Dissimilar Effects of Anagliptin and Sitagliptin on Lipoprotein Subclass in Standard or Strong Statin-Treated Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Subanalysis of the REASON (Randomized Evaluation of Anagliptin versus Sitagliptin on Low-Density LipoproteiN Cholesterol in Diabetes) Trial.
ABSTRACT: The effects of antidiabetic agents on lipoprotein subclasses are assumed to be pivotal, but this assumption has not been studied. We evaluated lipoprotein subclasses in patients, randomly selected from REASON (Randomized Evaluation of Anagliptin versus Sitagliptin On low-density lipoproteiN cholesterol in diabetes) Trial participants, with type-2 diabetes treated with either anagliptin or sitagliptin. We measured total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in 4 (chylomicron (CM), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)) lipoprotein classes and 20 (2 CM, 5 VLDL, 6 LDL, and 7 HDL) lipoprotein subclasses. Between 0 and 52 weeks, TC and TG in lipoprotein and the lipoprotein subclass were distributed differently in patients treated with anagliptin and sitagliptin. The preferable changes in TC and TG levels were observed dominantly in the anagliptin-treated group under standard statin therapy, but the benefits were observed in both the anagliptin- and sitagliptin-treated groups, at least partially under strong statin therapy. In future studies, the atherogenic properties of lipoprotein subclasses might be considered when employing antidiabetic dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, especially in patients with type-2 diabetes who are at risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or are undergoing statin treatment.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) degrades the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, leading to hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular risk. Treatment with a statin leads to a compensatory increase in circulating PCSK9 level. Anagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, was shown to decrease LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to a greater extent than that by sitagliptin, another DPP-4 inhibitor, in the Randomized Evaluation of Anagliptin versus Sitagliptin On low-density lipoproteiN cholesterol in diabetes (REASON) trial. We investigated PCSK9 concentration in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the impact of treatment with anagliptin or sitagliptin on PCSK9 level as a sub-analysis of the REASON trial.<h4>Methods</h4>PCSK9 concentration was measured at baseline and after 52 weeks of treatment with anagliptin (n=122) or sitagliptin (n=128) in patients with T2DM who were receiving statin therapy. All of the included patients had been treated with a DPP-4 inhibitor prior to randomization.<h4>Results</h4>Baseline PCSK9 level was positively, but not significantly, correlated with LDL-C and was independently associated with platelet count and level of triglycerides. Concomitant with reduction of LDL-C, but not hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), by anagliptin, PCSK9 level was significantly increased by treatment with sitagliptin (218±98 vs. 242±115 ng/mL, P=0.01), but not anagliptin (233±97 vs. 250±106 ng/mL, P=0.07).<h4>Conclusions</h4>PCSK9 level is independently associated with platelet count and level of triglycerides, but not LDL-C, in patients with T2DM. Anagliptin reduces LDL-C level independent of HbA1c control in patients with T2DM who are on statin therapy possibly by suppressing excess statin-mediated PCSK9 induction and subsequent degradation of the LDL receptor.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, is reported to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The underlying mechanism of this effect and effect on lipid metabolism however remains uncertain. AIM AND METHODS:We therefore evaluate the effects of anagliptin on lipid metabolism-related markers compared with those of sitagliptin. The study was a secondary analysis using data obtained from the Randomized Evaluation of Anagliptin versus Sitagliptin On low-density lipoproteiN cholesterol in diabetes (REASON) trial. This trial in patients with type 2 diabetes at a high risk of cardiovascular events and on statin therapy showed that anagliptin reduced LDL-C levels to a greater extent than sitagliptin. Cholesterol absorption (campesterol and sitosterol) and synthesis (lathosterol) markers were measured at baseline and 52 weeks in the study cohort (n?=?353). RESULTS:There was no significant difference in the changes of campesterol or sitosterol between the two treatment groups (p?=?0.85 and 0.55, respectively). Lathosterol concentration was increased significantly at 52 weeks with sitagliptin treatment (baseline, 1.2?±?0.7 ?g/mL vs. 52 weeks, 1.4?±?1.0 ?g/mL, p?=?0.02), whereas it did not change in the anagliptin group (baseline, 1.3?±?0.8 ?g/mL vs. 52 weeks, 1.3?±?0.7 ?g/mL, p?=?0.99). The difference in absolute change between the two groups showed a borderline significance (p?=?0.06). CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that anagliptin reduces LDL-C level by suppressing excess cholesterol synthesis, even in combination with statin therapy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02330406. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02330406; registered January 5, 2015.
