Homo- and Heteroassociations Drive Activation of ErbB3.
ABSTRACT: Dimerization or the formation of higher-order oligomers is required for the activation of ErbB receptor tyrosine kinases. The heregulin (HRG) receptor, ErbB3, must heterodimerize with other members of the family, preferentially ErbB2, to form a functional signal transducing complex. Here, we applied single molecule imaging capable of detecting long-lived and mobile associations to measure their stoichiometry and mobility and analyzed data from experiments globally, taking the different lateral mobility of monomeric and dimeric molecular species into account. Although ErbB3 was largely monomeric in the absence of stimulation and ErbB2 co-expression, a small fraction was present as constitutive homodimers exhibiting a ?40% lower mobility than monomers. HRG stimulation increased the homodimeric fraction of ErbB3 significantly and reduced the mobility of homodimers fourfold compared to constitutive homodimers. Expression of ErbB2 elevated the homodimeric fraction of ErbB3 even in unstimulated cells and induced a ?2-fold reduction in the lateral mobility of ErbB3 homodimers. The mobility of ErbB2 was significantly lower than that of ErbB3, and HRG induced a less pronounced decrease in the diffusion coefficient of all ErbB2 molecules and ErbB3/ErbB2 heterodimers than in the mobility of ErbB3. The slower diffusion of ErbB2 compared to ErbB3 was abolished by depolymerizing actin filaments, whereas ErbB2 expression induced a substantial rearrangement of microfilaments, implying a bidirectional interaction between ErbB2 and actin. HRG stimulation of cells co-expressing ErbB3 and ErbB2 led to the formation of ErbB3 homodimers and ErbB3/ErbB2 heterodimers in a competitive fashion. Although pertuzumab, an antibody binding to the dimerization arm of ErbB2, completely abolished the formation of constitutive and HRG-induced ErbB3/ErbB2 heterodimers, it only slightly blocked ErbB3 homodimerization. The results imply that a dynamic equilibrium exists between constitutive and ligand-induced homo- and heterodimers capable of shaping transmembrane signaling.
Project description:The oncoprotein ErbB2 is frequently overexpressed in human tumours, but no activating ErbB2-specific ligand has yet been identified. Here we analyse the catalytic and oligomeric behaviour of ErbB2 using phosphorylation-state-specific antibodies which distinguish kinase-active and -inactive ErbB2 receptor subsets. Heregulin-alpha (HRG) activates ErbB2 in G8/DHFR 3T3 cells by selectively inducing hetero-oligomerization with kinase-defective ErbB3, indicating that heterologous transphosphorylation is an unlikely prerequisite for ErbB2 activation. HRG also triggers association of epidermal-growth-factor receptors (EGFR) with a kinase-inactive ErbB2 subset while reducing EGFR association with active ErbB2. Similarly, EGF treatment of A431 cells induces concomitant hetero-oligomerization of active ErbB2 with inactive EGFR, of active EGFR with inactive ErbB2, and of inactive ErbB2 with kinase-defective ErbB3. These combinatorial patterns of ligand-dependent oligomerization suggest a multivalent model of receptor tyrosine kinase interaction in which liganded homodimers provide stable oligomerization interfaces for unliganded ErbB2 or other bystander receptors. We submit that ErbB2 may be physiologically activated via a 'proxy' ligand-inducible heterotetrameric mechanism similar to that already established for transforming-growth-factor-beta type I receptors.
Project description:The ErbB2/3 heterodimer plays a critical role in breast cancer genesis and progression. EBP1, an ErbB3 binding protein, inhibits breast cancer growth but its effects on ErbB3 ligand mediated signal transduction or ErbB receptors is not known. We report here that ectopic expression of EBP1 in MCF-7 and AU565 breast cancer cell lines inhibited HRG-induced proliferation. ErbB2 protein levels were substantially decreased in EBP1 transfectants, while ErbB3 levels were unchanged. HRG-induced AKT activation was attenuated in EBP1 stable transfectants and transfection of a constitutively activated AKT partially restored the growth response to HRG. Down-regulation of EBP1 expression in MCF-7 cells by shRNA resulted in increased cell growth in response to HRG and increased cyclin D1 and ErbB2 expression. These results suggest that EBP1, by down-regulating ErbB signal transduction, attentuates HRG-mediated growth of breast cancer cells.
