Association between Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Physical Fitness with Body Composition Parameters in 1717 European Adolescents: The AdolesHealth Study.
ABSTRACT: Obesity, low levels of physical fitness, and unhealthy eating patterns are responsible for part of the health problems of adolescents today. The current study aimed at examining the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), through each answer to the items of the Adherence to the MD Questionnaire (KIDMED), and physical fitness with body composition parameters (body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, and waist circumference) in 1717 European adolescents (N = 900 boys, N = 817 girls). Data of body composition, physical fitness results, and the answers to KIDMED were analyzed by the Student's t-test. Additionally, the effect size (ES) was calculated and a Chi-square test analyzed the proportion of participants with and without over waist circumference, overfat, and overweight in each KIDMED question. The relative risk of suffering over waist circumference, overfat and overweight in relation to the responses was calculated by Odd-Ratio. Adherence to the MD did not influence the condition of over waist circumference, overfat and overweight, although certain dietary habits were identified as risk factors for their development. Over waist circumference, overfat, and overweight boys and girls presented higher levels of body mass, waist circumference, body fat percentage, and BMI (p < 0.001; ES = 1.73-3.38), as well as lower levels of all the parameters of the physical fitness analyzed (p < 0.001; ES = 0.45-1.08), except the handgrip test. A direct relationship between fitness and over waist circumference, overfat, and overweight was found.
Project description:Unhealthy lifestyles, low levels of physical fitness, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) are associated with bad quality of life and the development of a wide range of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The current study aimed to evaluate the level of adherence to the MD in physical fitness performance and body composition parameters in children and adolescents of Estonia. Therefore, 413 adolescents (56% boys) from the city of Tartu completed the Mediterranean Diet Questionnaire (KIDMED) for analyzing the adherence to MD and performed the Alpha Fitness Test for measuring physical fitness and body composition. A 41.67% of low, 44.05% of average, and 14.28% of high adherence to MD was detected, without difference between genders (p = 0.747). In the Alpha Fitness battery, a higher performance was observed in all tests for boys vs. girls (p < 0.05). In relation to body composition, higher height, weight, and waist values were observed in boys (p < 0.05) and a lower body fat percentage (p < 0.01) without differences in body mass index (BMI; p = 0.906). The adherence to the MD is classified as average/low. Gender significantly influences all variables of the Alpha Fitness battery and anthropometrics measures excepting BMI. According the levels of adherence to the MD, no statistically different prevalence was observed for Non-Overweight (N-Oweight), Non-Overfat (N-Ofat), or Non-Overwaist (N-Owaist). Still, a risk factor for Overweight (Oweight) in boys with low adherence was observed in comparison to those with a mid-level of adherence to the MD.
Project description:The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life. The prevalence of overfat populations in 30 of the world's most developed countries is substantially higher than recent global estimations, with the largest growth due to a relatively recent increased number of people with excess abdominal fat. Abdominal overfat is the most unhealthful form of this condition, so it is concerning that average waist circumference measures, generally indicative of abdominal overfat, have increased. Despite a leveling off appearance of being overweight and/or obese in some developed countries, the overfat pandemic continues to grow.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials was to compare the effects of aerobic training (AET), resistance training (RT), and combined aerobic and resistance training (CT) on anthropometric parameters, blood lipids, and cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese subjects. METHODS: Electronic searches for randomized controlled trials were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Trial Register. Inclusion criteria were: Body Mass Index: ?25 kg/m(2), 19+ years of age, supervised exercise training, and a minimum intervention period of 8 weeks. Anthropometric outcomes, blood lipids, and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters were included. Pooled effects were calculated by inverse-variance random effect pairwise meta-analyses and Bayesian random effects network meta-analyses. FINDINGS: 15 trials enrolling 741 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Compared to RT, AET resulted in a significantly more pronounced reduction of body weight [mean differences (MD): -1.15 kg, p?=?0.04], waist circumference [MD: -1.10 cm, p?=?0.004], and fat mass [MD: -1.15 kg, p?=?0.001] respectively. RT was more effective than AET in improving lean body mass [MD: 1.26 kg, p<0.00001]. When comparing CT with RT, MD in change of body weight [MD: -2.03 kg, p<0.0001], waist circumference [MD: -1.57 cm, p?=?0.0002], and fat mass [MD: -1.88 kg, p<0.00001] were all in favor of CT. Results from the network meta-analyses confirmed these findings. CONCLUSION: Evidence from both pairwise and network meta-analyses suggests that CT is the most efficacious means to reduce anthropometric outcomes and should be recommended in the prevention and treatment of overweight, and obesity whenever possible.
