is a key intermediate in the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and cardiolipin (CL). Both PI and CL have highly specialized roles in cells. PI can be phosphorylated and these phosphorylated derivatives play major roles in signal transduction, membrane traffic, and maintenance of the actin cytoskeletal network. CL is the signature lipid of mitochondria and has a plethora of functions including maintenance of cristae morphology, mitochondrial fission, and fusion and for electron transport chain super complex formation. Both lipids are synthesized in different organelles although they share the common intermediate, CDP-DAG. CDP-DAG is synthesized from phosphatidic acid (PA) and CTP by enzymes that display CDP-DAG synthase activities. Two families of enzymes, CDS and TAMM41, which bear no sequence or structural relationship, have now been identified. TAMM41 is a peripheral membrane protein localized in the inner mitochondrial membrane required for CL synthesis. CDS enzymes are ancient integral membrane proteins found in all three domains of life. In mammals, they provide CDP-DAG for PI synthesis and for phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and CL synthesis in prokaryotes. CDS enzymes are critical for maintaining phosphoinositide levels during phospholipase C (PLC) signaling. Hydrolysis of PI (4,5) bisphosphate by PLC requires the resynthesis of PI and CDS enzymes catalyze the rate-limiting step in the process. In mammals, the protein products of two CDS genes (CDS1 and CDS2) localize to the ER and it is suggested that CDS2 is the major CDS for this process. Expression of CDS enzymes are regulated by transcription factors and CDS enzymes may also contribute to CL synthesis in mitochondria. Studies of CDS enzymes in protozoa reveal spatial segregation of CDS enzymes from the rest of the machinery required for both PI and CL synthesis identifying a key gap in our understanding of how CDP-DAG can cross the different membrane compartments in protozoa and in mammals.
Project description:The expansion of lipid droplets (LDs) and the differentiation of preadipocytes are two important aspects of mammalian lipid storage. In this study, we examined the role of CDP-diacylglycerol (DAG) synthases (CDSs), encoded by CDS1 and CDS2 genes in mammals, in lipid storage. CDS enzymes catalyze the formation of CDP-DAG from phosphatidic acid (PA). Knocking down either CDS1 or CDS2 resulted in the formation of giant or supersized LDs in cultured cells. Moreover, depleting CDS1 almost completely blocked the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, whereas depleting CDS2 had a moderate inhibitory effect on adipocyte differentiation. The levels of many PA species were significantly increased upon knocking down CDS1 In contrast, only a small number of PA species were increased upon depleting CDS2 Importantly, the amount of PA in the endoplasmic reticulum was dramatically increased upon knocking down CDS1 or CDS2 Our results suggest that the changes in PA level and localization may underlie the formation of giant LDs as well as the block in adipogenesis in CDS-deficient cells. We have therefore identified CDS1 and CDS2 as important novel regulators of lipid storage, and these results highlight the crucial role of phospholipids in mammalian lipid storage.
Project description:CDP-diacylglycerol synthases (CDS) are critical enzymes that catalyze the formation of CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) from phosphatidic acid (PA). Here we show in vitro that the two isoforms of human CDS, CDS1 and CDS2, show different acyl chain specificities for its lipid substrate. CDS2 is selective for the acyl chains at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, the most preferred species being 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-phosphatidic acid. CDS1, conversely, shows no particular substrate specificity, displaying similar activities for almost all substrates tested. Additionally, we show that inhibition of CDS2 by phosphatidylinositol is also acyl chain-dependent, with the strongest inhibition seen with the 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl species. CDS1 shows no acyl chain-dependent inhibition. Both CDS1 and CDS2 are inhibited by their anionic phospholipid end products, with phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate showing the strongest inhibition. Our results indicate that CDS1 and CDS2 could create different CDP-DAG pools that may serve to enrich different phospholipid species with specific acyl chains.
Project description:Lipid droplets (LDs) are evolutionarily conserved organelles that play critical roles in mammalian lipid storage and metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms governing the biogenesis and growth of LDs remain poorly understood. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a precursor of phospholipids and triacylglycerols and substrate of CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) synthase 1 (CDS1) and CDS2, which catalyze the formation of CDP-DAG. Here, using siRNA-based gene knockdowns and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockouts, along with immunological, molecular, and fluorescence microscopy approaches, we examined the role of CDS1 and CDS2 in LD biogenesis and growth. Knockdown of either CDS1 or CDS2 expression resulted in the formation of giant or supersized LDs in cultured mammalian cells. Interestingly, down-regulation of cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector C (CIDEC), encoding a prominent regulator of LD growth in adipocytes, restored LD size in CDS1- but not in CDS2-deficient cells. On the other hand, reducing expression of two enzymes responsible for triacylglycerol synthesis, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 (GPAT4), rescued the LD phenotype in CDS2-deficient, but not CDS1-deficient, cells. Moreover, CDS2 deficiency, but not CDS1 deficiency, promoted the LD association of DGAT2 and GPAT4 and impaired initial LD maturation. Finally, although both CDS1 and CDS2 appeared to regulate PA levels on the LD surface, CDS2 had a stronger effect. We conclude that CDS1 and CDS2 regulate LD dynamics through distinct mechanisms.