Project description:The role of protein tyrosine kinase activity in ErbB3-mediated signal transduction was investigated. ErbB3 was phosphorylated in vivo in response to either heregulin (HRG) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and ErbB2, or epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cells expressing both ErbB3 and EGF receptor. A recombinant receptor protein (ErbB3-K/M, in which K/M stands for Lys-->Met amino acid substitution) containing an inactivating mutation in the putative ATP-binding site was also phosphorylated in response to HRG and EGF. Both the wild-type ErbB3 and mutant ErbB3-K/M proteins transduced signals to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Shc and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Separate kinase-inactivating mutations in the EGF receptor and ErbB2 proteins abolished ErbB3 phosphorylation and signal transduction activated by EGF and HRG respectively. Hence the protein tyrosine kinase activity necessary for growth factor signalling via the ErbB3 protein seems to be provided by coexpressed EGF and ErbB2 receptor proteins.
Project description:Nectin-like molecule 2 (Necl-2)/cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is shown to be down-regulated by the promoter hypermethylation and/or loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 11q23.2 in many types of cancers, including lung and breast cancers, and is proposed to serve as a tumor suppressor. However, the incidence of these epigenetic and genetic abnormalities of Necl-2 is 30-60% in these cancers, and other mechanisms for the suppression of Necl-2 are presumed to be present. We previously showed that Necl-2 interacts in cis with ErbB3 and suppresses the heregulin (HRG)-induced ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling for cell movement and death. We studied here the relationship between Necl-2 and microRNA-199a (miR-199a) that is up-regulated or down-regulated in a variety of cancers. miR-199a did not directly target the Necl-2 mRNA or affect its mRNA level in human lung cancer A549 cells and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Necl-2 was at least sialylated by the sialyltransferase ST6 β-galactosamide α-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1). miR-199a targeted ST6GAL1 and reduced both the sialylation and the protein level of Necl-2. In addition, miR-199a enhanced the HRG-induced ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling. These results indicate that the suppressive role of Necl-2 in the HRG-induced ErbB2/ErbB3 signaling is regulated by miR-199a at least through the reduction of the ST6GAL1-catalyzed sialylation of Necl-2 and/or through the reduction of the protein level of Necl-2 presumably by the protein degradation.
Project description:Despite the fact that the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family member ERBB3 (HER3) is deregulated in many cancers, the list of ERBB3-interacting partners remains limited. Here, we report that the Apaf-1-interacting protein (APIP) stimulates heregulin-?1 (HRG-?1)/ERBB3-driven cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. APIP levels are frequently increased in human gastric cancers and gastric cancer-derived cells. Cell proliferation and tumor formation are repressed by APIP downregulation and stimulated by its overexpression. APIP's role in the ERBB3 pathway is not associated with its functions within the methionine salvage pathway. In response to HRG-?1, APIP binds to the ERBB3 receptor, leading to an enhanced binding of ERBB3 and ERBB2 that results in sustained activations of ERK1/2 and AKT protein kinases. Furthermore, HRG-?1/ERBB3-dependent signaling is gained in APIP transgenic mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but not lost in Apip-/- MEFs. Our findings offer compelling evidence that APIP plays an essential role in ERBB3 signaling as a positive regulator for tumorigenesis, warranting future development of therapeutic strategies for ERBB3-driven gastric cancer.
Project description:Many malignancies show increased expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor family member ErbB3 (HER3). ErbB3 binds heregulin ?-1 (HRG?1) and forms a heterodimer with other ErbB family members, such as ErbB2 (HER2) or EGF receptor (EGFR; HER1), enhancing phosphorylation of specific C-terminal tyrosine residues and activation of downstream signaling pathways. ErbB3 contains six YXXM motifs that bind the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase. Previous studies demonstrated that overexpression of ErbB3 in mammary tumor cells can significantly enhance chemotaxis to HRG?1 and overall metastatic potential. We tested the hypothesis that ErbB3-mediated PI3-kinase signaling is critical for heregulin-induced motility, and therefore crucial for ErbB3-mediated invasion, intravasation and metastasis. The tyrosines in the six YXXM motifs on the ErbB3 C-terminus were replaced with phenylalanine. In contrast to overexpression of the wild-type ErbB3, overexpression of the mutant ErbB3 did not enhance chemotaxis towards HRG?1 in vitro or in vivo. We also observed reduced tumor cell motility in the primary tumor by multiphoton microscopy, as well as a dramatically reduced ability of these cells to cross the endothelium and intravasate into the circulation. Moreover, whereas mutation of the ErbB3 C-terminus had no effect on tumor growth, it had a dramatic effect on spontaneous metastatic potential. Treatment with the PI3-kinase inhibitor PIK-75 similarly inhibited motility and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicate that stimulation of the early metastatic steps of motility and invasion by ErbB3 requires activation of the PI3-kinase pathway by the ErbB3 receptor.