Project description:Additional reductions in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) via antidiabetic therapies should be considered in statin-using patients with sub-optimal LDL-C levels. We compared the efficacy of anagliptin and sitagliptin, two antidiabetic therapies, in reducing LDL-C in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial was conducted at 17 centres in Japan between April 2015 and January 2018. Adults (age ?20 years) with type 2 diabetes, any atherosclerotic vascular lesions, and statin prescriptions were included. Anagliptin or sitagliptin were administered for 52 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints were changes in LDL-C and haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) levels, respectively. We assessed the superiority (primary endpoint) and non-inferiority (secondary endpoint) of anagliptin over sitagliptin. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02330406). Of 380 participants, 353 were eligible and randomized. Mean participant age was 68 years, and 61% were males. Baseline median LDL-C and HbA1c were 108?mg/dL and 6.9%, respectively. Changes in LDL-C were -3.7?mg/dL with anagliptin and +2.1?mg/dL with sitagliptin at 52 weeks, and the estimated treatment difference was a significant -4.5?mg/dL (P?=?0.01 for superiority). Changes in HbA1c were +0.02% with anagliptin and +0.12% with sitagliptin (P?<?0.0001 for non-inferiority). Overall, anagliptin was superior to sitagliptin in lowering LDL-C without deteriorating HbA1c.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is important for patients with a high risk for atherosclerotic events, such as patients with diabetes and other risk factors. Anagliptin was reported to reduce LDL-C for 12 weeks in phase III trials regardless of the use of statins, but it is uncertain whether this effect is common to other dipeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors. METHODS:A multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial was conducted to confirm the superiority of anagliptin to sitagliptin in terms of the primary endpoint of reduction of LDL-C for 52 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular lesions, as well as the non-inferiority of anagliptin to sitagliptin in terms of change in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Patients are randomly assigned to receive anagliptin or sitagliptin at a ratio of 1:1, with those in the anagliptin group receiving anagliptin 100 mg orally twice per day and those in the sitagliptin group receiving sitagliptin 50 mg orally once per day. During the trial period, hypoglycemic agents and anti-dyslipidemia drugs should not be added and neither should their dosages be changed. A total sample size of 300 was estimated to provide a power of 0.8 with a two-sided alpha of 0.05 for LDL-C, considering a 30% dropout rate. Pre-specified factors for subgroup analyses are HbA1c, use of DPP-4 inhibitors, sex, body mass index, LDL-C, age, and the presence of treatment for existing ischemic heart disease. DISCUSSION:If anagliptin were to be shown to reduce LDL-C in patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular lesions despite pre-existing statin treatment, more intensive cholesterol management would be appropriate. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02330406.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) acts as a novel adipokine, and elevated FABP4 concentration is associated with obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, a class of antidiabetic drugs, have distinct structures among the drugs, possibly leading to a drug class effect and each drug effect. Sitagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, has been reported to decrease FABP4 concentration in drug-naïve and sulfonylurea-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Anagliptin, another DPP-4 inhibitor, was shown to decrease low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level to a greater extent than that by sitagliptin in the Randomized Evaluation of Anagliptin vs. Sitagliptin On low-density lipoproteiN cholesterol in diabetes (REASON) trial. AIM AND METHODS:As a sub-analysis study using data obtained from the REASON trial, we investigated the effects of treatment with anagliptin (n?=?148, male/female: 89/59) and treatment with sitagliptin (n?=?159, male/female: 93/66) for 52 weeks on FABP4 concentration in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at a high risk for cardiovascular events who were receiving statin therapy. RESULTS:The DPP-4 inhibitor had been administered in 82% of the patients in the anagliptin group and 81% of the patients in sitagliptin group prior to randomization. Serum FABP4 level was significantly decreased by 7.9% by treatment with anagliptin (P?=?0.049) and was not significantly decreased by treatment with sitagliptin (P?=?0.660). Change in FABP4 level was independently associated with basal FABP4 level and changes in waist circumference and creatinine after adjustment of age, sex and the treatment group. CONCLUSION:Anagliptin decreases serum FABP4 concentration independent of change in hemoglobin A1c or LDL-C in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia who are on statin therapy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02330406. Registered January 5, 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02330406.