Project description:Chronic stimulation (24 h) with vasopressin leads to hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and this is accompanied by continuous activation of phospholipase C. Consequently, vasopressin stimulation leads to a depletion of phosphatidylinositol levels. The substrate for phospholipase C is phosphatidylinositol (4, 5) bisphosphate (PIP2) and resynthesis of phosphatidylinositol and its subsequent phosphorylation maintains the supply of PIP2. The resynthesis of PI requires the conversion of phosphatidic acid to CDP-diacylglycerol catalysed by CDP-diacylglycerol synthase (CDS) enzymes. To examine whether the resynthesis of PI is regulated by vasopressin stimulation, we focussed on the CDS enzymes. Three CDS enzymes are present in mammalian cells: CDS1 and CDS2 are integral membrane proteins localised at the endoplasmic reticulum and TAMM41 is a peripheral protein localised in the mitochondria. Vasopressin selectively stimulates an increase CDS1 mRNA that is dependent on protein kinase C, and can be inhibited by the AP-1 inhibitor, T-5224. Vasopressin also stimulates an increase in cFos protein which is inhibited by a protein kinase C inhibitor. We conclude that vasopressin stimulates CDS1 mRNA through phospholipase C, protein kinase C and cFos and provides a potential mechanism for maintenance of phosphatidylinositol levels during long-term phospholipase C signalling.
Project description:Phospholipids are elemental building-block molecules for biological membranes. Biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine requires a central liponucleotide intermediate named cytidine-diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG). The CDP-DAG synthetase (Cds) is an integral membrane enzyme catalysing the formation of CDP-DAG, an essential step for phosphoinositide recycling during signal transduction. Here we report the structure of the Cds from Thermotoga maritima (TmCdsA) at 3.4 Å resolution. TmCdsA forms a homodimer and each monomer contains nine transmembrane helices arranged into a novel fold with three domains. An unusual funnel-shaped cavity penetrates half way into the membrane, allowing the enzyme to simultaneously accept hydrophilic substrate (cytidine 5'-triphosphate (CTP)/deoxy-CTP) from cytoplasm and hydrophobic substrate (phosphatidic acid) from membrane. Located at the bottom of the cavity, a Mg(2+)-K(+) hetero-di-metal centre coordinated by an Asp-Asp dyad serves as the cofactor of TmCdsA. The results suggest a two-metal-ion catalytic mechanism for the Cds-mediated synthesis of CDP-DAG at the membrane-cytoplasm interface.
Project description:CDP diacylglycerol synthase (CDS) catalyses the conversion of phosphatidic acid (PA) to CDP-diacylglycerol, an essential intermediate in the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol, cardiolipin and phosphatidylinositol (PI). CDS activity has been identified in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian cells apparently encoded by two highly-related genes, CDS1 and CDS2. Cardiolipin is exclusively synthesised in mitochondria and recent studies in cardiomyocytes suggest that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1 (PGC-1? and ?) serve as transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and up-regulate the transcription of the CDS1 gene. Here we have examined whether CDS1 is responsible for the mitochondrial CDS activity. We report that differentiation of H9c2 cells with retinoic acid towards cardiomyocytes is accompanied by increased expression of mitochondrial proteins, oxygen consumption, and expression of the PA/PI binding protein, PITPNC1, and CDS1 immunoreactivity. Both CDS1 immunoreactivity and CDS activity were found in mitochondria of H9c2 cells as well as in rat heart, liver and brain mitochondria. However, the CDS1 immunoreactivity was traced to a peripheral p55 cross-reactive mitochondrial protein and the mitochondrial CDS activity was due to a peripheral mitochondrial protein, TAMM41, not an integral membrane protein as expected for CDS1. TAMM41 is the mammalian equivalent of the recently identified yeast protein, Tam41. Knockdown of TAMM41 resulted in decreased mitochondrial CDS activity, decreased cardiolipin levels and a decrease in oxygen consumption. We conclude that the CDS activity present in mitochondria is mainly due to TAMM41, which is required for normal mitochondrial function.