Project description:Objective:To investigate the effect of auricular acupoint stimulation on overweight and obese adults. Methods:We searched databases including PubMed, EMBASE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the PerioPath Index to Taiwan Periodical Literature. The modified Jadad scale was used to assess study quality. We investigated the effect of auricular acupoint stimulation on anthropometric measurements. Results:Eighteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our systematic review. Thirteen RCTs were pooled in a meta-analysis that revealed a significant reduction in body weight (BW) with a mean difference (MD) of -1.21?kg and a 95% confidence interval (CI) from -1.94 to -0.47 with a heterogeneity of I2 = 88%. Significant decreases in body mass index (BMI; MD: -0.57?kg/m2; 95% CI -0.82 to -0.33; I2 = 78%), body fat (BF; MD: -0.83%; 95% CI -1.43 to -0.24; I2 = 0%), and waist circumference (WC; MD: -1.75?cm; 95% CI -2.95 to -0.55; I2 = 87%) were also revealed. Conclusions:This meta-analysis shows that auricular acupoint stimulation improves physical anthropometric parameters including BW, BMI, BF, and WC in overweight and obese adults. These methods are less effective on hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio.
Project description:The current study aimed at analyzing the relationship between body composition, adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), and physical fitness (PF) in a young active population. A total of 1198 athletes (boys = 875; girls = 323) enrolled in different municipal sports schools participated in this study. Data on adherence to the MD (KIDMED questionnaire), anthropometric measurements, and PF (20 m shuttle run test, handgrip strength, vertical jump and forced spirometry) were collected. Results show that the pubertal boys had a higher score in the KIDMED test than the prepubertal ones (+0.38, p = 0.28). Moreover, boys with better adherence to the MD had significantly higher results in handgrip strength (+12.20 regarding low MD group and +9.13 regarding medium MD group, p < 0.05), as well as in forced vital capacity (FVC) (+0.66 regarding low MD group and 0.29 regarding medium MD group, p < 0.05). No differences were found in the girls. Finally, the result of the KIDMED test is a variable with a positive and significant relationship with cardiorespiratory fitness, along with the FVC, percentage of fat mass, and performance in the vertical jump (p < 0.05). It is concluded that adherence to the MD could show a relationship with various PF variables in boys and could be a predictor of cardiorespiratory fitness in both cases.
Project description:To explore the individual-independent relationships of sedentary time (ST) and physical activity (PA) (light and moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA)), with sleep duration and body composition (waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and muscle mass index) in women with fibromyalgia, and to determine whether these associations are independent of physical fitness. This cross-sectional study involved 385 women with fibromyalgia. ST and PA were assessed by triaxial accelerometry, sleep duration was self-reported. Waist circumference was measured using an anthropometric tape, and body weight, body fat percentage, and muscle mass were estimated using a bio-impedance analyzer. In individual regression models, ST and sleep were directly associated with waist circumference, BMI, and body fat percentage (β between 0.10 and 0.25; all p < 0.05). Light PA and MVPA were inversely associated with waist circumference, BMI, and body fat percentage (β between -0.23 and -0.12; all p < 0.05). In multiple linear regression models, ST (β between 0.17 and 0.23), light PA (β between -0.16 and -0.21), and sleep duration (β between 0.11 and 0.14) were independently associated with waist circumference, BMI, and body fat percentage (all p < 0.05). MVPA was associated with waist circumference independent of light physical activity (LPA) and sleep duration (β = -0.11; p < 0.05). Except for MVPA, these associations were independent of physical fitness. These results suggest that longer ST and sleep duration, and lower PA levels (especially light intensity PA), are independently associated with greater adiposity, but not muscle mass, in women with fibromyalgia. These associations are, overall, independent of physical fitness.