Project description:<h4>Aims/introduction</h4>Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are used for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition to glycemic control, these agents showed beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in clinical trials. However, the mechanism underlying the lipid-lowering effect of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors remains unclear. Here, we investigated the lipid-lowering efficacy of anagliptin in a hyperlipidemic animal model, and examined the mechanism of action.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice were administered 0.3% anagliptin in their diet. Plasma lipid levels were assayed and lipoprotein profile was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Hepatic gene expression was examined by deoxyribonucleic acid microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein transactivation assay was carried out in vitro.<h4>Results</h4>Anagliptin treatment significantly decreased the plasma total cholesterol (14% reduction, P < 0.01) and triglyceride levels (27% reduction, P < 0.01). Both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also decreased significantly by anagliptin treatment. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression level was significantly decreased at night in anagliptin-treated mice (15% reduction, P < 0.05). Anagliptin significantly suppressed sterol regulatory element-binding protein activity in HepG2 cells (21% decrease, P < 0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results presented here showed that the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, exhibited a lipid-lowering effect in a hyperlipidemic animal model, and suggested that the downregulation of hepatic lipid synthesis was involved in the effect. Anagliptin might have beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in addition to a glucose-lowering effect.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Sitosterolemia displays high plasma total sterols [high plant sterols (PS) + normal to high total cholesterol (TC)] with normal to moderately elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. High LDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and increased non-HDL and the ratios of TC and triglycerides (TG) to HDL can increase the risk for atherosclerosis. Ezetimibe (EZE) can reduce plasma PS and TC levels in sitosterolemia, but its effect on lipoprotein subclasses has not been previously reported. METHODS:Sitosterolemia patients (n = 8) were taken off EZE for 14 weeks (OFF EZE) and placed on EZE (10 mg/d) for 14 weeks (ON EZE). Serum lipids were measured enzymatically and lipoprotein subclasses were assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS:EZE reduced (p < 0.05) total sterols (-12.5 ± 4.1%) and LDL-sterol (-22.7 ± 5.7%) and its sterol mass of large VLDL (-24.4 ± 4.5%), VLDL remnants (-21.1 ± 7.9%) and large IDL (-22.4 ± 7.2%) compared to OFF EZE. EZE did not affect large LDL subclasses or mean LDL particle size (273.8 ± 0.6 vs. 274.6 ± 0.3 Å). EZE increased HDL-sterol (25.5 ± 8.0%, p = 0.008) including intermediate (34 ± 14%, p = 0.02) and large (33 ± 16%, p = 0.06) HDL. EZE reduced non-HDL-sterol (-21.8± 5.0%), total sterols/HDL (-28.2 ± 5.5%) and TG/HDL (-27.4 ± 6.5%, all p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:EZE improves VLDL and HDL subfraction distribution, thereby reducing the atherogenic lipid profile, thus providing potential clinical benefit in sitosterolemia beyond TC and PS reduction.