Project description:Often considered to be a "dead" kinase, erbB3 is implicated in escape from erbB-targeted cancer therapies. Here, heregulin stimulation is shown to markedly upregulate kinase activity in erbB3 immunoprecipitates. Intact, activated erbB3 phosphorylates tyrosine sites in an exogenous peptide substrate, and this activity is abolished by mutagenesis of lysine 723 in the catalytic domain. Enhanced erbB3 kinase activity is linked to heterointeractions with catalytically active erbB2, since it is largely blocked in cells pretreated with lapatinib or pertuzumab. erbB2 activation of erbB3 is not dependent on equal surface levels of these receptors, since it occurs even in erbB3-transfected CHO cells with disproportionally small amounts of erbB2. We tested a model in which transient erbB3/erbB2 heterointeractions set the stage for erbB3 homodimers to be signaling competent. erbB3 homo- and heterodimerization events were captured in real time on live cells using single-particle tracking of quantum dot probes bound to ligand or hemagglutinin tags on recombinant receptors.
Project description:In vascular endothelial cells, cytokines induce genes that are expressed in inflammatory lesions partly through the activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB (nuclear factor-kappaB). Among the members of the NF-kappaB/rel protein family, homodimers of the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB can also function as strong transactivators when expressed in cells. However, the functional role of endogenous RelA homodimers has not been clearly elucidated. We investigated whether RelA homodimers are induced in cytokine-treated vascular endothelial cells. Gel mobility-shift and supershift assays revealed that a cytokine TNFalpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha) activated both NF-kappaB1/RelA heterodimers and RelA homodimers that bound to a canonical kappaB sequence, IgkappaB (immunoglobulin kappaB), in SV40 (simian virus 40) immortalized HMEC-1 (human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line 1). In HMEC-1 and HUVEC (human umbilical-vein endothelial cells), TNFalpha also induced RelA homodimers that bound to the sequence 65-2kappaB, which specifically binds to RelA homodimers but not to NF-kappaB1/RelA heterodimers in vitro. Deoxycholic acid, a detergent that can dissociate the NF-kappaB-IkappaB complex (where IkappaB stands for inhibitory kappaB), induced the binding of the RelA homodimers to 65-2kappaB from the cytosolic fraction of resting HMEC-1. Furthermore, TNFalpha induced the transcriptional activity of a reporter gene that was driven by 65-2kappaB in HMEC-1. These results suggest that in addition to NF-kappaB1/RelA heterodimers, TNFalpha also induces RelA homodimers that are functionally active. Thus RelA homodimers may actively participate in cytokine regulation of gene expression in human vascular endothelial cells.
Project description:Compensatory mechanisms, such as relief of AKT-ErbB3-negative feedback, are known to desensitize ErbB2-dependent tumours to targeted therapy. Here we describe an adaptation mechanism leading to reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway during trastuzumab treatment, which occurs independently of ErbB3 re-phosphorylation. This signalling bypass of phospho-ErbB3 operates in ErbB2-overexpressing cells via RAS-PI3K crosstalk and is attributable to active ErbB2 homodimers. As demonstrated by dual blockade of ErbB2/RAS and ErbB3 by means of pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference or by specific protein binders obstructing the RAS-p110? interaction, both routes must be blocked to prevent reactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Applying these general principles, we developed biparatopic designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) trapping ErbB2 in a dimerization-incompetent state, which entail pan-ErbB inhibition and a permanent OFF state in the oncogenic signalling, thereby triggering extensive apoptosis in ErbB2-addicted tumours. Thus, these novel insights into mechanisms underlying network robustness provide a guide for overcoming adaptation response to ErbB2/ErbB3-targeted therapy.