Project description:Childhood and adolescent obesity are currently among the greatest challenges for public health. Physical activity, physical fitness, and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD), representing powerful indicators of healthy lifestyles, are shown as determinant factors in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of the present study has been to analyse the relationship between health-related physical fitness components, body composition, and adherence to MD in 387 Icelandic adolescents of 13?16-years old (54% boys). The ALPHA Fitness Test was used to measure physical fitness and body composition. The KIDMED questionnaire was used to assess the adherence to MD among participants. Associations between variables were tested according to gender and age using linear regression models and analysis of variance. Participants with high/medium adherence to MD showed significantly higher endurance scores in both the boys and the girls. Gender differences were found. The boys in high/medium MD categories had significantly lower fat percentages and ran a 4 × 10 m sprint faster than the girls. The girls scored higher than the boys in endurance and speed-agility tests. It can be concluded that a high and medium adherence to MD is associated with high and very high endurance in both the girls and the boys.
Project description:The previously described overfat pandemic, estimated to be 62-76% worldwide, is comprised of individuals with excess body fat sufficient to impair health. The overfat condition is common in those who are overweight and obese, and can also occur in significant numbers of normal-weight non-obese individuals. Being overfat increases the risk for a wide spectrum of common cardiovascular and metabolic (cardiometabolic) abnormalities, chronic diseases and physical impairment. In some ethnicities, up to 40% or more of those who are normal-weight and non-obese may be overfat, a figure twice that used in the original global overfat estimates. In addition to the rates of overfat outpacing overweight and obesity, non-White populations outnumber Whites 6:1, with the recently estimated overfat prevalence being low when considering ethnicities such as Asians, Chinese, Africans and Latin Americans, including these individuals living among predominantly White populations. An awareness of the extent of the overfat pandemic is important because excess body fat can precede cardiometabolic risk factors, chronic diseases, and physical disabilities, and can reduce quality of life and increase healthcare expenditure. The purpose of this Perspective is to demonstrate that the global overfat prevalence of 62-76% may be considerably underestimated.
Project description:To identify serum biomarkers through metabolomics approach that distinguishes physically inactive overweight/obese women with metabolic syndrome from those who are metabolically healthy, independent of body weight and fat mass.We applied nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based profiling of fasting serum samples to examine the metabolic differences between 78 previously physically inactive, body weight and fat mass matched overweight/obese premenopausal women with and without MetS. MetS was defined as the presence of at least three of the following five criteria: waist circumference ?88 cm, serum triacylglycerol ?1.7 mmol/L, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.30 mmol/L, blood pressure???130/85 mmHg and fasting glucose ?5.6 mmol/L). Principal component analysis was used to reduce the large number of correlated variables to fewer uncorrelated factors.Two metabolic factors were associated with MetS independent of BMI, fat mass, waist circumference and physical activity/fitness. Factor comprising branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and aromatic amino acids (AAA) and orosomucoid was associated with all clinical risk factors (p?<?0.01 for all).Two metabolic factors distinguish overweight/obese women with metabolic syndrome from those who are metabolically healthy independent of body weight, fat mass and physical activity/fitness. In particular, factor comprising BCAA, AAA and orosomucoid seems auspicious biomarker determining metabolic health as it was associated with all clinical risk factors. Further research is needed to determine the public health and clinical significance of these results in terms of screening to identify those at greatest cardio-metabolic risk for whom appropriate intervention strategies should be developed.
Project description:Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study evaluates the effects of the first 3-months of a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among health care workers. The intervention addresses body weight, general health variables, physical capacity and musculoskeletal pain.98 female, overweight health care workers were cluster-randomized to an intervention group or a reference group. The intervention consisted of an individually dietary plan with an energy deficit of 1200 kcal/day (15 min/hour), strengthening exercises (15 min/hour) and cognitive behavioral training (30 min/hour) during working hours 1 hour/week. Leisure time aerobic fitness was planned for 2 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage (bioimpedance), waist circumference, blood pressure, musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake (maximal bicycle test), and isometric maximal muscle strength of 3 body regions were measured before and after the intervention period.In an intention-to-treat analysis from pre to post tests, the intervention group significantly reduced body weight with 3.6 kg (p < 0.001), BMI from 30.5 to 29.2 (p < 0.001), body fat percentage from 40.9 to 39.3 (p < 0.001), waist circumference from 99.7 to 95.5 cm (p < 0.001) and blood pressure from 134/85 to 127/80 mmHg (p < 0.001), with significant difference between the intervention and control group (p < 0.001) on all measures. No effect of intervention was found in musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength, but on aerobic fitness.The significantly reduced body weight, body fat, waist circumference and blood pressure as well as increased aerobic fitness in the intervention group show the great potential of workplace health promotion among this high-risk workgroup. Long-term effects of the intervention remain to be investigated.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01015716.