Project description:Background:Recently, we reported that the level of lathosterol, a cholesterol synthesis marker, was suppressed after 1 month of treatment with anagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. In this study, we administered either anagliptin or miglitol, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, for 3 months in patients with type 2 diabetes and compared the lipid-lowering effects of anagliptin with those of miglitol. Methods:This study was a 12-week, open-label, prospective, randomized, parallel-group comparison trial. Fifty-two patients with type 2 diabetes who aged 20 - 70 years with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level of over 120 mg/dL, and with no history of treatment with antihyperlipidemic drugs were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to either the anagliptin group or miglitol group. The 100 mg of anagliptin was administered twice a day for the anagliptin group and 50 mg of miglitol was administered thrice a day for miglitol group. The changes in lipids, cholesterol synthesis, and absorption markers were evaluated after 12 weeks. Results:Fifty-two participants were initially enrolled in the trial, and 47 of them completed the protocol. There was no significant difference in LDL-C, cholesterol synthesis, and the absorption markers between anagliptin and miglitol groups. Conclusions:Anagliptin and miglitol are similarly effective on lipid and glycemic control.
Project description:AIMS/INTRODUCTION:Recent data showed that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors exert a lipid-lowering effect in diabetes patients. However, the mechanism of action is not yet clearly understood. We investigated the effect of anagliptin on cholesterol metabolism and transport in the small intestine using non-diabetic hyperlipidemic animals, to clarify the mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering action. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Male apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice were orally administered anagliptin in the normal chow. Serum cholesterol levels and lipoprotein profiles were measured, and cholesterol transport was assessed by measuring the radioactivity in the tissues after oral loading of 14 C-labeled cholesterol (14 C-Chol). In additional experiments, effects of exendin-4 in mice and of anagliptin in DPP-4-deficient rats were assessed. Effects on target gene expressions in the intestine were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in normal mice. RESULTS:The serum total and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased after anagliptin treatment in the ApoE-deficient mice. The cholesterol-lowering effect was predominantly observed in the chylomicron fraction. The plasma 14 C-Chol radioactivity was significantly decreased by 26% at 2 h after cholesterol loading, and the fecal 14 C-Chol excretion was significantly increased by 38% at 72 h. The aforementioned effects on cholesterol transport were abrogated in rats lacking DPP-4 activity, and exendin-4 had no effect on the 14 C-Chol transport in ApoE-deficient mice. Furthermore, significant decreases of the intestinal cholesterol transport-related microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase 2, ApoA2 and ApoC2 messenger ribonucleic acid expressions were observed in the mice treated with repeated doses of anagliptin. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that anagliptin might exert a cholesterol-lowering action through DPP-4-dependent and glucagon-like peptide 1-independent suppression of intestinal cholesterol transport.
Project description:Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia.In this multi-center, 8-week, double-blind study, adults who had received ?8 weeks of stable statin therapy and had hypertriglyceridemia (TG level at 2.3-6.5 mmol/L) were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d or placebo plus stable dosage of statin. Efficacy was assessed by the changes in the levels and patterns of lipoproteins. Tolerability was assessed by the incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs).A total of 304 patients with mixed hyperlipidemia were randomized to receive CoA 400 U/d plus statin or placebo plus statin (n = 152, each group). After treatment for 8 weeks, the mean percent change in TG was significantly greater with CoA plus statin compared with placebo plus statin (-25.9% vs -4.9%, respectively; p = 0.0003). CoA plus statin was associated with significant reductions in TC (-9.1% vs -3.1%; p = 0.0033), LDL-C (-9.9% vs 0.1%; p = 0.003), and non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-13.5% vs -5.7%; p = 0.0039). There was no significant difference in the frequency of AEs between groups. No serious AEs were considered treatment related.In these adult patients with persistent hypertriglyceridemia, CoA plus statin therapy improved TG and other lipoprotein parameters to a greater extent than statin alone and has no obviously adverse effect.Current Controlled Trials ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01928342.