Project description:Understanding the mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis and translating these into effective therapies are of enormous scientific and clinical interests. In this report, we demonstrate the central role of CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS) in the regulation of VEGFA signaling and angiogenesis. CDS activity maintains phosphoinositide 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2) availability through resynthesis of phosphoinositides, whereas VEGFA, mainly through phospholipase C?1, consumes PIP2 for signal transduction. Loss of CDS2, 1 of 2 vertebrate CDS enzymes, results in vascular-specific defects in zebrafish in vivo and failure of VEGFA-induced angiogenesis in endothelial cells in vitro. Absence of CDS2 also results in reduced arterial differentiation and reduced angiogenic signaling. CDS2 deficit-caused phenotypes can be successfully rescued by artificial elevation of PIP2 levels, and excess PIP2 or increased CDS2 activity can promote excess angiogenesis. These results suggest that availability of CDS-controlled resynthesis of phosphoinositides is essential for angiogenesis.
Project description:CDP-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) is central to the phospholipid biosynthesis pathways in cells. A prevailing view is that only one CDP-DAG synthase named Cds1 is present in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) and mediates generation of CDP-DAG from phosphatidic acid (PA) and CTP. However, we demonstrate here by using yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism that Cds1 resides in the ER but not in mitochondria, and that Tam41, a highly conserved mitochondrial maintenance protein, directly catalyzes the formation of CDP-DAG from PA in the mitochondrial IM. We also find that inositol depletion by overexpressing an arrestin-related protein Art5 partially restores the defects of cell growth and CL synthesis in the absence of Tam41. The present findings unveil the missing step of the cardiolipin synthesis pathway in mitochondria as well as the flexibile regulation of phospholipid biosynthesis to respond to compromised CDP-DAG synthesis in mitochondria.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent protozoan parasites, which infects a wide range of organisms, including one-third of the human population. Its rapid intracellular replication within a vacuole requires efficient synthesis of glycerophospholipids. Cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) serves as a major precursor for phospholipid synthesis. Given the peculiarities of lipid biogenesis, understanding the mechanism and physiological importance of CDP-DAG synthesis is particularly relevant in T. gondii Here, we report the occurrence of two phylogenetically divergent CDP-DAG synthase (CDS) enzymes in the parasite. The eukaryotic-type TgCDS1 and the prokaryotic-type TgCDS2 reside in the endoplasmic reticulum and apicoplast, respectively. Conditional knockdown of TgCDS1 severely attenuated the parasite growth and resulted in a nearly complete loss of virulence in a mouse model. Moreover, mice infected with the TgCDS1 mutant became fully resistant to challenge infection with a hyper-virulent strain of T. gondii The residual growth of the TgCDS1 mutant was abolished by consecutive deletion of TgCDS2. Lipidomic analyses of the two mutants revealed significant and specific declines in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol levels upon repression of TgCDS1 and after deletion of TgCDS2, respectively. Our data suggest a "division of labor" model of lipid biogenesis in T. gondii in which two discrete CDP-DAG pools produced in the endoplasmic reticulum and apicoplast are subsequently used for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol in the Golgi bodies and phosphatidylglycerol in the mitochondria. The essential and divergent nature of CDP-DAG synthesis in the parasite apicoplast offers a potential drug target to inhibit the asexual reproduction of T. gondii.
Project description:Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic membrane lipid present in bacteria, plants, and animals, but absent from archaea. It is generally thought that bacteria use an enzyme belonging to the phospholipase D superfamily as cardiolipin synthase (Cls) catalyzing a reversible phosphatidyl group transfer from one phosphatidylglycerol (PG) molecule to another PG to form CL and glycerol. In contrast, in eukaryotes a Cls of the CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase superfamily uses cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) as the donor of the phosphatidyl group, which is transferred to a molecule of PG to form CL. Searching the genome of the actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) we identified a gene coding for a putative Cls of the CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase superfamily (Sco1389). Here we show that expression of Sco1389 in a CL-deficient Rhizobium etli mutant restores CL formation. In an in vitro assay Sco1389 condenses CDP-DAG with PG to form CL and therefore catalyzes the same reaction as eukaryotic cardiolipin synthases. This is the first time that a CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase from bacteria is shown to be responsible for CL formation. The broad occurrence of putative orthologues of Sco1389 among the actinobacteria suggests that CL synthesis involving a eukaryotic type Cls is common in actinobacteria.